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Showing 3 results for Rezaei

Mohamad Hosein Rezaei,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The Kazeron County is located in the West of Fars Province and 732 M above sea level. From identified sites in survey of Kazeron plane (that mainly are sites of Neolithic period to late of Bronze Age) in total of 141 pieces of stone tools were gathered from 13 sites. Based on research on stone tools, sites as SK023 are show extraction and use / maintenance / repair. In these sites, the existence of core stone indicates of the construction of tools, and also existence a lot of the stone tools are indicates of settlement long-term in these sites. The core stones in all sites are exclusively chipped stone and mostly from kind of Chert stone of gray – green. It seems, produce of tools from other types of Chert stones such as red Chert, Chert of brown stripes, cream Chert, and… have been made in another place. The blades and their flakes in some sites of Kazeron plane (especially sites of SK022 and SK023) represents are the use of these tools for reaping of the plants. The raw material used to make stone tools (that often made of local stone) today it is easily accessible in the Kazeron mountains. These tools, to form of a combination and with natural resins such as bitumen have been placed inside the bone handle or in newer periods inside the metal handle, and similar to sickle have been used to cut plants. From of the main goals of the present research, study of technology diversity in stone tools sites of prehistory in Kazeron plane is for regional and comparative studies and for gain of general knowledge the prehistory of Kazeron plane.
Keywords: Stone Tool, Typology, Prehistory, Kazeron Plane.

Introduction
The Kazeron County is located in the west of Fars Province and 732 M above sea level. This County from the north to Mamasani and Behbahan, from east and northeast to Shiraz, from southwest and west to part of Borazjan city and Bosher, and from southeast to Firozabad is limited. This County in terms of geographic is located in mountainous area and with surrounded by high mountains. The mountains of Kazeron area is stretched from the northwest to the southeast (Mozafariyan, 1994: 25). The Mountains of Kazeron consists of two ranges and Kazeron plane is between these two mountain ranges. The Kazeron County has a warm climate. The temperature of this county is max.49 degrees above zero and at least 6 degrees below zero. The average rainfall in Kazeron County in years of low rainfall is less than 500 mm and in the rainy years approximately 700 mm (Behrozi, 1968: 8). The Kazeron County has abundant water resources. Abundant springs and a lot of water has a created several rivers. The major rivers of this county are include of Jareh, Shapor, and also freshwater Lake of Parishan (Hatami, 2006: 12). So, Kazeron plane with a lot of water resources and suitable climate had a good environment for development of human societies in the long term. In this research, stone tools related to Neolithic period to Iron Age (that collected from survey of archeology Kazeron plane) have done typology and classification. So, from of the main goals of the present research, study of technology diversity in stone tools sites of prehistory in Kazeron plane is for regional and comparative studies and for gain of general knowledge the prehistory of Kazeron plane.

Research findings
From identified sites in survey of Kazeron plane (that mainly are sites of Neolithic period to late of Bronze Age) in total of 141 pieces of stone tools were gathered from 13 sites. Tepe Qalat 2 (SK002) is located 1 km northeast of Baladeh city. From this site was obtained only 2 chips. A piece is Retouch and another Burin. The Galeh Narenji (SK006) is located in near of the village of Galeh Narenji and 1.5 km east of Pershian Lake. From this site 6 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Siah 1 (SK013) another from sites, that is located in around Pershian Lake. From this site 3 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites is Tal Siah 2 (SK014), that from this site 7 pieces stone tools have been collected. Gabrestan Karai (SK015) is located 500 meters southeast of Karai village, and from this site 11 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites this study is Dreh Tampoi (SK016) that from this site 12 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Zirakan is located 1 km east of Kaskan village and in south of the Kazeron city. From this site 17 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites this study is Tal Rashton (SK020) that from this site 8 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Panj Mahal (SK022) is located 700 m west of Shapro River, that from this site 25 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Dehdaran (SK023) is located on the northern margin of Kazeron plain, that from this site 26 pieces stone tools have been collected.

Conclusion
Usually, estimate the ratio of blank flake to core stones can help us to guess that production of stone tools has done elsewhere. On the other hand, the blades and their flakes in some sites of Kazeron plane (especially sites of SK022 and SK023) represents are the use of these tools for reaping of the plants. In general, in spite of a lot of variety in the collection of stone tools in sites of Kazeron plane (that shows diverse and advanced industries), in core stones can’t be seen complexity and advanced technology. Ultimately should be noted, based on survey results and pottery samples, these stone tools are belonging to the 7th millennium B.C. to the end of the second millennium B.C..

Khabat Derafshi, Sarem Amini, Naser Rezaei, Hesam Amini,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
In geoarchaeology, a complete and accurate understanding of archaeological site-formation processes can be obtained by identifying and examining the sedimentary deposits and stratigraphy of archeological layers. This study presents the results of preliminary geological studies in Kafiristan Yasen archaeological area to provide a general understanding of local geology and geomorphology of the area.  Kafiristan Yasen archaeological sites are mainly built on hillslope erosional terraces. In settlement sites, such as Gerdekulisi, it seems that ancient architectural structures acted as sediment traps for deposition of debris sediments and recent hillslope alluvial sediments (Holocene) on the hillslope terraces. Unlike other ancient sites in the Yasen area, Zargolesi site is built on a single natural ridge consisting of siltstone and sandstone rocks overlooking the Oshkoul-Dareh River. The study of surface sedimentary deposits in natural soilas well asexcavation trenches shows that two sedimentary units consisting of very coarse gravelly sediments and fine gravelly sediments in a clay-rich matrix could be distinguished in most of the areas. Archaeological artifacts can sometimes be found in the context of coarse gravelly sediments and in some places are covered by fine-grained alluvial sediments. The gravelly sediments appear to be related to an older sedimentary phase that might have deposited in a different surface morphology to the present situation. The fine-grained alluvial sediments are mainly confined to the surface layers and probably represent historical sediments which have been deposited in a hillslope profile similar to the present situation. In some places these sediments have been cut by a later drainage system.
Keywords: Geoarchaeology, Geomorphology, Archeological Site, Kafiristan Yasen.

Introduction
Geoarchaeology is a rather new interdisciplinary approach that studies the past of human history using geological methods. In geoarchaeology, a complete and accurate understanding of ancient records can be obtained by identifying and examining the sedimentary content and stratigraphy of archeological layers and materials. Geology has been available to archaeologists over the past two decades as a basic tool for reconstructing ancient environments and understanding the long-term climatic and anthropogenic conditions and interactions of pre-historic human with the surrounding environments. These studies are particularly influential in understanding the Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological and geological backgrounds and materials. Geoarchaeological studies in Iran are mainly confined to Paleolithic sites and the use of geological methods such as sedimentology to describe the details of ancient records in caves and rock shelters. Geoarchaeology is an interdisciplinary discipline between geological sciences and archeology that examines the role of geological factors in the rise, continuation, and fall of ancient settlements. In this field, techniques and methods common in earth sciences such as aerial photography and satellite imagery, sampling, microscopic studies, chemical analysis, etc. are used to solve archaeological problems.On the other hand, inarchaeological geology, archaeological data are used to solve geological problems, particularly in relation to dating of Quaternary deposits, ancient seismological studies, and ancient mining. Large-scale archaeologists study most of the natural landforms and anthropogenic structures and small-scale archaeologists study the soil, natural sediments, and anthropogenic deposits. Archaeo-geology also occasionally covers other interdisciplinary studies such as ceramic petrography, archaeomineralogy, archaeometallurgy, radiometric dating, etc.

Identified Traces
This study presents the results of preliminary geological studies in the area of Kafiristan Yasen archaeological site to provide a general understanding of local geology and geomorphology of the area. The Yasen Kafiristan archaeological site comprises a set of settlement and cemetery sites located 35 km southeast of Deylaman. According to previous studies, thechronology of sites in the area varies from the Iron Age to the early Islamic period. Therefore, the present study seeks to map the environmental conditions of the Kafiristan Yasen archaeological sites in terms of geology, geomorphology and climate and to understand the relationship between environmental elements with the cultural and archaeological features of the cultural sites in the study area.Research method of this study is descriptive-analytical and field study which uses the spatial data related to the research problem to evaluate and investigate the relationship between environmental and cultural characteristics in the ancient sites of Kafiristan Yasen in southeastern Deylaman in Guilan province and to answer the research questions.Gathering information in the field surveys done with the using of observation, survey of landforms and geomorphological and geological processes in an ancient site, justification of features displayed on geological, topographic and climatic maps of the site, as well as utilization of software such as GPS and GIS.

Conclusion
The ancient site of the Kafiristan Yasen comprises a series of settlement and cemetery sites located 35 kilometers southeast of Deylaman. The approximate dating of antiquities in this area, according to previous studies, varies from the Iron Age to the early Islamic period. Yasen ancient site enclosures are mainly built on hillslope erosion terraces; the difference between the erosion of the soft layers and the hard layers is probably the main controlling factor for the formation of these hillslope terraces. In settlement sites, such as Gerdekulisi, it seems that ancient architectural structures acted as sediment traps for deposition of debris sediments and recent hillslope alluvial sediments (Holocene) on the hillslope terraces level. Unlike other ancient sites in the Yasen area, Zargolesi site is built on a single natural promontory consisting of silty and sandy rocks overlooking the Oshkoul-Dareh River. The study of surface sedimentary deposits in natural profiles and the wall of drill trenches shows that two sedimentary sections consist of very coarse gravelly sedimentary rocks and fine gravelly sediments in the clay-rich can be separated in most of the areas. Archaeological artifacts can sometimes be found alongside coarse gravelly sediments and in some places are covered by fine-grained alluvial sediments. The gravelly sediments appear to be related to an older sedimentary phase that may have deposited in a different hillslope profile to the present situation. The fine-grained alluvial sediments are mainly confined to the surface layers and probably represent historical sediments which deposited in a hillslope profile similar to the present situation. In some places these sediments have been cut by a later watercourse system.

Mahdi Khalili, Iraj Rezaei,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
Having a favorable environment, the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea have hosted human settlements for millennia. So far, as a result of archaeological excavations as well as illegal diggings, a considerable number of ancient artifacts have been unearthed from archaeological sites in this region. The nature of many finds from unauthorized excavations and accidental discoveries are still unclear. These objects, generally found as hoards, often have unknown provenance and unknown fate. However, some of the objects, which are discovered from the Mazandaran region during the last centuries, are unique and their analogous have never been found from elsewhere. These are the main questions this research tries to answer: 1. given quantitative aspects of the accidental or unauthorized finds from Mazandaran, what sorts of information can be achieved by the study of these objects? 2.Which groups of sources can be helpful for the study of historical objects found by accident in the territory of the Mazandaran province? In this research, we will focus on certain historical objects from Mazandaran, which have been discovered either accidentally or by unauthorized diggings during the last two centuries. A number of these objects are currently kept in museums not only in Iran, but also in some western countries. Their provenance and fate can sometimes be traced in historical books, newspapers, travelogues and oral narratives. This study attempts to show the necessity of reconsideration of the provenance of certain objects as well as their historical and artistic significance. 
Keywords: Mazandaran, Ancient Objects, Qajar and Pahlavi Periods, Unauthorized Excavations, Accidental Discoveries.

Introduction
The name of the treasure and desire to achieve it, has always been tempting for some people, even kings and princes. Treasure finding, antiques, buying antiques and collecting of antiques have been prevalent among the Iranians, at least since the Qajar era. At the time of Naser al-Din Shah (1264-1313 AH), some scattered concessions have been granted to the various western governments for excavation in some historical sites of Iran. In the historical books of Mazandaran, during the Islamic Middle Ages and even in the works of ancient poets such as Omar Khayyam Neyshabouri (440-536 AH), have been mentioned to the treasury and the legend of its discovery, which some of them are fictional. For example, in the book of Tabaristan history, have been mentioned to the digging of Hissam al-Dawlah Ardeshir (636-647 AH) in the city of Amol and discovering of a woman’s skeleton. As well as it is said about the Marashians that they seized the property of the defeated clans and people’s and buried part of it underground and hiding another in the fort of Mahaneh-sar. This treasury was so important that Taimur Gurkan (771-807 AH) always said that the Marashian Treasury was more than the property of several monarchs which he had dominated over them. In common belief, historical objects have often of a commercial and profit-making nature, and of course many exaggerated stories and narratives have been made and discussed about it. In the past few centuries, some of the folk tales about the monuments of Mazandaran have been mentioned by Orientalists and Western travelers. Similar to such stories that derives from the folk notions about the historical treasuries, is heard from the whole of Iran. In general, the narratives related to the discovery of historical objects in Mazandaran are scattered, but significant. This article points to the discovery of historical objects in Mazandaran that are more relevant to the contemporary period (before the Islamic Revolution of 1979).

Discussion
In the contemporary era, many unique historical objects have been obtained in Mazandaran while digging in agricultural lands, road construction, landslides, floods and so on. According to Ezatollah Negahban, before the excavations of Marlik and Pileh-Qaleh, most of the ancient artifacts in the Mazandaran and Gilan areas were obtained as a result of unauthorized and commercial diggings.  many of these discoveries are including of silver objects, especially silver coins. In generally regarding to the accidental way in which such objects were discovered, the available sources do not give much detail about them and the available references are usually transient and sometimes ambiguous. Some of the most important artifacts or collections found in the Mazandaran accidental discoveries that have been specifically studied in this article include: Historical objects obtained from the cemeteries of Voraw, Ozirak and DerooshKor all located in the vicinity of Kandlus village in Kojur section of Nowshahr city at the time of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar, which included pottery wares, earrings, necklaces, beads and so on. The accidental discoveries of Konim village and Hezar-jerib of Mazandaran which discovered by a shepherd in time of ruling of Nasser al-Din Shah including three inscribed vessels belonged to the Islamic period, the Sassanid silver mirror frame discovered from Chalus with a Pahlavi inscription, three Sassanid silver vessels discovered from Sari in 1333, three other Sassanian vessels from Mazandaran purchased for the National Museum of Iran in 1334; the Kelardasht treasury discovered in 1318 in Reza Shah palace including exquisite objects such as a famous gold cup and some Sasanian silverwares, the treasury of Adineh mosque of Jawaherdeh acquired in 1330, the Sawadkuh Shirgah treasury discovered in 1334, 129 silver coins belonging to the Sassanid and Islamic periods from the village of Islamabad and Zaid and some other scattered objects which discovered from accidental discoveries of Mazandaran.

Conclusion
Undoubtedly, the Mazandaran region is one of the most prominent historical and cultural regions of Iran. A look at the position of this region in the Iranian history and mythology as well as the quality of its historical monuments and artifacts remain from different periods attests the historical importance of Mazandaran. In the folk narratives about Mazandaran have repeatedly referred to the discovery of historical artifacts by various rulers which indicating their attention to such objects and artifacts. However, many of the existing narratives are exaggerated and some time the validity of some of them is questionable. The treasure and trove searching has historically been popular among the people in this area, which some of them has been mentioned in this study.
In this article, we only study some historical objects discovered from unauthorized excavations or accidental discoveries during the last two centuries until the Second Pahlavi Period. The mean of accidental discoveries is the artifacts which discovery in result of actions such as plowing, various constructions, floods, unintentional destruction, and so on and constraint by related offices. The sources cited in this article are mainly are historical texts and documents, travelogues, and press of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods. The fate of many historical objects discovered from unauthorized diggings or accidental discoveries is unknown. Some of these objects are scattered in internal museums or in the foreign museums and private collections. These objects are often unorganized and have not an obvious condition. However, some of the artifacts found in Mazandaran, including the Gold Cup of Kelardasht and the Sasanian silverwares, are unique in terms of artistic and historical value. In this article, we tried to explore some of the hidden and explicit angles related to these objects. Achieving better results depends on the efforts of other researchers.


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