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Showing 2 results for Safavid Era

Hassan Akbari, Mohammad Hossein Bahroloulomi, Mohammad Sharif Moradsoltan,
year 3, Issue 8 (9-2019)

he results of experiments on the materials of this building revealed that most of the material was composed of very small amounts of rock, lime, sand and gypsum, the brick baking temperature is below 800 c and some gypsum is used inside the bricks. The bricks used in Semnan game Mosque are different in terms of construction and baking technology in many parts of the building we are witnessing the wear and tear of the brick layers, that have been imbalanced either in terms of increased vulnerability or aesthetically impaired. Some of the 200- meter- high bricks on the side of the city entrance were used by Russian occupation forces to build a swimming pool in the midst of world war II. With the current state of the building, we needed to put them in our context for a complete understanding of the data and to achieve a reasonable result by adapting to the context. All the data in this building were partial and incomplete parts that we had to put together in order to build a unit, understanding them will help us achieve the best possible results. The lack of historical documents about the building, the construction in the words of the local people    about the building and the belief that the Mosque was destroyed in the flood of 1346 AH, (some past floods have been blamed for the devastation). While there were no traces of belongings except this porch and the two hogreh, and the lack of architectural work around the building reinforced this hypothesis, from the beginning there was no trace of the building or residential area that was destroyed and before that, gardens and farmlands surrounded the building needless to say, small finds were scattered around the building in a small area and as we move away from this set, the number of findings is also greatly diminished.
Keywords: Safavid Era, Gate, Jomeh Mosque, Zavaghan.

Many efforts have been made to introduce and identify Irans multi- thousand- year- old architecture many researchers have in recent decades erased dust from the face of historical monuments and reappeared them, in the meantime, a number of buildings remain unknown and even a number of them that have been in traduced are in doubt, also keep in mind that some popular buildings have different uses. The building dedicated to the mosque of Zavaghan in similar to this, this building is in the middle of the narrow gardens of Zavaghan region and when we reach it we face the high door, inside this alley, the gardens look unexpected. Because it is not visible around the building except for garden and fields and some water engine, of this building, only the entrance and the two surrounding Hojreh are left, and only a few remnants have suffered natural and human damage in the past decade. The people of Zavaghan call Zavaghan Jame Mosque and they believe that Imam Reza door prayed in the mosque while heading to Marv, but besides the above the mentioned there is no other work to deter mine the use of this mansion. According to archaeological findings and data, what period does this building belong to? What is the use of this building based on the appearance and evidence found? 
The main purpose of the authors was to describe this particular monument in general, archaeological findings conclude that it probably belongs to the Timurid period, which was abandoned in the late Safavid period. The building belonging to the Zavaghan Jame Mosque is located in the north of Zavaghan and Imam Hossein street and among the green gardens on the western edge of Semnan, Zavaghan region is one of the old areas of Semnan and it is common that in Zavaghan area some of the innocents are buried that the burial of some of them is unclear. 
No traces of inscriptions were found around the building, which heightens our suspicions that the mosque was not. The surrounding land is all agricultural and horticultural, and there is no new about the old texture of the Zavaghan Alleyways of gardens and water ways pass all around the texture.

Findings Gone Bacheh
This type of pottery is found in this area with delicate, white and porous paste that is usually clean and free of additives. Green glaze and dark green, brown and black paint under the transparent glaze adorn the dishes. Containers are small and medium sized bowls and bowls with a short concave base. The motifs include the role of geometrical and plant motifs and are difficult to identify because of the small number of other diagnostic parts. The oldest of these pottery is attributed to the late 9 th century and is known as Mashhad, Neyshabur, Ray, Varamin and Alamut Castle.
Blue and white type: This kind of clay is cooked with every delicate and pure white paste without good additives made with solid, firm paste, the thin wall and translucent white glaze make it easily distinguishable from other types.
Blue and white ornamented pottery was produced in the early centuries of Islamic urbanization in major Islamic urban centers and probably the earliest method of making this type of pottery started in China in the eighth century B.C.E, but the type found in this area was later. The earliest date of its construction in Neyshabur goes back to 6 AH. This type of pottery was manufactured in several production centers in Iran until the year 6 AH. Because of their fracture potteries are not detectable by the finer parts of the dishes, but only by the shape of bowl.

Conclusions about the building are now early and more studies are needed on the building. Undoubtedly extensive archaeological research and finding authentic historical documents can open many unknown angles. However, due to the impact of environmental and climatic factors and human intervention many of the impacts have been lost perhaps having a tall verandah will create the remains of a mosque, but merely placing it in the alley of the garden and not having the inscription will cast another vote.

Younes Yousefvand,
year 6, Issue 22 (2-2023)

Aligudarz County is one of the cold regions of Lorestan province, which is located in the east of the Lorestan province. Green pastures, high altitude, abundant water resources and the proximity of this region to the Khuzestan plain have provided a suitable conditions for the formation of nomadic life in this region. From prehistoric times, this region is connected to the lowland areas of northern Khuzestan by many nomadic roads. One of this nomadic roads is Khalilābad/Nomkul which passes through a difficult path along the roaring rivers “Bakhtiari” and “Sarkhao”. During the late Islamic century this road have been used by tribes of Bakhtiari Tribe Federation which they spent the summer in the northeastern part of Lorestan, ie in Aligudarz and Azna, and on the slopes of Oshtrankooh, Qalikuh and winter in Lali and around Dezful. Due to the fact that this road have not been studied so far and have not been well introduced, Independent research was necessary to identify and introduce them. The purpose of this study is to introduce this road and evaluate and analyze the history of the formation of related facilities based on archaeological evidence. The main question of the research is what archeological evidence remains from this road and what period do these works belong to? Research findings are provided through field works. As a result of this study, four bridges, a large part of the cobblestone road, a cemetery and an inscription were identified. The study of these works shows that this road and the collection of works of its route was built in the Safavid period.
Keywords: Lorestan, Aligudarz, Nomkol, Nomadic Road, Safavid Era.

Nomadism has a long history in Zagros and Lorestan, this way of life in central Zagros in general and in Lorestan in particular started from the Neolithic period and was completely prevalent in the chalcolithic age. And after that, it has been prevalent in this region in almost all periods. Today, it still exists in many parts of the region. The path of the nomads is called Eil-Rah or Koch-Rah. In most cases, this roads are the most convenient and closest way to travel from Sardsir to Garmsir and vice versa, which are formed according to geographical and biological features. One of the main roads of immigration of Bakhtiari tribes is the so-called Khalilabad-Pole Koll road. This connects the mountainous and cold region of eastern Lorestan to the tropical region of the northern part of Khuzestan. Today, this road is used by tribes from the Chaharlang branch of the Bakhtiari tribe, who spent their summer in the northeastern part of Lorestan, namely in Aliguderz and Azna, and on the slopes of Ashtrankoh, Qalikoh and winter in Sardasht, Lali and around Dezful. This road passes through a very difficult mountain path, along which raging rivers such as Bakhtiari and Sarkhav rivers flow. The efforts of nomadic communities to overcome these natural obstacles have led to the creation of structures and facilities whose examples have been identified in few regions of Iran. This article examines and introduces a part of this road and its facilities in Nomkol region, 22 km southeast of Mergsar village, Mahro district, Aligudarz city, and between Lorestan and Khuzestan provinces.

Research Objectives and Approach
The purpose of this research is to introduce and identify the Khalilabad-Polkol road and the traces of its route and then evaluate the available evidence for dating them. The present research is part of basic research and its approach is based on historical approach. The data have been collected in the usual way of archaeological studies by field visit method. In this method, by visiting the route, its archaeological evidence was identified and documented, and then analyzed using a historical approach.

Introducing the Archaeological Evidence of the Route and the Works Identified Along its Route
The archeological works of this road in the Nomkol area include 3 bridges, a large part of the cobblestone road, a wall in the precipice, a number of cemeteries, temporary settlements and an inscription.
Bridges: The materials used for the construction of bridges are stone and brick (in limited quantity) and its mortar is plaster and mortar. Rubble and plaster mortar were used to build foundations, and bricks were used to build arches, of which little evidence remains today. The foundations of some bridges are rectangular and have triangular breakwater (Gachpezan Bridge No. 1) and one of the bridges has circular foundations. The remarkable thing about the architectural structure of one of the bridges (Bridge No. 1) is that the bridge’s pillar are not in the same direction. Half of the pillars (4 of them) are located on the north bank to the center of the river in one stretch and the other half in one stretch. Concecontlly the bridge has taken the shape of a broken half cross and is fundamentally different from the well-known structure and pattern of bridges that basically form them directly. The structural features of this bridge have not been seen in any of the known bridges in Lorestan and the western region of the country.
Cemetery: There is a cemetery 400 meters west of the Kol bridge and at the confluence of two rivers, Sarkhav and Bakhtiari, where tombstones with designs and inscriptions from the late Islamic era can be seen on some of its graves. This evidence shows that this place was probably one of the resting places along the path of this road.

The distance of 12 kilometers from bridge number 1 to the abandoned village at the beginning of Nomkol Valley passes along the edge of Sarkhav River and inside a very narrow valley. In different parts of this road, they have cut rock, created cobblestone and paved road (in dry form or using mortar) and built a wall. In the steep parts of the route, they have created a wall, the height of some parts of which reaches 10 meters. In some parts, by cutting the rock, they have created a narrow way to pass. At the beginning of the route and in the place known as “Tagh Jangi”, they skillfully created a wall 10 meters high and 15 meters long on the body of the rock and created a passageway 150 cm wide. This wall is 20 meters high from the bottom of the valley where the Sarkhav River flows. According to the difference in the arrangement of the stones in the body of the wall, which can be seen on its exterior, two stages of construction can be distinguished in it. Probably, after the initial construction, the wall collapsed in later times and it was restored and rebuilt again. At the end of the path that crosses the west bank of Sarkhav River, a one-kilometer-long cobblestone road has been created using crushed stone and plaster mortar, the minimum width of which is 60 cm, and the maximum is 2 meters. In some parts of this road, small valves have been installed to direct surface water, which pass the water under the road. By passing under the road, these valves direct the water that comes to the surface of the road from the rock west of the road to the riverbed. This road rests on the rock on one side and leads to the river on the other side.

On the west bank of Sarkhav River, there is an inscription in Nastaliq script on a rock at the end of the road. The inscription consists of four short lines. The text of the inscription is as follows: “It was finished in the year 1091 by Yusuf Khan, the master of Isfahani”. The content of the inscription refers to the completion of a project in 1091 AH. The intended plan refers to the same paved road and the facilities along its path. This inscription clearly indicates the date of construction of the road in 1091 AH during the Safavid period.

In the current research, one of the nomadic roads in the east of Lorestan province was introduced by relying on archaeological evidence; this road has connected the east of Lorestan province to the northeast of Khuzestan province. In the very difficult parts of this road, which is called Nomkol by the people of the region due to its passage deep in the valleys of the Kul Mountain, they have started to pave the path, build several bridges, create arches and build walls in the precipice points leading to the river. The bridges built along this road, in addition to having some features in common with other bridges in Iran, also have other features that have not been identified in any region of Iran so far. The characteristics of the bridges and the presence of inscriptions on the side of the cobbled road clearly show the construction date of this road and the structures along its path in the Safavid period. This inscription shows that this route was used at least from the Safavid period onwards. Conducting an archeological survey in this area and along the route of this road from Dezful to Aliguderz will reveal more archaeological evidence of this road and other roads in the region. 

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