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Showing 2 results for Uruk

Morteza Hessari, Hassan Akbari, Alireza Sardari-E Zarchi,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
Abstract

Abstract
In this paper, research was performed on cultural materials from Bard Panir, which morphologically is located on southern Central Zagros at mountainsides of Lorestan, close to the Khuzestan Plain and is geopolitically a part of Khuzestan Province. However, this region is similar to Lorestan Province with regard to its average rainfall, its mild temperature is neither similar to freezing winters of Lorestan, nor like torrid summers of Khuzestan. In addition, this region had traditionally been fertile because of being near Bala Roud, Dez and Karkhe (Hole, 1994). Regarding Cultural-Historical parameters, this region seems to be at least contemptuous with cultural materials from cultural periods such as Shoush II or Uruk in Mesopotamia. Shoush II Period in Khuzestan is known based on what is found in Acropolis I, especially layers 17-22. Moreover, materials from Apadana are analogous to those from Acropolis1, layers 19-22 (Dittmann, 1986: 76). Therefore, this time horizon seems to be related to a network of societies that connect Central Zagros to Khuzestan, and from there to Mesopotamia, within which is especially located the key deployment called Uruk, which is divided into three periods: Early Uruk, Mid Uruk, and Late Uruk. Hence, based on cultural materials excavated by authors and some samples from this site which were kept in Andimeshk Cultural Heritage, the morphology and location of this Tappeh, as a special physiographical region, were determined.
Keywords: Bard Panir, Shoush II, Uruk, Beveled Rim Bowl, Baneshi Tray.

Location and Description of Bard Panir
This site is located near the banks of Bala Roud Dam, Bala Roud, close to Hosseinieh
Town, northern Andimeshk City, Khuzestan Province. It is at 32 40 13.4 northern latitude; at 048 15 49.4 eastern longitude; and at a height of 343 m Altitude the sea level. Although, Bard Panir is geopolitically mapped within Khuzestan Province, it must geographically be located at southern Central Zagros. Bard Panir is about 10 m high; its area is 3.5 Ha; and distribution of pottery in it extends to around 30 Ha. This site is within a plain, at 100 meters from the banks of Bala Roud. Moreover, the site is about 40 m above the level of this river, and all surrounding area can be observed. It is circular. Within it, there are observed pieces of architectural evidence such as steeples and walls. Fortunately, because of being surrounded by the dam, it is not damaged by illegal excavations, buildings, farming, and traffickings by domestic and humans; so that it is easy to find large pieces of pottery and other data on the surface of this site.

Surface Data
Different cultural materials were collected from Bard Panir such as:

Pottery, Coarse Ware
1. Beveled Rim Bowl (Tab 1, Fig 3): This type of bowl is buff or cream-pink in colour. It is categorized among simply designed potteries. It is made of Chaff. There is observed some impurities because of using sands. Its surface is coarse because of the methods of they are produced. On the interior side of this kind of pottery is observed the deep trails of potter’s fingers. The rim of the container had been bevelled by a thing such as a piece of pottery or bone or fingers. Temper such as large (about 1.5 cm) chaff had been used. Moreover, average and tiny (0.5mm-5mm) sands had intentionally been added to the pottery material, so that the surface of the pottery is coarse. The mouth of all excavated pieces were approximately identical, ranging from 15 cm to 16.7 cm. All potteries are firmly made and almost all samples are baked completely. Data with regard to four of these containers are as follows: Container no. 1: 980ML; Container no.2: 965ML; Container no.3: 940ML; Container no. 4: 928ML
2. Baneshi Tray: Baneshi tray, which is known by its Uruki name, is a simple and shallow container. This had been made in circular and oval shapes in pinkish or buff colour. These potteries are hand-made and are made without any kinds of decorations or motifs. The temper used is of herbal kind which includes large (1.5 cm long) chaffs; however, some tiny (rarely larger than 2 mm) soft sands had intentionally added to the soil. It seems that they had been haggled; then they had been sprayed like a bread; and lastly the rims of the container had been leaned inwards; while, the surface of the container is levelled by hands and fingertips. The coarse exterior surface is the outcome the method of manufacturing them.
Fine Buff Ware Plain and painted (Tab 2, Fig 4): This type of Buff pottery includes often simple and rarely painted Motives. They had been designed mostly in brown and red colours. Their body is relatively thin.The Temper which are used mostly belong to the category of minerals. In the body of these pieces are observed coarse and homogeneous sands (0.20-2mm), being graded with a quality ranging from good to very good. According to the temper used in these types of potteries, the soil used by the potters had been relatively clean. There were not observed any impurities except for rare cases. The mould used by potters had acceptably been knead; however, the large amount of temper had resulted in its firm structure.
Fine Red Ware (Tab 3): This kind of pottery with orangey-red mould, includes often plain and rarely painted potteries. The Temper that had been used in these kinds of potteries are tiny minerals and are similar to small knobs on the interior and exterior surfaces of all pieces. Furthermore, in some cases the additive Chaff is observed, and this is one of the most important characteristics. In all these types of potteries except for one, the interior surface of the open-mouth pottery which is covered similar to the exterior surface is simple and untouched; so that the trails of parallel lines made by pot-wheel are observed clearly on the interior surface of the pottery. The soil used in manufacturing these potteries are observable with naked eye, although the herbal additives are chipped very small in size, and lots of heterogeneous and numerous sands in all sizes. The mould had acceptably been knead and potteries are made of a constant and firm structure.

Morteza Zamani, Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrian,
year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
The Marivan Plain is a small elongated alluvial plain which lies at the westernmost extent of the Zagros Mountains in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and c. 80 km west of the provincial capital Sanandaj. The plain is c. 60 km from the Iraqi city of Sulaymaniyah and less than 20 km from the Sharizor Plain in Iraq to the west. The plain is located between two archaeologically important regions of western Iran: the central Zagros to the southeast and the Lake Urmia region to the northeast. Early studies of prehistoric periods were mainly conducted in these two regions, while little attention was paid to the region of Marivan. Prior to the commencement of the 2018 project, an earlier survey in the Marivan region had been carried out by Department of Archaeology at Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan (Iran). Research focused on the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods and, unfortunately, evidence from the Chalcolithic periods is yet to be published. In 2018, we began to re-examine ancient settlement in the Marivan region with a 4 week survey. The survey identified and documented more than 60 sites. Preliminary studies of the material collected during the survey resulted in the identification of about 13 sites dating to the Chalcolithic period; it was possible to differentiate the material sufficiently to allocate occupation at the sites to the Early, Middle and Late Chalcolithic periods. This paper presents the important and new evidence of the development of Late Chalcolithic period settlement and is starting to provide an insight into the impact of the Uruk Expansion in this part of the Zagros Mountains. Even the Late Chalcolithic (LC) period in Marivan area is somewhat overlap to Uruk (early, middle and late) period in Mesopotamia, until LC5 phase (Tepe Rasha), not any Mesopotamian influences is evident in Marivan sites. 
Keywords: Marivan Plain, Late Chalcolithic, Uruk, Mesopotamia, Tape Godin.

Introduction
This paper presents the first results from the Marivan Plain Survey (MPS) in the province of Kurdistan – one of the westernmost regions of Iran and the Zagros Mountains. The project recorded important new evidence of the development of Late Chalcolithic period settlement and is starting to provide an insight into the impact of the Uruk Expansion in this part of the Zagros Mountains. The MPS project began work on the Marivan Plain in the summer of 2018. It is undertaking a review of previous survey work in the region and is directed by Morteza Zamani with the assistance of Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrian. The Marivan Plain is a small elongated alluvial plain (UTM 38S 603000E, 3930000N) which lies at the westernmost extent of the Zagros Mountains in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and c. 80 km west of the provincial capital Sanandaj. The plain is c. 60 km from the Iraqi city of Sulaymaniyah and less than 20 km from the Sharizor Plain in Iraq to the west. In the past, the plain of Marivan with its picturesque Lake Zerewar an important node in the communication routes between Iraq and Iran. The plain is located between two archaeologically important regions of western Iran: the central Zagros to the southeast and the Lake Urmia region to the northeast. Early studies of prehistoric periods were mainly conducted in these two regions, while little attention was paid to the region of Marivan. In 2018 the MPS began to re-examine ancient settlement in the Marivan region with a 4 week survey. The survey identified and documented more than 60 sites. Preliminary studies of the material collected during the survey resulted in the identification of about 13 sites dating to the Chalcolithic period; it was possible to differentiate the material sufficiently to allocate occupation at the sites to the Early, Middle and Late Chalcolithic periods.

Conclusion
Investigations conducted by the MPS on the Marivan Plain have resulted in the identification of two preliminary trends related to LC period sites:
Firstly, the MPS has recorded several sites dating to the Middle Chalcolithic and the later part of the LC period. Except for a few earlier LC (2) shreds (Godin VII/VI:3 period) identified from the site of Aba Fatol, not any LC 2 sites have yet been confirmed on the Marivan plain. This contrasts with other areas of western Iran and the province of Kurdistan where early LC2 sites are common. At this stage of research on the plain, it seems that there was a lower number of sites in the earlier LC (LC2) compared to both the previous Middle Chalcolithic period (Seh Gabi and Dalma pottery traditions) and the subsequent later part of the Late Chalcolithic –LC 3-5 (Godin VI: 2-1).
Secondly, the MPS recorded Uruk culture related material from a single site (Tepe Rasha) and only in the form of Bevelled Rim Bowl shreds. This is surprising and suggests that cultural interaction with southern Mesopotamia was limited or that what impact there was from cultural interaction was low and did not permeate into the local cultures. Limited evidence of contact with Uruk Mesopotamia is also evident from recent surveys in north-western Iran and in northern parts of the Iraqi foothills of Zagros. In contrast, distinct and substantial evidence of contact with the south is to be found in the central Western Zagros and Central Plateau of Iran and on the plains south of the Greater Zab River in north-eastern Iraq. Iran  and particularly  its western regions is crucial for the understanding of key events in the history of Mesopotamia, one of which is the spread of Uruk culture from southern Mesopotamian into neighbouring regions during the Late Chalcolithic (LC) period (5th-4th millennia B.C.). 


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