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Sobhan Ghasemi, Morteza Hessari, Hassan Akbari,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)
The Varamin plain is located on the way to the Great Khorasan and the point of intersection between East and West of Iran in the North of Iran’s Plateau. The plain is fertile in the south of the Alborz Mountains and the deposits of alluvial soils flowed from the Alborz to the central desert, and are the gathering place of human societies with evidence from the Middle Paleolithic so far. This plain, with an average up rainfall, but due to the arrival of current waters, in the past, nowadays, with the construction of two dams on the way to the streets of Varamin, a small amount of this river water reaches Varamin, there is a thriving agricultural and livestock farming, which are still visible signs Is. The Zahistor area is also one of the foundations located on the periphery of the river, which is likely to be permanent, which is currently no longer visible. The site is one of the few settlements where its initiation pottery was obtained in the plain of Varamin, and the key area is located in the East of the plain of Ray and North of Qom. The purpose of this research is to introduce and describe the area as a whole, and to identify and characterize the clay evidence of the site, and its comparative study on the Susa, bang, and primitive culture of the culture. The questions raised in this study are generally about the changes in the pottery of this site, and what interactions have they with the nearby sites? The basis of analyzes relies more on information and internal findings, and field data, and the results also include the full typology of its upcoming pottery and the documentation of another settlement establishment of the urbanization period (its initiation) based on the evidence of the pottery of this period.
Keywords: Zavarehvar, Varamin Plain, Protoliterate, Pottery.
This site is located in the archaeological study of Varamin plain, and was identified in Jawadabad District in 2012 (Hessari et al., 2014). The Zahavar is currently a small part of a brick factory that was excavated to expand the plant to cultural works that had before been seen in the plain of Varamin. It is worth noting, that if the plan was not a factory development, then, perhaps, in years of years, nobody realized these works and remained unknown. Having found cultural materials from this site, the question of the scarcity of the study centers in the Varamin plain was cleared in the studies of the Varamin plain establishments in Varamin plain, but other questions were based on the works of the Safavid horizons of Sialk III and IV, how the clay changes to this site and that what has been interacting with nearby centers. These findings adapted to the Shush 2 cultural horizons in Khuzestan, Fars, Varamin plains, Erisman and Sialk (Hessari et al., 1396; Hessari, 2011; Alden, 1982; Malkeshmirzadi, 2006; Ghirshman, 1934). In the evaluation of clay indicators, the basis of analyzes is more based on information and internal findings and field data. The main objective of this research is to document the archaeological evidence of Late Protoliterate and Early Bronze Age periods in this area, which can serve as an indicator area in the North of the Iranian plateau, depicts the routes to the South through the Chemarshahr to Qaq Qom, Qalidroish and Silak Kashan. The most important approach to this study is to answer the question of how are the findings gathered from this hill can interpret the culture of the cohesion of Silk III to the culture of Silk IV? This is avilible the hypothesis that there was probably a native culture specific to the plain of Varamin, which has been serious interactions with the south and north of the plain.
The Types of Pottery Studied
The zeal was collected from the clay and classified in the field study and then in comparative study in the following species (Ghasemi, 1392).
Type one: The clobug, which is hereinafter called CLEBUG, is made of wheat, and has a mildew paste.
Type two: The pomegranate, called FIGTEG, is a man-made with brown-black or black-colored gray tasting, often with simple (non-engraved) pottery with relatively thin bodies.
Type three: The abbreviation is FIGOP. This kind of crop with orange-brown flavors and a creamy lining is the largest known species in this collection.
Type four: This type includes mostly simple pottery and rarely pomegranate, which has a small amount of herbs in it.
Type five: This type is so rough with a pepper-colored, or curly-colored, cream-molded pottery that is used in it to be large vegetation with high purity of gravel.
Type Six: Such hand-made pottery with a vivid color and desire to have a simple and small bowl known as the Banchi Tray or the Uruk (Hessari et al., 1396: 40) seems to have been made of simple pottery without any decoration and role.
In this resaerch, other types of pottery such as types 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 have been studied.
The appearance of the bevelled rim bowles on this site should indicate some specific and intermittent activities. It is possible to examine and determine some of the administrative-supervisory documents through different sizes of containers. It seems, that the time findings of this site has before been the beginning of the period or the horizon of Susa 2. These examples are proposed in the comparative chronicle of the middle Susa cultural period. The low proportion of applied pottery in this site such as cooked bowls, is may prove non-industrial and non-productive.
Mohsen Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Saeedi Harsini, Ahmad Chaichi Amirkhiz,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
The Fars province is one of the most important areas in Iran in term of pre-history archeological studies. This region has good natural talent due to its diverse environmental infrastructures. During the Samnard’s archaeological exploration in the year of 1972 AD, according to the identification of polished red plain pottery in several sites of the Marvdasht plain and excavation of the Tel Bakun in layer 5A, an important period was identified in the Fars chronological sequence which called the Lapui period. Over the past few decades, due to limited recognition of the material-cultural characteristics of the Lapui period and the short duration of cultural continuity (3900-3400 BC), uncertainties such as the precise beginning and end of this period, livelihoods, socio-cultural mechanisms, specialized production and economic remains. The variety of cultural materials obtained has consisted of several layers of settlement, architectural structures, pottery, handicrafts and stone utensils, animal figurines, materials related to administrative and administrative techniques, ornamental and miscellaneous objects that have been studied and evaluated. The present study is related to the study of cultural and settlement materials obtained from the excavation of Lapui mound and its conclusion is a confirmation of the cultural-settling continuation of the 4th millennium BC and the Lapui period in Marvdasht plain which in this research has been addressed.
Keywords: Fars Province, Marvdasht Plain, Lapui Period, Excavation of Lapui Mound.
The Kor and Syvand rivers are the important rivers in the Marvdasht plain that have been effective in establishment of settlements and sustaining of them. There are numerous mid- mountain plains along the course of these permanent rivers, the most important of which is the Bayza and Marvdasht plains. The beginning of archaeological activities and sequence identification of the Fars chronology is based more on the sounds of the Louis Vandenberg (Vandenberg, 1952: 54-75). The Lapui period is one of the most important phases of the pre-history chronology of this region and south of the Iranian plateau. This period was named by the characteristic pottery of layer A5 of Tal Bakun and derives from the name of the Lapui Village in the Zarghan area and was recorded in the Fars chronology. The cultural horizon of this period dates from about 3900 to 3400 BC and fills the gap between the cultures of the Bakun and Bansh.
Necessity and Purposes of Research: The importance and necessity of excavation of the Lapui Mound is actually the accumulation of cultural data within the archaeological deposits that have led to an understanding of objective relationship of the material and layers with each other, and so far this has not happened in the excavations of this cultural period in the Marvdasht plain. The main objectives of this study are to clear up the ambiguities mentioned above in the Lapui Period and to determine its cultural sequence in chronology of the South Zagros and Fars cultures in Marvdasht plain.
Research Question and Hypothesis: The most important question in this research is to study and analyze the cultural and settlement data which obtained from excavation of mound, in order to explain the 4th millennium BC of the Fars. To explain such a journey, the hypothesis of the achievements of excavation of this site can be stated that the diversity of cultural materials found in the various sections of architecture and the various cultural materials is categorical and noteworthy in some respects, identical and close to other similar cultural sites and some are unique.
Research Methodology: In this study, we tried to utilize the results of field research of Lapui Mound and comparative library studies. The most important method of data analysis in this research is based on statistical methods with comparison and analysis. By excavation of the site, significant quantities of cultural material have been obtained. Therefore, the identification of Lapui period and cultural features of this period on the Lapui Mound in the 4th millennium BC, based on the study and analysis of cultural data through field studies, documentary and interdisciplinary studies begin and has been dealt with.
Geographical Location of Lapui Mound
The Lapui Mound is located 3 kilometers south of the Kor River. Its height is about 2 meters, 140 meters’ length and 130 meters wide which cover an area of about 1.2 hectares. The mound is located 1573 meters above sea level (Abdi, 2016).
The excavated trenches in the Lapui Mound
The excavation focused on two trenches, T-1 in the middle of the mound toward to southwestern part of the mound and T.2 in the central part of the mound.
Material and Cultural Data from Excavation of Lapui Mound
During the excavation of Lapui Mound, a total of 6249 pieces of pottery with a total weight of 80.497 kg were obtained. According to the studies, the stone as raw material obtained in the excavation of Lapui Mound with a variety of heated stones, small stone decorative containers, artifacts and stone tools are mentioned.
Findings and evidence of politico-administrative and economic documents such as seals, seal impress, counting tokens, seal the container door and pieces of baked mud have been found in the settlement layers of the Lapui mound.
In all from excavation of the Lapui Monud from Trench 1 in layers 04, 05 and 06, five pieces of intact shale in type of bivalve and fragments of average length 6.5 cm (largest) and 3 cm (smallest), width 4.2 cm (largest) and 1.7 cm (smallest) obtained.
The most important achievement of excavation of the Lapui mound is the identification of archaeological deposits in the site that have been identified and classified into 20 layers and the settlement phases associated with that have been identified in the trenches and stratigraphic sound up to virgin soil. Cultural - material remains obtained from the excavated layers of the Lapui mound along with coherent architecture and variety of identified functions, including workshop, kitchen, residential, and uninterrupted settlement sequences identified in stratigraphy, as an integral part of studies Lapui mound has been great importance in the cultural explanation of the 4th millennium BC and the Lapui period of Fars. The variety of types of structures in the layers reflects the type of temporary settlement with a permanent architectural style, with a coherent and intensive architecture in the site. According to the studies, all the layers and cultural materials belonged to the Lapui period, which dates back to the 4th millennium BC. The results of study and analysis of the little cultural material obtained of Lapui mound indicate the presence of inhabitants of this site during the 4th millennium BC and coincide with the late Bakun period (new Bakun) and the beginning of the Lapui period until the middle of this period clearly and possibly later.