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Sobhan Ghasemi, Morteza Hessari, Hassan Akbari,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)
The Varamin plain is located on the way to the Great Khorasan and the point of intersection between East and West of Iran in the North of Iran’s Plateau. The plain is fertile in the south of the Alborz Mountains and the deposits of alluvial soils flowed from the Alborz to the central desert, and are the gathering place of human societies with evidence from the Middle Paleolithic so far. This plain, with an average up rainfall, but due to the arrival of current waters, in the past, nowadays, with the construction of two dams on the way to the streets of Varamin, a small amount of this river water reaches Varamin, there is a thriving agricultural and livestock farming, which are still visible signs Is. The Zahistor area is also one of the foundations located on the periphery of the river, which is likely to be permanent, which is currently no longer visible. The site is one of the few settlements where its initiation pottery was obtained in the plain of Varamin, and the key area is located in the East of the plain of Ray and North of Qom. The purpose of this research is to introduce and describe the area as a whole, and to identify and characterize the clay evidence of the site, and its comparative study on the Susa, bang, and primitive culture of the culture. The questions raised in this study are generally about the changes in the pottery of this site, and what interactions have they with the nearby sites? The basis of analyzes relies more on information and internal findings, and field data, and the results also include the full typology of its upcoming pottery and the documentation of another settlement establishment of the urbanization period (its initiation) based on the evidence of the pottery of this period.
Keywords: Zavarehvar, Varamin Plain, Protoliterate, Pottery.
This site is located in the archaeological study of Varamin plain, and was identified in Jawadabad District in 2012 (Hessari et al., 2014). The Zahavar is currently a small part of a brick factory that was excavated to expand the plant to cultural works that had before been seen in the plain of Varamin. It is worth noting, that if the plan was not a factory development, then, perhaps, in years of years, nobody realized these works and remained unknown. Having found cultural materials from this site, the question of the scarcity of the study centers in the Varamin plain was cleared in the studies of the Varamin plain establishments in Varamin plain, but other questions were based on the works of the Safavid horizons of Sialk III and IV, how the clay changes to this site and that what has been interacting with nearby centers. These findings adapted to the Shush 2 cultural horizons in Khuzestan, Fars, Varamin plains, Erisman and Sialk (Hessari et al., 1396; Hessari, 2011; Alden, 1982; Malkeshmirzadi, 2006; Ghirshman, 1934). In the evaluation of clay indicators, the basis of analyzes is more based on information and internal findings and field data. The main objective of this research is to document the archaeological evidence of Late Protoliterate and Early Bronze Age periods in this area, which can serve as an indicator area in the North of the Iranian plateau, depicts the routes to the South through the Chemarshahr to Qaq Qom, Qalidroish and Silak Kashan. The most important approach to this study is to answer the question of how are the findings gathered from this hill can interpret the culture of the cohesion of Silk III to the culture of Silk IV? This is avilible the hypothesis that there was probably a native culture specific to the plain of Varamin, which has been serious interactions with the south and north of the plain.
The Types of Pottery Studied
The zeal was collected from the clay and classified in the field study and then in comparative study in the following species (Ghasemi, 1392).
Type one: The clobug, which is hereinafter called CLEBUG, is made of wheat, and has a mildew paste.
Type two: The pomegranate, called FIGTEG, is a man-made with brown-black or black-colored gray tasting, often with simple (non-engraved) pottery with relatively thin bodies.
Type three: The abbreviation is FIGOP. This kind of crop with orange-brown flavors and a creamy lining is the largest known species in this collection.
Type four: This type includes mostly simple pottery and rarely pomegranate, which has a small amount of herbs in it.
Type five: This type is so rough with a pepper-colored, or curly-colored, cream-molded pottery that is used in it to be large vegetation with high purity of gravel.
Type Six: Such hand-made pottery with a vivid color and desire to have a simple and small bowl known as the Banchi Tray or the Uruk (Hessari et al., 1396: 40) seems to have been made of simple pottery without any decoration and role.
In this resaerch, other types of pottery such as types 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 have been studied.
The appearance of the bevelled rim bowles on this site should indicate some specific and intermittent activities. It is possible to examine and determine some of the administrative-supervisory documents through different sizes of containers. It seems, that the time findings of this site has before been the beginning of the period or the horizon of Susa 2. These examples are proposed in the comparative chronicle of the middle Susa cultural period. The low proportion of applied pottery in this site such as cooked bowls, is may prove non-industrial and non-productive.
Afrasiab Garavand, Karim Hajizadeh, Fatemeh Malekpuor, Akbar Abedi,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Khoy Plain has attracted various tribes in terms of geographical conditions and suitable environmental capacities over the course of thousands of years, and has been the basis for establishing human settlements in different periods. The pattern of dispersion of the areas identified in this mid-range plain in the Bronze Age reveals the emergence and existence of a large center called “Dozdqi”, which in this period becomes a very important center. Dozdaqi with a height of 1200 meters above sea level is an area with more than 16 hectares and 24 meters above the surface of the surrounding area, the highest prehistoric area of the plain, which is located along the permanent river of Ghodvokh Boghan and the springs and wetlands. The existence of a salt mine as an export commodity in this area, as well as obsidian artefacts (imported goods) in 7 different colors. The percentage of the volume of distribution of pottery on the surface of the site indicates that the period of dynamism and flourishing of the site was in the Bronze Age, and it seems that during this period and for the first time in Khoy plain, there could be an over-the-center Of the 16 hectares.The existence of such a center is likely to be in the context of trans-regional trade. In this research, 20 samples of the Bronze Age pottery sherds were collected from the surface survey and speculation to determine the area and privacy of the study area and typology.
Keywords: Dozdaqi Khoy, Bronze Age, Pottery.
The late fourth millennium and early third millennium BC, one of the most important milestones not only in Iranian history, but also in the history of the Near East. This period coincides with major events such as the formation of the first city government, the beginning of urbanization and the expansion of its line.
The ancient Bronze Age in the northwest is part of a widespread culture called the Culture of Kura-Aras (Rezalou and Zaban Band, 2016: 17) or Yaniq’s Culture (Burney and Lang, 1971: 44, Dayson, 1973: 686-7) Is known. n this regard, Dozdaqi Khoy with an area of more than 16 hectares of the largest settlements in the north of Lake Urmia is related to the Bronze Age, which has cultural works of the Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age periods. The percentage of the volume of distribution of pottery on the surface of the site indicates that the period of dynamism and flourishing of the site was in the Bronze Age, and it seems that during this period and for the first time in Khoy plain, there could be an over-the-center center Of the 16 hectares, he said that the existence of such a center is likely to be in the context of trans-regional trade. Therefore, attention to the above-mentioned cases, as well as the study of the status of the Dozdaqi area in the Bronze Age, is one of the most important goals of this research in terms of the presence of cultural materials related to the three old, middle and new bronze periods on the site. In this research, 20 samples of the Bronze Age clay collected from the surface survey and speculation to determine the area and privacy of the study area and typology.
The Dozdaqi Khoy Area
The Dozdaqi area consists of two parts of the east (Dozdaqi area) and the western one (Hill Dozdaqi) separated by a sandy road (Picture 1). This ancient site is located 1.5 kilometers southwest of Khoy city, in the central part and 1 kilometer north of the Amirbiq village, in longitude N: 38.31 23, and latitude E: 44.5514 with an average elevation of 1200 meters The water level is formed in the middle of a mid-range plain and the fertile part of the plain on the eastern side of the Qodwokh Boghan River.
The most important bio-properties of the Dozdaqi field are as follows: the area of the fertile and cultivated land, the amount of precipitation, the appropriate height, access road, the presence of pastures and suitable vegetation available around the site, fuel resources, abundant water resources and most importantly, there was a salt mine in the east of the area. This ancient work has brought the most important potential and conditions of economic exploitation based on agriculture, animal husbandry, trade and cultural exchanges (salt, rock quarrying, etc.) with neighboring areas.
Typology of the Bronze Age Crystal Enclosures
In this paper, 20 pieces of samples of pottery sherd that were collected during the speculation of the field and area of 1395 from the surface of the site were studied and typified (Plan 1 and Table 1). The color of the pottery is varied, and in this regard, the pottery of the collection can be divided into three groups: brown dumplings, gray dwarfs, red pottery, besides in one color case Black beetle. In making most of the samples, the binder is used in the mineral and the surfaces of the clay are smooth and smooth. On two levels, most of the pottery is covered with thick or thin flowers to peppery, light brown, cream and red. There is also a wheel maker in the collection of handmade pottery. The temperature required to bake most of the pottery has been sufficient. The specimen of the Bronze Age is a hot dip galore comparable to the clay samples obtained from the hills of Yannick (Burney, 1961), Burton-Brown Hill (1948), Haftevan (Burney, 1973), Gijler (Pecorlla,and Salvini, 1984), Cole Tape (Abedi, 2011), the Kohneh Tappeh Cy (Zalaghi and Akhalari, 2007) the Kohneh Pasgah (Akhalari 2008) and the Barouj Tappeh (Alizadeh and Azarnoush, 2002).
The percentage of the volume of distribution of pottery on the surface of the site indicates that the period of dynamism and prosperity of this site has been in the era of urbanization and urbanization, and it seems that during this period, and for the first time in the plain, there could be a center with an area of more than 16 hectares said that the existence of such a center in the Khoi Plain is likely to be in the context of trans-regional trade.
Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrain,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)
The 4th millennium BC is one of the most important periods of the history. During the 4th millennium BC, the first urban societies were established in southern Mesopotamia and south-western Iran. Even southern Mesopotamia and southwestern Iran are among central regions of urbanization, but adjacent areas, particularly Central Zagros in western Iran, have played the main role in this process. Godin Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites during the 4th millennium BC in western Iran which has main role in the urbanization studies. The excavation of this site and Seh Gabi in Kangavar shaped the cultural sequence of Central Zagros until now. Even this site has close cultural interaction with northern region such as Urmia basin during 5th millennium BC, but later in the 4th millennium BC, this interaction has changed from north to east and to the Central Plateau. The most significant characteristics of the interactions between Godin and the Central Plateau, is some fair painted buff pottery (Godin VI painted pottery) which is reported from the late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau (Sialk III6-7b). Regarding the existence of this painted pottery throughout chalcolithic period ( not only late chalcolithic) in the Central plateau and the absence of this ware in preceding period(Godin VII) in Godin sequence, it should be noted that the Godin VI painted buff ware is not local in Kangavar area. It has a foreign provenance that should be looked after in Central Plateau. Our methodology in this paper is comparison of this fine painted buff pottery from Godin VI period with the previous coarse ware of Godin VII, and with same ware of late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau. We do not believe in immigration hypothesis about this intrusive ware in Godin sequence. Obviously future studies will be needed.
Keywords: Prehistory of Central Zagros, Late Chalcolithic, Godin VI Pottery, Sialk III Pottery.
The 4th millennium BC is one of the most important periods of the history? During the 4th millennium BC, the first urban societies were established in southern Mesopotamia and south-western Iran. Even southern Mesopotamia and southwestern Iran are among central regions of urbanization, but adjacent areas, particularly Central Zagros in western Iran, have played the main role in this process. Godin Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites during the 4th millennium BC in western Iran which has main role in the urbanization studies. The excavation of this site and Seh Gabi in Kangavar shaped the cultural sequence of Central Zagros until now. The focus of our studies is on Godin VII-VI strata which overlapped somewhat with Uruk period in Mesopotamia. About this period and particularly those well-known Godin V rounded building, many papers were published. Our goal is to study the buff painted pottery of period VI (VI1). Comparing to the previous period (Godin VII) characterized by coarse and plain chaff tempered pottery, the fine wheel made pottery of period VI is an intrusive one. Noted that the same painted buff pottery was reported from the late chalcolithic period sites of Central plateau, Sialk III6-7b and Ghabristan IV (Fazeli et al 2013, Majidzadeh 1978, 1981). In contrast to Central Zagros where this buff painted pottery was introduced in period VI abruptly, in Central Plateau this pained ware was reported from the previous period (Sialk II-III). Also the Central plateau wares have more divers shape and motif comparing to the Central Zagros so our evidence showing that the original provenance of this painted pottery is in the Central plateau and not in Central Zagros. Noted that east of central Zagros and Central Plateau of Iran during the fourth millennium BC had a great interaction with each other that as a result such painted pottery was developed from the Central plateau to Kangavar.
Question, Research Method: As mentioned, the focus of this paper is on the fourth millennium BC and on the chalcolithic period strata of Tepe Godin and particularly Godin VI painted buff pottery (Levine and Young 1987, Young 2004, Rothman and Badler 2011, Moghaddam and Javanmardzadeh 2012, Wiess and Young 1975, Young 1969, Young and Levine 1974, Badler 1995, Mattews 2006). Godin tepe reached its maximum level of social complexity in the fourth millennium BC and has great interaction with neighboring areas and particularly the Central plateau of Iran.
This painted buff pottery is reported from the late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau of Iran. Our methodology in this paper is comparison of this fine painted buff pottery from Godin VI period with the previous coarse ware of Godin VII,and with same ware of late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau. Introducing this painted pottery in the Godin sequence abruptly, the occurrence of this ware not only in late chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau but throughout the chalcolithic period and diverse shape and decoration of this ware in chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau, demonstrated that this ware is related to the Central Plateau. It was considered as an intrusive ware in the eastern Central Zagros area such as Godin Tepe. Godin Tepe has solid cultural interaction with neighboring areas during the prehistory. During the middle chalcolithic period, this interaction was toward the north and particularly the lake Urmia basin. But in 4th Millennium BC this interaction was changed from north to east and to the Central Plateau.(Roustaie and Azadi 2017). This painted buff pottery is considered as a main evidence of this interaction. Future studies will tell us more about the eastern Central Zagros- Central Plateau interaction.
Introducing this painted pottery in the Godin sequence abruptly, the occurrence of this ware not only in late chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau but throughout the chalcolithic period and diverse shape and decoration of this ware in chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau, demonstrated that this ware is related to the Central Plateau. It was considered as an intrusive ware in the eastern Central Zagros area such as Godin Tepe. The main question regarding this fine painted pottery is about the sudden emergence of this pottery in the sequence of Godin and how it developed from the central Plateau and reached the eastern Central Zagros in the west of Iran?
We do not believe in immigration hypothesis about this intrusive ware in Godin sequence as those theory explained for Godin VII Plume ware at Central plateau. As noted at fourth millennium BC, Godin tepe at west of Iran reached its maximum level of social complexity and is one of the most important trade centers which has great contact and interaction with neighboring areas and particularly the Central plateau of Iran. This trend was started at Godin VII period and those plume wares of Zagros were reported from the Central plateau of Iran. noted that before Godin VII period and during the fifth and sixth millennium BC, west of Iran had great interactions and contact with the northwest of Iran. With the beginning of Godin VII period and specially Godin VI period, the direction of communication was changed from north to the east and the areas like the Central plateau become the main commercial partner of the western Iran at fourth millennium BC. Consequently, this fine painted ceramic was evidence of this interactions and communications. Obviously future studies and excavations will tell more about this fine painted ware in western Iran.
Abbas-Ali Rezaei-Nia, Ali Akbar Vahdati, Mostafa Sharifi,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)
The beginning of the Iron Age on the Caspian Sea coast and the adjacent areas on the Iranian plateau and the neighboring lands was accompanied by extensive social, political and cultural changes that led to the collapse of urban centers and exchange economics, the formation of scattered and rural communities, which were often followed by livestock or nomadic economics. Changes in the social structures in the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age, for whatever reason, caused extensive changes in the cultural material of the Iranian plateau and the Caspian Sea and formed settlement patterns from which only the associated cemeteries have often been identified and excavated. However, the residential structures, the spatial organization of the settlements and their relationship with the cemeteries are not well known. Excavation on the Parija Tepe, 3 km from Qaem-Shahr-Kiakola road on the low shores of the Caspian Sea, resulted in the identification of two stages of settlement from the Iron Age and the Early Islamic period. The Iron Age finds include pottery, metal objects, stones, bones, animal remains, and the remnants of architectural structures. According to the obtained evidence, the largest volume of cultural layers in the Parija Tepe is related to the Iron Age. The present study indicates that the Parija Tepe has an important place not only in better understanding of the pottery traditions of the Iron Age in the Caspian lowlands, but also in identifying mud-brick architecture and the pattern of sedentary life in this region. Further archaeological excavations of the site will undoubtedly give a clearer perspective on the social organization and settlement patterns of the Iron Age in the coastal areas of northern Iran.
Keywords: Mazandaran, Tepe Parija, Iron Age, Mud-brick, Pottery.
One of the characteristic features of Iron Age sites of Mazandaran is the lack of settlement sites with visible architecture, the abundance of cemeteries, special funeral rituals, as well as a distinguished pottery tradition. During the Iron Age, the majority of dead people were buried in simple pit graves, Mud-brick lined graves or Pithos burials. The dead were often buried in a curved or flexed position, and in limited cases in supine or stretched position. A variety of burial-goods often placed next to the dead, a tradition which was also common in the preceding Bronze Age and that became more prominent during the Iron Age. In addition to the large number of pottery vessels, a good variety of tools such as swords, daggers, knives, spears, and other objects made of bronze and sometimes iron, as well as jewelry such as rings, bracelets, necklaces, plaques, and seals of bronze, silver, iron, bone, faience, stone, and rarely gold have been reported alongside the skeletons. While results of archaeological research in the Iron Age sites of Mazandaran suggests the influence of local Bronze Age cultures on the later Iron Age communities but, it appears from the available evidence that the Iron Age settlements are smaller albeit larger in number compared to the Bronze Age sites.
The present article introduces the results of excavation in Perija Tepe in the Caspian Sea shores. Results of excavations suggests the important role of Parija Tepe not only for a better understanding of the Iron Age pottery traditions in the coastal lands of the Caspian Sea, but also for the identification of permanent settlements through examination of mud-brick architecture and the pattern of sedentary life in this region. Archaeological excavation at Parija Tepe can provide a clearer perspective of the social organization and settlement patterns of the Iron Age in the coastal areas of northern Iran.
Parija Tepe is located in the central part of Mazandaran plain, some 3 km to the northwest of Ghaemshahr, next to the road from Ghaemshahr to Kiakola (Simorgh) and among the paddy fields of Kolagar village. Recent excavation at Parija Tepe has led to the identification of two phases of settlement belonging to the Iron Age and the early Islamic period. The main settlement phase and the majority of cultural depositions at Parija Tepe dates back to the Iron Age which is divided into Iron Age II and III.
Typologically, most pottery forms of Prija appears to reflect the characteristics of Iron Age II. In addition to the pottery vessels, significant cultural materials such as a tanged bronze spearhead and a stone stamp seal were also excavated. One of the most remarkable findings of this excavation is the discovery of remains of mud-brick architecture that possibly shows a sedentary lifestyle rather than a nomadic way of life. Bio-archaeological studies on the faunal remains of the site demonstrates that all animal bone remains belong to mammals, and no fish, birds, rodents or reptiles have been identified. Throughout the occupational period, sheep, goats and cattle are the dominant species, followed by boars. Very rare remains of red deer have also been seen. Thus, it seems that the subsistence economy of the inhabitants of Prija has been diverse and based on livestock activities, agriculture and hunting patterns.
The cultural material discovered from excavation of Parija Tepe represents the cultural traditions of the Iron Age and indicates cultural links between this area and other Iron Age sites in the northeastern and north-central regions of Iran. Although some rich cultural materials such as a tanged bronze spearhead and some pottery forms have their roots in the Bronze Age cultures of the Northeast and the Gorgan Plain, the production of these type objects has continued throughout the Iron Age and striking analogies could be seen in large areas of Gilan and Mazandaran and the southern slopes of Alborz. It seems that the main volume of pottery and other cultural materials retrieved from Parija excavation indicates to Iron Age II and II period occupation with the material cultures resembling those from contemporary cultures in the north and northeast of Iran. The results of preliminary studies of Parija Tepe indicates that this area, like many of its contemporaries in Mazandaran, is formed near the river and in a flat and fertile land, and in terms of architecture, similar to other Iron Age sites in Mazandaran, has wooden and mud-brick architecture. Therefore, Parija, along with other Iron Age sites of the region, indicates to the uniformity of the Iron Age material culture in the lowlands of Madandaran, which, while similar to the Iron Age cultures of the southern slopes of Alborz, has particular local features.
Majid Mohammad-Yarluo, Morteza Hessari, Khalil-Ollah Beik-Mohammadi,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)
Varamin-Pishva plain is one of the most important cultural areas of the southeastern part of Tehran plateau in different historical periods. Taghabad Tepe with two western and eastern elevations and consisting of different rich layers of Iron and Bronze Age is located in this plain. This site has been studied and archeological research in 1397. In this study, it was found that this area has different deposits from the Iron Age one and two in the upper layers and traces of late bronze in the lower layers along the horizon with the common western traditions on the plateau. The aim of this study was to analyze the mentioned findings and compare it with the findings of other areas of Varamin plain and other neighboring areas. The questions of this research are as follows: based on the archaeological findings of the cultural developments of Taghiabad Tepe, what kind of cultural traditions dose the Iron Age have? What is the influence of regional and trans-regional cultures of the common Iron Age cultures of Varamin plain due to the Taghabad findings in the type of pottery and architecture? Accordingly, the Iron Age 1and2 of Varamin plain and especially Taghiabad Tepe to some extent shows the regional actions in Varamin plain and the proximity and convergence of the trans-cultural region with neighboring areas.
Keywords: Iron Age, Varamin-Pishva Plain, Iron Age Settlements, Taghiabad Tepe, Architecture, Pottery.
Varamin-Pishva plain, having a suitable geographical position in the slopes of Alborz mountain range and Damavand peak and having a suitable height, has provided suitable ecological conditions for the presence of human communities for a long time. This plain is one of the areas prone to the formation of Iton Age settlements in the north-central part of Iranian plateau. During the archaeological study of this area in 1391-1392 AH. Has identified 27 sites belonging to the Iron Age (Figure1), as a result of studding the findings of this study, only a few sites have been introduced and identified. In this research to analyze and study the pattern of establishment and distribution of sites as well as cultural stages of the Iron Age of Varamin plain by analyzing cultural findings identified from Iron Age sites based on archaeological studies and cultural traditions of this plain by case study, especially pottery, and the architecture identified from workshop A in the eastern ridge of Taghiabad area as well as the surface findings obtained, classified and then the location of this area in Varamin-Pishva plain next to the Iron Age settlements in the center of Iranian plateau, in a general view, reviewed, evaluation and analysis are included. In this review, understanding the Iron Age communities, especially the Varamin plain will be accompanied by re-reading various theories.
The present research is structurally one of the basic researches with a comparative-analytical approach, the method of finding is to exploit the findings of an archaeological excavation chapter based on historical analysis of the findings of Taghibad Tepe. According to the research topic and the variables studied in it, the method of collecting information in the field and data collection tool in this research will be based on archaeological excavations and related reports and articles.
Taghiabad area is located in Javadabad rural district and between Taghiabad villages, Khajoo Qaleh and Ajorbast counties in the agricultural lands of Taghiabad village in Varamin city. This site was considered in the framework of joint cooperation between the Institute and the University of Berlin in 1397 AH to collect samples of ancient climate studies from ancient deposits and according to the surface findings of the Iron Age and Bronze Age and according to the situation. The demolition of the site was speculated. The site is located in the west and near the Ali Kharat River. Cultural and settelement findings of this research have been identified in Taghiabad Tepe from workshop A in the ridge No1 of Taghiabad Tepe (eastern ridge) and in the northern side of this Tepe in the area that was excavated with an area of 1/5×2 meters (Figure5). From this Tepe, seven settlement phases with two historical periods from Locus have been identified, which include artifacts from the Iron Age 2 and 1 to the late Bronze Age. The cultural materials of this Tepe are all kind of pottery covered with red, cream and brown mud, gray, architecture (walls and thermal structures) plaster, pounded floor, stone tools such as pounding stone, abrasive stone , burnt plant seeds (in terms of appearance similar to wheat or barley) it has formed a bony specimen, goat horn and clay tokens, etc., which will be described below
The results of the study of Varamin plain settlements from its archaeological of Iron Age communities, based on Taghiabad Tepe excavation, this area and site as an important area and indicators in the study of Iron Age cultures and chronology of the Iranian plateau. One of the most important topics in the archeology of the Iranian plateau is how the tradition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age and its sequence, one of the important features of Taghiabad Tepe is the presence of communities from the Iron Age and their cultural connection with the Bronze Age which is of great importance in the studies of the tradition from the Bronze Age to Iron (Age)., an area where settlement began in the Iron Age and continued until the Bronze Age . Accordingly, in this study, questions were raised that can be evaluated in this way. The first question was asked about archaeological findings, cultural developments of Taghiabad Tepe and how the cultural traditions of the Iron Age. The urban complex and evolution of later cultures with cultural establishment has been one of the actions of the neighboring horizon in the type of architecture and pottery, especially Gholi Darvish. The second question was asked about the interactions and influence of regional and supra-regional cultures of the common cultures of the Iron Age of Varamin plain due to Taghiabad findings in the type of pottery and architecture, which according to the surface findings of 27 sites recorded in studies, archaeological as well as various excavations in Sofalin Tepe, Chalnasian and other areas, this plain to some extent shows intra-regional activities with the center of Taghiabad Tepe, with cultural trans-regional affinity and convergence with adjacent areas in the southern and northern parts of the central plateau of Iran. Therefore, it can be considered that the Iron Age sites of Varamin-Pishva plain, especially Taghiabad Tepe, are the product of an advanced society with a cultural establishment of adjacent horizon actions in the type of “architecture” and “pottery”. Based on the types of pottery and the type of architecture the cultural sequence of Taghiabad Tepe can be introduced with 7 phases of establishment in two historical monuments. Finally, it can be said that based on the relative and comparative dating of Taghiabad Tepe, it can be dated to the late bronze period of the transition period and the Iron Age of one and two.
Davood Behroozifar, Reza Mehafarin, Mohammad-Reza Saeidi-Harsini, Ahmad Chaychi-Amirkhiz,
year 5, Issue 17 (12-2021)
Sarakhs plain is located in northeastern Iran and adjacent to Turkmenistan. Regarding Parthian pottery studies in Sarakhs plain, no special components have been considered for it so far. Identification and classification of Parthian pottery in this region can be a good tool to better understand the pottery traditions, study the cultural and economic interactions of the population centers of that period. The research method is based on library and field studies (descriptive and analytical) during a field survey (survey) stage. Based on the surface findings of the field survey, a total of 91 flagship pottery pieces from 14 settlements belonging to the Parthian period were selected for the survey. In fact, this study seeks to answer the question of what were the intra-regional and extra-regional relations of Sarakhs plain during the Parthian period with contemporaries? According to the studies on pottery attributed to the Parthian period in Sarakhs plain, this period can be divided into two periods in the mentioned plain. In the first period (formation of Parthian rule before the reign of Mehrdad I) Sarakhs is influenced by the culture of the Sarakhs oasis of Turkmenistan, and in the second period, until the end of the Parthian period, they are influenced by the well-known cultures of southern Turkmenistan, namely the cultures of Nessa and Merv. The purpose of this study is to identify and introduce Parthian pottery in Sarakhs plain, classification and typology of Parthian pottery in the region. The necessity of the present study is that the pottery cultures of the Parthian settlement of Sarakhs plain are unknown and the present study can provide a better understanding for further research.
Keywords: Archaeology of Northeast Iran, Sarakhs Plain, Parthian Period, Classification of Pottery.
Sarakhs plain as a study point due to its natural potentials and optimal environmental conditions such as altitudes, suitable soil and relatively favorable weather conditions, has been a desirable habitat for the formation of various human communities (Ebrahimi, 1384: 2). Scholars in historical texts have stated the origin of the Parthians in northeastern Iran, especially Khorasan (Asak near present-day Quchan) and their primary capital was Nessa in Turkmenistan (Altheim, 2010: 20). Based on the field surface findings, a total of 91 flagship pottery pieces from 14 settlements belonging to the Parthian period were examined. The method of this research is based on library and field studies (descriptive and analytical) during a field survey (survey) chapter. Documentation of human handicrafts is necessary in terms of studying the background and type of community culture at any point in history.
Research Questions and Hypotheses: In fact, this study seeks to answer the question of what were the intra-regional and extra regional relations of Sarakhs plain during the Parthian period with contemporaneous areas? Therefore, in the present study, surface cultural materials have been interpreted by preparing a statistically citation able and scientific population through archeological study. Analyzes obtained from classification, typology and methodological analysis of this statistical population as well as comparative comparison of pottery species with similar examples of contemporaneous settlements show the formation of sequences of some settlements in the Parthian period and continuous continuity before and after the Parthian period in this Has an area.
Aims of Research: The purpose of this study is to identify and introduce Parthian pottery in Sarakhs plain, classification and typology of Parthian pottery in the region.
Materials and Methods
The present research is based on the purpose of basic research and based on the nature and method of descriptive-analytical research. The basis of the research is the study of Parthian pottery along with library studies. Methods and tools of data collection in this research have been done in two ways: documentation and field activities. In the documentary stage, all written sources, images and maps were first collected and analyzed. In field studies, while surveying the plains in the region and identifying the settlements, the required archaeological information and evidence (pottery) were collected from the mentioned areas and recorded in the database. In order to compare the chronology of the settlements and analyze the pottery of the Parthian settlements, the total pottery collected from 14 Parthian sites was examined and compared with other sites of the Parthian period such as Nessa, Merv and Sarakhs oasis of Turkmenistan. It was not possible to identify more Parthian sites through surface surveys. 91 index pottery were selected for photography, design, classification, typology and comparison with other Parthian sites. The index samples were selected as research materials based on classification and typology. In archeology, when classifying, the differences and similarities of the pottery in question must be clearly evident in the various groups that are distinguished; In such a way that no further explanation is needed for easy identification of one group from another. It is logical to expect that no two groups of objects classified in the main and important criteria are common to each other (Azarnoosh 1377: 76). In the present study, first, in a general division, pottery pieces are divided into five general categories, including: 1- edge 2- body 3- floor 4- base 5- handle, and then edge pieces that can be recognized in the form of a container.
Discussion and Results
In this study, 91 Parthian pottery pieces were identified from 14 ancient settlements related to the Parthian period, many of which have chronological sequences and in addition to the works of the Parthian period, also have the works of other periods. Settlements were classified based on pottery typology, comparative studies of pottery find, and archaeological excavations in southern Turkmenistan, northeastern Iran, eastern Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and other regions within and outside the region. A total of 26 sites in 11 areas for this study in the order in which it is presented has the most references. Based on this, a table was designed for each cultural region and settlements of each basin in which the amount and percentage of comparison is clearly significant (Table 2).
Archaeological study of Sarakhs plain and 91 surface pottery pieces from 14 Parthian settlements were considered as the main foundation for relative chronology, classification and typology of the research. In order to obtain a scientific answer to show the cultural interactions, the method of comparative analysis was used and the findings of the archaeological study of Sarakhs plain were compared with the findings of intra-regional and extra-regional contemporaneous areas. These similarities, taxonomy, morphology, typology, and cultural connections were evident and analyzed. What results from the study of Parthian pottery findings obtained from the Sarakhs plain; According to the studies carried out on pottery attributed to the Parthian period in Sarakhs plain, this period can be divided into two periods in the mentioned plain, in the first period (formation of the Parthian government before The accession of Mehrdad I) to the Sarakhs plain is influenced by the Sarakhs oasis culture of Turkmenistan, and in the second period, until the end of the Parthian period, they are influenced by the well-known cultures of southern Turkmenistan, namely the cultures of Nessa and Merv. The presence of these pottery indicates a two-way and dynamic relationship.