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Showing 8 results for Typology
Mohamad Hosein Rezaei,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
The Kazeron County is located in the West of Fars Province and 732 M above sea level. From identified sites in survey of Kazeron plane (that mainly are sites of Neolithic period to late of Bronze Age) in total of 141 pieces of stone tools were gathered from 13 sites. Based on research on stone tools, sites as SK023 are show extraction and use / maintenance / repair. In these sites, the existence of core stone indicates of the construction of tools, and also existence a lot of the stone tools are indicates of settlement long-term in these sites. The core stones in all sites are exclusively chipped stone and mostly from kind of Chert stone of gray – green. It seems, produce of tools from other types of Chert stones such as red Chert, Chert of brown stripes, cream Chert, and… have been made in another place. The blades and their flakes in some sites of Kazeron plane (especially sites of SK022 and SK023) represents are the use of these tools for reaping of the plants. The raw material used to make stone tools (that often made of local stone) today it is easily accessible in the Kazeron mountains. These tools, to form of a combination and with natural resins such as bitumen have been placed inside the bone handle or in newer periods inside the metal handle, and similar to sickle have been used to cut plants. From of the main goals of the present research, study of technology diversity in stone tools sites of prehistory in Kazeron plane is for regional and comparative studies and for gain of general knowledge the prehistory of Kazeron plane.
Keywords: Stone Tool, Typology, Prehistory, Kazeron Plane.
The Kazeron County is located in the west of Fars Province and 732 M above sea level. This County from the north to Mamasani and Behbahan, from east and northeast to Shiraz, from southwest and west to part of Borazjan city and Bosher, and from southeast to Firozabad is limited. This County in terms of geographic is located in mountainous area and with surrounded by high mountains. The mountains of Kazeron area is stretched from the northwest to the southeast (Mozafariyan, 1994: 25). The Mountains of Kazeron consists of two ranges and Kazeron plane is between these two mountain ranges. The Kazeron County has a warm climate. The temperature of this county is max.49 degrees above zero and at least 6 degrees below zero. The average rainfall in Kazeron County in years of low rainfall is less than 500 mm and in the rainy years approximately 700 mm (Behrozi, 1968: 8). The Kazeron County has abundant water resources. Abundant springs and a lot of water has a created several rivers. The major rivers of this county are include of Jareh, Shapor, and also freshwater Lake of Parishan (Hatami, 2006: 12). So, Kazeron plane with a lot of water resources and suitable climate had a good environment for development of human societies in the long term. In this research, stone tools related to Neolithic period to Iron Age (that collected from survey of archeology Kazeron plane) have done typology and classification. So, from of the main goals of the present research, study of technology diversity in stone tools sites of prehistory in Kazeron plane is for regional and comparative studies and for gain of general knowledge the prehistory of Kazeron plane.
From identified sites in survey of Kazeron plane (that mainly are sites of Neolithic period to late of Bronze Age) in total of 141 pieces of stone tools were gathered from 13 sites. Tepe Qalat 2 (SK002) is located 1 km northeast of Baladeh city. From this site was obtained only 2 chips. A piece is Retouch and another Burin. The Galeh Narenji (SK006) is located in near of the village of Galeh Narenji and 1.5 km east of Pershian Lake. From this site 6 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Siah 1 (SK013) another from sites, that is located in around Pershian Lake. From this site 3 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites is Tal Siah 2 (SK014), that from this site 7 pieces stone tools have been collected. Gabrestan Karai (SK015) is located 500 meters southeast of Karai village, and from this site 11 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites this study is Dreh Tampoi (SK016) that from this site 12 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Zirakan is located 1 km east of Kaskan village and in south of the Kazeron city. From this site 17 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites this study is Tal Rashton (SK020) that from this site 8 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Panj Mahal (SK022) is located 700 m west of Shapro River, that from this site 25 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Dehdaran (SK023) is located on the northern margin of Kazeron plain, that from this site 26 pieces stone tools have been collected.
Usually, estimate the ratio of blank flake to core stones can help us to guess that production of stone tools has done elsewhere. On the other hand, the blades and their flakes in some sites of Kazeron plane (especially sites of SK022 and SK023) represents are the use of these tools for reaping of the plants. In general, in spite of a lot of variety in the collection of stone tools in sites of Kazeron plane (that shows diverse and advanced industries), in core stones can’t be seen complexity and advanced technology. Ultimately should be noted, based on survey results and pottery samples, these stone tools are belonging to the 7th millennium B.C. to the end of the second millennium B.C..
Shahriar Nasekhan, Mehdi Soltani, Mahmoud Setayesh Mehr,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
The security has always been of the main human concerns. So, the human has always been looking for founding ways to reduce the effects of threatening factors himself. Since the country of Iran in the past have been exposed to a variety of military attacks by different nations and neighboring tribes, issue of defense in architecture and urbanization of Iran a lot of effect, that fortress, fence, tower, ditch, and… has been for this work. The fortresses have been military or civilian fortification that with using natural geographic features, and for maintain security, generally built in the mountains. Bafran is one of the historic cities of the Nain that located alongside ancient way Ray to Kerman. The fortresses as the most important representation of the defense system in past, were have a lot of variety. A number of these fortresses have been located outside the residential area and alongside the farms. The fortresses under study in this research is contains of Ghale Rig, Ghale Razi, Ghale Ali Abad, Ghale Sori, Ghale Hoseyn Abad, Ghale Yekeh Derakht, and Ghale Rostam. In this research has been used from the method of descriptive - analytical and interview with informed people in area. Because these fortresses haven’t been mention in historical written sources (history books, travelogues, and …), authors of this article have emphasized on field studies and observations. The results this research, indicates that fortresses of Bafran are includes three species: the fortresses of temporary residence in times of insecurity, fortresses surrounding the village, and fortresses of rulers. Among the fortresses under study in this research, Ghale Rostam, because of location and for physical and architectural features it, in the past defense system of Bafran has been role a more important.
Keywords: Defense Architecture, Typology, Fortresses in Plane, Bafran, Nain.
Fortress has been a building that located on top of a mountain or a high place, and people at all times of the day reside in it. About abundant clayey fortress in the Iran plateau hasn’t been done much research; so, dating these fortresses aren’t easy, because each fortress has been used for several periods. The surveys have been shown about these fortresses, most of them are related to Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanid periods that have been used in the subsequent periods of Islamic era and even until now. These buildings have made for a variety of purposes; the smallest fortresses have been used for checkpoint or military post and the biggest them used for fortresses of military and defense and caravans (Siroux, 1979: 54). Based on available evidence, building of the fortress was common until the late Qajar period. After that, with the invention of advanced military weapons as: bomber, rocket, and …, the military fortresses were lost their significance. In Bafran city are number of fortresses that each fortress has own characteristics. So far no research has been done on these castles. In this research, Ghale Rostam maps were drawn by authors that these plans for first time are done from this fortress. The main questions of this research include the following: Which are the Bafran fortresses؟ How can categorize them? What are the architectural features of Ghale Rostam? And, why is Ghale Rostam more important than other fortresses in Bafran?
This fortress is located in adjacent to Ghadamgah Imam Reza and on top of a hill and at a height of 25 meters from the earth’s surface. The plane of this fortress is rectangular and has a length of 48 meters and 20 centimeters and a width of 12 meters and 47 centimeters. Ghale Rostam with an interior space of 500 square meters, the fortress has been strong.
Ghale Sori, Ghale Razi, Ghale Rig, and Ghale Ali Abad
At the moment, Ghale Sori and Ghale Rig have been completely destroyed, and doesn’t exist possibility to study and field survey of these fortresses. From the Ghale Razi and Ghale Ali Abad are few remnants them.
Ghale Hoseyn Abad
This fortress is located in Hoseyn Abad field and outside the residential area, and in the northwest of Bafran city. Ghale Hoseyn Abad is to form of square and with four rounded towers in four corners.
Ghale Yeke Derakht
This fortress is located in Yeke Derakht field. Now, from Ghale Yeke Derakht is remain two north and northwest towers, and the rest of this building is demolished due to the passing of time and erosion.
The Baferan fortresses to three types are divisible based on location and their function. Ghale Rostam has been the fortress of insecurity times, because this fortress is located on top of a hill and at a height of 25 meters from the earth’s surface. The Ghale Sori, Ghale Razi, Ghale Rig, and Ghale Ali Abad are located in around the village, and they have been expletory of protection of the village. The Ghale Hosein Abad and Ghale Yeke Derakht have been fortresses of rulers. These fortresses have been a form of square, and with thick and high walls, and with towers in four corners. Various residential and service spaces as rooms, warehouses, stables, and… in around of yard are considered from architectural features of these fortresses.
year 2, Issue 5 (12-2018)
Tepe Betaki is one of the most known ancient area in Aleshtar and for the reason there were some studies about it from so yours ago. The primitive studies shows that there is cultural periods from prehistory periods to Islamic periods. In this connection to maintain of Tepe Betaki, the writer had mission to study to determine the limits of it. The surface analyzing was continued in this mound from 29 July to 11 August 2018. In the time, it was studied carefully and 17 trench 1/5×1/5 m were made in different directions during the surface analyzing. The purpose was to record the ancient cultural findings in different areas. For this purpose, the mound was divided to 5 zones North, West, South, east and central and each was studied carefully. The purpose was to separate different zones to record cultural findings and to recognize the different cultural material of the mound. Therefore, the analyzing of bronze era existence in Tepe Betaki and the mound studying to show the spreading cultural material of different zones are the samples of Bronze era were collected and studies typologically. These samples were selected from 330 samples. It means that only 22 tile samples were about Bronze era. Therefore, in spite of wide extent of Tape Betaki and enrichment of culture in the next period the Bronze era is not considerable.
Keywords: Aleshtar, Tepe Betaki, Bronze Era, Ceramic, Typology.
One of the main challenges of archaeology researchers always was to description of chronology study is chronology that exist during working in decades. Therefore, in fact the study which was done in this area was a part of a great archaeological project including trench in order to determine of limits. During the actions trench of the mound limitation 17 trench 1/5×1/5 m around the mound was performed. After studies and excavations, 330 tile samples were obtained which only 22 samples were about Bronze era. The collected tiles were categorized typologically. Therefore, the studying of Tepe Betaki in Bronze era in different phases of Godin III and spreading of Bronze era cultural material in different parts of the mound are the 3 km distance between Tepe Betaki and Tepe Gariran (the biggest mound in Aleshtar plain). The central position and surrounding theory is also studies.
In these areas, the archeological studies have been done in past decades. There were less archeological studies in Aleshtar in proportion to Nahavand and Kangavar. Orel Stine studies areas the first archaeological studies in this area (Stine, 1940). Davoud Davoudi had done survey and documentary is Aleshtar archaeological site in two periods in 2006 and 2007 (Davoudi, 2006, 2007). Clare Gaff archaeological excavations in Babajan Tepe are as the first in Norabad (Goff, 1969). He did some wide surveys in Lorestan in addition excavation in Babajan Tepe (Goff, 1971). Abbass Motarjem was excavation in autumn 2017 in Tepe Gariran.
Geography and Topography of Tepe Betaki
Aleshtar is one of the 11 cities in Lorestan province which is located in North of Lorestan province. The central part includes wide plain called Aleshtar plain. Tepe Betaki is located in North – West of the plain and near a village by point is highest 1603 meter above sea level. The topography of the mound related to the mound high and around lands in North has more gradient and less in other sides. Tepe Betaki was recorded as national monument of Iran in 2 October 2011 (2011/10/2).
Surface Studies Finding
Before, trenching group did a survey analyzing. It is important in some aspects:
- The study of cultural material dense in different parts of the mound.
- The study of cultural material in Tepe Betaki.
For this purpose, trenching group was divided into 5 groups. They began to study in 5 parts. The 5 parts were: South, East, North, West and center of this mound.
Bronze Era File Findings of Tepe Betaki
As said, 17 trench were done to determine the Tepe Betaki. From these trenches 16 trenches were about bronze era. The findings were obtained respectively one sample of T.T.A trench, one sample of T.T.D trench, two samples of T.T.F trench, five samples of T.T.G trench, five samples of T.T.G1, one sample of T.T.G2 and one sample of T.T.H. Besides tile findings of trench, six samples also were obtained in surface studying. Therefore, from excavated 17 trench and analyzing of 22 samples from survey were about Bronze era.
All the ceramic findings of surface analyzing and excavations were 330 samples which only 22 samples related to Bronze era. Bronze era ceramics of Tepe Betaki show that phases III:4 and III:2 are available. Meanwhile these two phases tiles are a few. In the period in Aleshtar plain, Tepe Gariran with 3 km distance from Tepe Betaki has 13 hectares and all kinds of Bronze era ceramics. Therefore, it seems that Tepe Betaki in Bronze era was surrounding settlement rather than Tepe Gariran. The surface monuments show cultural periods pre-history, history and Islamic periods. 41 samples of typology materials in surface analyzing in Tepe Betaki, 18 samples were related to pre-history period, 11 samples to Islamic and 6 samples to Bronze and 5 samples to Chalcolithic periods. Therefore, most of typology materials were related to history period and mostly Parthian period.
Milad Baghsheikhi, Mohammad-Esmaeil Esmaeili-Jelodar, Alireza Khosrozadeh, Alamdar Haji-Alian,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Pottery as one of the major handcrafts of human societies plays an important role in rebuilding past culture and civilization. Classification, typology and chronology of pottery are of great importance in archaeological studies. The abundance and variety of pottery in situ has made it possible for the archaeologist to obtain the best cultural evidence for the recognition of ethnicities and communities. Pottery documentation and species identification is one of the technical principles in archaeological studies. One of the less well-known areas in the archaeology of Iran’s historical period, especially in the Sassanid period, is the present-day area of Isfahan Province in the Central Iranian Plateau. Introduction and study of Shirkouh Naein area previously carried out by Alamdar hajiAlian was selected for the research since it was evaluated in terms of statistical population and type of cultural materials of the Sassanian era from both architectural and cultural point of view.
Keywords: Classification, Typology, Chronology, Sassanian Islamic Pottery, Epistemology, Shirkooh Naein.
The research method is descriptive-comparative and the results have been analyzed based on comparative studies. In fact, this article focuses on documentary studies, especially and studying written documents and field studies. Also, using the results of archaeological field survey, the obtained pottery was classified, classified and finally compared with the key archaeological sites of this period, and their results were compared.
Describe the Area of Shirkooh Naein
Naein, in Isfahan province, is a town located in the desert margin. Pakooh region is one of the villages of Naein located in the northwest. The ancient site of Shirkooh is in the vicinity of Separo Village located 6 kilometers away from the west of it. Due to its strategic location, this region has always been suitable for human settlements. Among the evidence which represents a Sassanian settlement in Shirkooh, one can mention a fortress, a Čahārṭāq (four arches), and Soffeh (Terrace platform). Before briefly discussing the main topic of the article, each will be briefly mentioned.
Čahārṭāq (Four arches)
The Čahārṭāq of Shirkooh, located in the central part of Naein, can also be placed in this category. In 2002 (1381) the monument was listed as a national property of Iran with the registration No. 7222 and after that, it was restored by Shah-Hosseini. The Čahārṭāq of Shirkooh is a square-shaped structure with approximate dimensions of 10 meters. Its current height is 12/40 meters, dome height is 6/10, and the internal height is 6/59.
The position of this fortress is in such a way that on top of it the Čahārṭāq is visible and on the other hand, the fortress is pretty obvious from the center of Čahārṭāq. Thus, these two structures are not far from each other. The plan of the fortress is almost irregular and a steep slope makes it hard to reach. The materials used in the construction of the fortress are cobblestones for the walls, mud-brick in towers and plaster as the main mortar of the entire building. At the interior of the fortress there is a rectangular structure which its directions are north-east south-west and somehow overlooking the low level of the plain and the village. Due to unauthorized excavations inside the fortress, a piece of plasterwork was found; this piece is 16 cm long and 9.5 cm wide and its surface is engraved.
Terrace Platform of Shirkooh (Soffeh)
Terrace platform is located at 38 7.33 N, 52 59 24 E. It is constructed at the farthest end of the site which connects it to the mountain. The main construction material of this Soffeh consists of cobblestones of the river. Since this terrace platform is flat and elevated, from the top of it the fortress and Čahārṭāq are remarkably visible.
Classification and Typology of Shirkooh Naein Pottery Found
The Sassanian Islamic pottery of the Shirkooh area of Nain County is varied in form Data were obtained from three Čahārṭāq sections, Shirkooh fortress and Soffeh. A total of 760 pieces of pottery (Sassanian and Islamic) were collected in the study of Alamdar haji Alian. Then, during field re-examination by the authors, 80 pieces of pottery (Sassanian and Islamic) were collected from the surface of the site; The present study was classified 63 stratigraphic fragments, typology and finally chronology. From a comparative study of 63 pieces of pottery obtained from surface examination, the number of fragments is as follows: edge 52, body 3 and floor 8; From the above-mentioned pottery, 42 pieces from the Sassanid era and 21 pieces from the Islamic era were identified. The color of the pottery is one of the most prominent features of pottery considered in the classification of pottery. This color is divided into three main groups of brown, pea, and red in the Sassanian Shirkooh pottery.
In addition to the aforementioned cases, the classification of the studied pottery of Shirkooh Naein into its fragments has also been considered. Accordingly, the rim components can be classified into eight distinct groups. Based on the typology of the pottery, five types were identified: Bowls, jars, earthenware, dish and bottles that make up the largest number of bowls and jars in the earthenware collection.
Suggested Chronology of Sassanian Shirkooh Pottery
One common way to identify the presence or absence of communication between cultural communities in neighboring areas is to compare their cultural artifacts with each other. To relate these potteries to relative chronology, to match the samples to Sassanian sites excavated and to have chronologies and sites found from archaeological excavations in Iran: Hajiabad, Mellian, Abou Nasser Fars Palace, Yazdgerd Castle, Oltan Ghalasi Dasht Moghan, Torang Tapeh Gorgan, Defensive Wall, Bandan Darges, Siraf and ete, and out of Iran archaeological excavations of Tal Aboushrifa, Kish and Bergotiat in Iraq, Kusad United Arab Emirates. Accordingly, it was found that the type of pottery studied in Shirkouh was most similar to the set of pottery obtained from surface surveys of Farsan plain, Torang Tapeh excavations in northeast of Iran, Yazdgerd castle and Tall Abusharifah in northwestern Iraq. Given this, Shirkooh is one of the Sassanian sites in the Naein region that has pottery traditions of this period.
Specifications of Shirkooh pottery and their comparison with different Sassanid zones indicate the taste of Sassanian pottery in this region and similar shapes in different periodic zones Sasanian is recognizable. Therefore, Shirkooh pottery is a local and indigenous species that can be seen in other areas. In general, the Shirkooh region is culturally influenced by western evidence such as Yazdgerd castle area and central Iranian plateau, especially east of Isfahan province, Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province and Farsan plain. In fact, based on the typological studies and comparisons of pottery with other Sassanian and Islamic sites, it seems that the settlement is located in Sassanian and early Islamic periods. As we know, the pottery at the end of each period is usually early or even later in the period and does not disappear all at once, such as the area where the Sassanian pottery of the early Islamic Times There has also been a continuing trend and it is difficult to identify.
Khalil-Ollah Beik-Mohammadi, Saeid Marhjani, Zeinab Ahmad-Yosefi-Sarhadi,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
Spindle Whorls are among the main cultural materials and needs of animal husbandry and semi-”frozen” societies and are among the works that are directly related to the pattern of livelihood and production in the clothing family and fibers of early societies. to be. Which are interpreted in the analysis of the findings of ancient sites. The area behind Malayer Plain Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe is no exception to this feature, and the number of 123 Spindle Whorls found among its archaeological excavation findings has a significant presence in terms of type and f. The main stones of this area can be divided into two groups: convex and conical, each of which is divided into two sub-branches: painted and simple, and in terms of quality of construction, they can be divided into two groups: medium and Roughly divided. All Spindle Whorls are made of baked clay with a mixture of herbs and in different sizes. The purpose of this research is in the first stage, typology and study of saddles and in the second stage, analysis of livelihood model related to the production of textiles in the hills posht forodgah. A significant number of Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe and its application in the production of yarn by analyzing it on the produced fibers and how to organize this production can help a lot. The method of the present research, based on comparative studies and with a descriptive-analytical approach, seeks to answer these questions: What kind and forms of hymns discovered Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe and what threads are used in its production? Given the Semi-Unilateral of the Tepe communities Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe and the abundance of Sardok, the production of textiles in this area has been for local and domestic use and trans-regional trade? Considering the Semi-Unilateral and nomadic settlement and the method of economic production based on animal husbandry in the early communities of the Central Zagros and the hills Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, it seems that based on the variety of mounds in type of material, quality of species, shape and size, these wool fibers They are mainly used for local use and trade outside the region to meet basic needs.
Keywords: Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, Typology, Spindle Whorl.
Spindle Whorl is a cultural object and cultural material that is mainly made of stone, bone, wood, etc., which provides the first manifestations and old evidence from different stages of fabric production.
Analysis and typology of Spindle Whorls provide good information on how ancient tissues rotate, but it is necessary to establish a methodological typology of this type of ancient cultural finds. Type and packaging in type, shape and size provide an effective way to determine how yarns work. The shape, type and appearance of each yarn is directly related to the type of production, spinning. Therefore, the appearance and functional typologies of saddles are other ways of knowing the type of spinning and other stages of textile production. For example, the typology, shape and function of a highly effective method of the characteristics of the fibers produced and used and the final product produced from yarn or fibers (such as: wool, silk, fabric, etc.) are presented through rotation in the production of clothing. Gives. Among these, the “weight” of Spindle Whorls is considered as one of the most important factors determining the properties of production fibers. Among these, the “weight” of Spindle Whorls is considered as one of the most important factors determining the properties of production fibers. Finally, sawdust should be placed in significant categories that determine spinning and textile production, and these categories are based on the characteristics that determine the use of sawdust. Spindle Whorls discovered from the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe The most abundant cultural finds in the hills behind the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe after pottery are all kinds of Spindle Whorls. These chestnuts come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from circular and semi-circular to conical, all made of fine-grained clay and then heated. The Spindle Whorls of the hills behind the polished Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, in terms of simple appearance, is less decorated and less decorated. Alone and on some of them, a linear and crescent-shaped dimple (or a kind of sign and symbol) can be seen, which is apparently created with nails. The Spindle Whorl have a hole in the middle for the passage and the wooden handle to rotate. The central hole of the Spindle Whorl is usually made in such a way that it is narrower at one end to prevent the movement of the wooden rod that was placed in this hole. And the thread was twisted around it; However, some cases of Spindle Whorls have been obtained from this area that did not have holes. It seems that the process of making these Spindle Whorls is incomplete and due to the similarity of Spindle Whorls, they can not be classified as Token or counting objects. It should be noted that no stones were found on the slopes of the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe From all the new Neolithic stages to the Old Copper Age and the Stone Age of the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, three main types of oval, pyramidal and conical shapes have been obtained. These Spindle Whorls do not have the desired construction quality in the lower layers (new Neolithic of phase c). Because it is deformed and rough in appearance, and in terms of cooking, it gets a little hot and a kind of raw hand can be seen in making them. With the development of higher stages and the age of copper and old stone, Spindle Whorls have advanced in terms of variety and quality in terms of construction and have gained high resistance.
These heads vary in weight. The lightest Spindle Whorls weigh about 5 grams and the heaviest Spindle Whorls discovered from this hill weigh about 160 grams. From this point of view, it can be said that the production of yarn and the use of fibers in this region also have a diameter. Produced from the thinnest yarn to the thickest. As mentioned, the weight and diameter of the saddle circle is the most important determining factor in the process of spinning and yarn production, which is one of the important features among Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe saddles. What can be said about the diameter and size of Spindle Whorls in this area? In order to increase the diameter of the rotating shaft with the light weight of the saddle, the hollow feature of the saddle has been used so that the weight of the saddle does not increase. This feature (in the emptiness of the saddles) is one of the examples of the ridges of Qalangap hill (Abdollahi and Sardari Zarchi Figure 14, 130: 1392) and Chaghamish... and Tal Bakun (Alizadeh 1382: 349, (Figure 9) is also considered and large and hollow Spindle Whorls are produced to produce the weight of thin fibers with high flexibility and elasticity.
Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe headboards are made in the simplest possible way in terms of decoration, and the least amount of decoration is seen in terms of design compared to other areas, and only a few examples of designs are created compactly (Figure 7). The simple-edged conical saddle, which is also one of the most common types of saddles, is similar to the conical specimens of the Tel Bakun, which in some cases have compact linear or circular shapes (Alizadeh 2004: 146 and 349)
Using a comprehensive comparative method, 123 Spindle Whorls obtained from a season of excavation at the Malayer Plain Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe were discussed in response to questions:
In response to the first question, in addition to a coherent typology, this type of cultural findings (based on compatibility with Spindle Whorl of Charo, Chaghamish, Tal Bakun and Qalagap regions) were identified in 6 species.
The heads of this region are divided into two main groups: convex (oval and two-sided pyramid) and conical (one-sided and cylindrical pyramid).
Each group is divided into two subgroups, carved and simple, and in terms of construction quality, they are in two groups, medium and rough.
All chests are made of clay with vegetable chamotte and in different sizes (2 to 5 cm and weighing 5 to 160 grams). Some heads have pressure patterns created by a sharp tool. Depending on the type of semi-resident settlement and the method of economic production based on herding (sheep and goats) in the early communities of Central Zagros and also the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe area due to the high volume of goat bones (due to jaws and horns) based on the variety of Spindle Whorls in this area In terms of shape, size and weight of the species, these Spindle Whorls are mostly used in fleece fibers.
Accordingly, heavy and long Spindle Whorls with high rotation axis are used to twist thick and long fibers (goat hair) and small short Spindle Whorls with low rotation axis are used to twist thin and short fibers (fleece) with different thicknesses. In this study, Spindle Whorls weight was considered as test variables on yarn diameter, yarn rupture and elasticity and yarn warp.
In response to the second question, considering the semi-monolithic location of the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe based on various ash deposits to a depth of about 160 cm and the vertical migration approach of the communities present in it, it seems that most textile products are for endogenous use and sometimes for trade. It has been trans-regional in meeting basic needs.
Saeid Sattarnezhad, Behrouz Omrani, Hossein Naseri-Someeh, Seyed Mehdi Hosseininiya,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
One of the main types of rock monuments is hand-carved ritual-religious spaces. These handmade spaces have long been considered, sanctified and respected by religious social groups who were committed to religious practices. From this perspective, it can be stated that Maragheh region has been one of the most important, rich and long-lasting centers of ritual-religious architecture in the history and culture of Iran. In an era, in which ritual manmade spaces have lost their influence in many areas of ritual prosperity and sacred power, some ritual-religious manmade spaces in Maragheh still have an active and prominent presence. Accordingly, the present study, while identifying, introducing and explaining the special features of the ritual-religious hand-carved spaces of this region, has also addressed the formation factor of these ritual spaces; and seeks to answer the following question: to how many types are the ritual-religious hand-carved spaces in Maragheh divided? Therefore, along with the field study method applied for recording and explaining the current situation, library studies were also used to identify the factors influencing the formation of ritual-religious architecture in Maragheh. The results of the studies indicate that 8 religious-religious rock monuments have been identified in the county of Maragheh. Typologically, the above-mentioned rock architecture can be classified into surface and subsurface forms. Also, in terms of typology and classification of the application nature, these works have had different uses, such as: a) mosques, b) monasteries, c) churches, d) Buddhist temples, e) open temples, f) crypts, and h) rock graves. Many of these sites are now ruined, however, some spaces have retained their sacred position and are being used with some modifications.
Keywords: Maragheh, Rock Architecture, Typology, Ritual-Religious Use.
The county of Maragheh is located in the northwestern part of Iran in the province of East Azerbaijan, on the southern slopes of Sahand Mountain. According to national divisions, the county of Maragheh has two districts (central and Sarajo) and six villages. The county of Maragheh consists of two separate parts: the northern areas of the county that are mountainous and the central and southern areas which consist of plains and flatlands (Khamachi, 1991: 459). Sahand mountainous mass is one of the most important topographic features of the county, and the southern slopes of this mountain form the configuration of the main part of the county. The general slope of the land in this county is from north to south and the three rivers of Leylan Chay, Mordagh Chay, and Sufi Chay are the important rivers that supply the water needed by the region (Morvarid, 1981: 12).
In the county of Maragheh, numerous historical monuments are remained from different periods, some of which are used as ritual-religious hand-carved spaces. Ritual-religious hand-carved spaces in Maragheh, in particular and other areas in general, have long been considered, sanctified and respected by social groups, according to the existing evidence; Therefore, in this paper, it has been attempted to explain the formation factor, analyze the use nature of spaces and the period in which they have been applied using the a spatial archeological approach and archeological surveys after introducing the ritual hand-carved spaces. The current research has been conducted in order to answer this fundamental question: to how many types are the ritual-religious hand-carved spaces in Maragheh divided? Moreover, the purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the typology of the mentioned hand-carved spaces.
Methods: The present study has been conducted using a descriptive-analytical method and data collection has been performed using library methods and field visits from a large number of hand-carved spaces in different parts of the county of Maragheh.
The Significance and Necessity of Research: The rocky and cave nature of worship places and the study limitations of the ritual-religious hand-carved spaces in Iran have caused any religious hand-carved spaces to be associated with Mithraism; however, little evidence of Mithraism has been identified in these sacred spaces. Accordingly, by conducting studies on the ritual-religious hand-carved architecture in the county of Maragheh, it is possible to provide a comprehensive classification of this type of architecture and determine the general appearance and nature of their spaces in this region.
Research Question and Hypotheses: The current research has been conducted in order to answer this fundamental question: to how many types are the ritual-religious hand-carved spaces in the county of Maragheh divided? One of the hypotheses that can be proposed in the present study is that the ritual-religious spaces of Maragheh have been formed in two periods: the first period is related to the pre-Islamic period, which was influenced by the Urartian culture. The second period is related to the Islamic period. In the Islamic period, the greatest influence in shaping these spaces has been the influence of beliefs from eastern cultures, especially Buddhists and Christians.
Hand-carved architecture is a special type of architecture that has been created by humans in order to adapt themselves to their environment. In the extensive territory of Iran, due to climatic, ritual and cultural diversity, remnants of this type of architecture can be seen in its different regions. One of the important reasons for the tendency of human beings in different schools towards the rock architecture was the ritual and religious structure of the society, which required turning to rocks and mountains. In the meantime, the ritual-religious hand-carved spaces of the county of Maragheh have been a manifestation of the spiritual life and cultural knowledge of the residents of this region. These spaces have a special place in the whole beliefs of the residents of the region; this has made the decorative elements, architecture and special location of these spaces to be different from other rock works. Following what has been discussed in the text of the paper, the results of library and field studies of hand-carved spaces have demonstrated the influence of ritual and religious structures of Maragheh society in the formation of some of these spaces. Due to the special geographical location of Maragheh region throughout history, the region has witnessed different ethnic groups and special religious beliefs. According to this view, the ritual-religious spaces of the region in the pre-Islamic ages have been created in the form of hand-carved burial spaces (crypts); and in the Islamic period, these spaces have been mostly carved into rock contexts in the form of hand-carved worship temples.
In the mid-Islamic eras, especially during the Ilkhanid period, Maragheh was the center of various beliefs and this factor has formed the basis for the formation of ritual-religious spaces of Buddhist, Christian and Islamic followers. From this perspective, the county of Maragheh, especially on the banks of Sufi-Chay River, is one of the lively, active, and rich centers of tradition and ritual hand-carved heritage. Accordingly, most of the investigated worship spaces are concrete, objective and real manifestations of the cultural-religious continuity and spiritual life of the people of this region from the Ilkhanid period, and even today some of these places have retained their sacred and ritual status.
Hanie Hossein-Nia Amirkolaei, Seyed Rasool Mousavi Haji, Morteza Ataie, Doctor Abdolreza Mohajeri-Nejhd,
year 4, Issue 14 (2-2021)
The ancient site of Natel is located in the village of Natel Kenar-e Olia, a district of the city of Nour, which is 6 kilometers southwest of this city in the west of Mazandaran province. According to historical written sources, this city was considered as one of the important cities in Tabaristan during the Abbasid period and had a military garrison. Due to the importance of this historical site, in addition to archaeological surveys, three excavations have been carried out in this site so far in 2008, 2010, and 2016 under the supervision of Abdolreza Mohajerinejad. The present study focuses on some pottery findings of the first and second seasons of these excavations, during which 2166 pieces of glazed and non-glazed pottery were obtained among other findings. Chronology of the aforementioned samples and consequently more detailed and precise knowledge of the settlement periods, better and greater recognition of the pottery of this site, in particular, and pottery of the Islamic period in the southern margin of the Mazandaran Sea, in general, awareness of the similarity and differences of the pottery obtained from this site with the major pottery centers of the Islamic era required a thorough and in-depth study of these samples in the form of classification, typology, and a typological comparison that was carried out in this research. The results of this study show that most of the studied samples belong to the early (3 and 4 AH) and mid-Islamic (5 and 9 AH) centuries, while the samples of the Ilkhanid and Timurid period in this collection are much lower in number than those of the previous centuries. Also, the results of statistical studies on pottery of the historical town of Natel indicate that these pottery wares have relatively good production quality and strength, but they have a lower level in terms of manufacturing technique and diversity of motifs.
Keywords: Natel, Islamic Pottery, Classification, Typology, Typological Comparison.
The ancient site of Natel is located in the village of Natel Kenar-e Olia, a district of the city of Nour, which is 6 kilometers southwest of this city in the west of Mazandaran province. Given the importance of this site in the Islamic period of Iran, especially the southern margin of the Mazandaran Sea, the first scientific studies to identify and determine the location of this town were carried out by Abdolreza Mohajerinejad in 2006 during a season of a survey (Mohajerinejad et al., 2017: 247) and then these studies were continued under his supervision during three seasons of excavation in 2008, 2010, 2016 (Mohajerinejad, 2008; ibid, 2010; ibid, 2016). During the first and second seasons of the excavation, along with other findings, 2166 pieces of pottery were discovered which were provided to the authors for further investigations. Therefore, during the classification and typology stages, 235 indicative pottery types were selected and excluded from the collection. To advance the research, the authors selected and studied 50 pieces from among the indicative samples selected from among the collection based on the non-repetitive variable. Due to the diversity and multiplicity of the pottery types and for better identification of the pottery of this site in particular and the pottery of the southern coastal areas of the Mazandaran Sea in general, the similarity and differences of pottery obtained from this site with those of the major pottery centers of the Islamic era, and also to gain more accurate knowledge of the settlement periods of the site, it was necessary to study the pottery samples very carefully. Accordingly, the present study seeks to answer the research questions through recording, registering, classifying, typology, and typological comparison of these pottery collections (2149 fragments belonged to the first season and 67 fragments belonged to the second season). The most important questions this research seeks to answer through scientific and systematic studies are: 1: to which period or periods do the pottery samples discovered in the historic town of Natel belong? 2: how is the status of the pottery samples discovered from the historic town of Natel, in terms of production quality and decorations compared to the major pottery centers of Iran during the Islamic era? In answer to the first question, it should be noted that the pottery discovered from the first and second seasons of excavation in the Natel historical site belongs to a time period extending from the early Islamic centuries to the Timurid era. And the answer to the second question is as follows: the production quality of the Natel pottery as well as the decorative quality of Sgraffito pottery are similar to those of the major Iranian pottery centers, but other pottery samples obtained from Natel are in a lower level in terms of their decorative quality, especially in color painting.
A Summary of the Paper
Initially, the samples were classified according to two variables, i.e. their coating type and being simple or painted, which are divided into four groups: non-glazed simple pottery, non-glazed painted pottery, glazed simple pottery, and glazed painted pottery. Then, at the typology stage within the classification framework, each group of pottery was classified into several types and sub-types according to one or more variables. The investigations were carried out with great sensitivity and accuracy and finally, this resulted in the typology of the pottery in the form of 45 types and sub-types. Statistical studies on the ceramics of this collection indicated that the glazed simple pottery was the most frequent type among all the groups with a frequency of 46.53%. Overall, these ceramics have relatively good production quality and strength, but the glazed painted ceramics are at a lower level in terms of production technique and variety of motifs. The non-glazed painted pottery pieces in this collection have geometric motifs and the dominant motif type in this group is ripple motif in terms of motif design variable. At the typological comparison stage of classification which has been carried out according to the classification and typology of pottery collection, it was attempted to compare a large number of fragments with pottery found in Islamic sites. Therefore, in addition to reviewing various reports of excavations carried out in Islamic sites (generally, the northern sites of the country are considered), we have carefully studied the authentic sources of Islamic pottery prepared and organized by the efforts of foreign and domestic scholars and accordingly the pottery types, which were compared with similar example or examples, were dated and the comparisons are presented in the form of tables in the main text of the paper. From among the regions or sites whose ceramics are comparable to those of the Islamic period of Natel, Bamiyan, Nishabur, Jorjan, Poinak castle of Varamin, Imam Zadeh Ali Lafourak in Savadkouh, Sarqala of Lavasan, Sheikh Safieddin Ardebil’s tomb, Sistan, Golkhandan fortress, Kaseh al-Mout, Gaskar site of Gilan, Haft Daghnan of Gilan, northwest of Iran, Osbou Kola Lofer, and Jahan Nama site can be mentioned.
According to the contents of the present study as well as the classification, typology, and typological comparison of the pottery discovered from the historic town of Natel, it can be stated that there are a total of 45 different ceramic types and subtypes in this collection. The results of typological comparisons of the pottery of the Islamic period of Natel showed this collection had the highest rate of similarity and relationship with the pottery obtained from the sites of the Islamic period in the north of the country; this cultural and artistic similarity supports the existence of a wide cultural and connection network between Natel and its neighboring regions and indicates the production and expansion of formal and standard pottery types during different Islamic times that were produced in specific centers and exported to other regions. Their production techniques were imitated in local workshops with a lower quality. In general, the results of this study suggest that most of the studied samples belong to the early (3 and 4 AH) and mid-Islamic (5 and 9 AH) centuries. The results of the statistical studies on the pottery of Natel also indicate that these pottery findings have a relatively good production quality, but they are at a lower level in terms of production technique and diversity of motifs.
Mojtaba Safari, Rahmat Abbasnejad, Haasan Fazli Nesheli, Christopher Thornton, Judith Thomalsky,
year 5, Issue 17 (12-2021)
Heretofore, no comprehensive chronological study has been conducted on the northern side of the Central Alborz mountains, including the modern provinces of Mazandaran and Gorgan, based on technological and typological study of pre-historic pottery. This is especially true of the Bronze Age (ca. 3000-1500 BCE), for which we have no sites with an unbroken stratigraph-ic sequence that have been excavated and fully published. The majority of pottery, especially the gray wares, in this region have been discovered in the course of illicit investigations and their description, classification, and chronological analyses have been influenced by cultural history approaches. As a result, some Bronze Age pottery has been attributed to the Iron Age, or assigned to the wrong stage of the Bronze Age (i.e., early, middle, and late). The lack of scien-tifically-based ceramic classification and typology is an important archaeological issue in our understanding of the Bronze Age in this region. The authors of the present article here attempt a comparative chronology for this area based on typological studies and classification of ce-ramics discovered in explorations of the site of Ghal e-Ben of in Babol, Mazandaran. Bronze Age pottery discovered in this area can be compared to those discovered in Gohar Tepe, Tepe Ghale Kosh, Tepe Ghale Pey, Tepe Tarkam, and Tepe Abbasi in eastern Mazandaran, and those discovered in Shah Tepe, Tureng Tepe, and Narges Tepe in Gorgan as well as Tepe Hissar in Damghan. In spite of the fact that the results of comparative studies on Ghal e -Ben ceramics are indicative of cultural ties between central and eastern regions of Mazandaran, Gorgan Plain, and Damghan during the Bronze Age, discovery of few Yanik (Kura-Araxes) ceramics in this site leads to a new investigation on the possible relationship between this region and the origin of these ceramics (possibly in northwest of Iran) in the Third Millennium B.C.
Keywords: Mazandaran, Bronze Age, Gray Pottery, Relative Chronology, Typology.
In spite of the fact that the classification and typology of pre-historic ceramics of northeastern Iran began in the 1930s (e.g., Wulsin 1932; Schmidt 1937), some remarkable articles have been published in the recent years that contribute significantly to understanding chronology of the said areas (Olson 2020; Olson & Thornton 2019). Indeed, these studies have been particularly useful for understanding the relative chronology of Mazandaran Province. More recently, stratigraphic studies at Ghal e-Ben site have given us a more realistic understanding of cultural changes in this region during the Bronze Age. Ghal e-Ben site is located in the central part of Mazandaran Province, in Khoshrudpey southwest of Babol city in West Bandpey County. The altitude of the region is 66 meters above the seas level, and geographical coordinates are N: 36 23. 17/84 E: 52 34.12/55. The site is recorded under registration number 31367 in the list of National Historical Monuments. A stratigraphic sounding was done in 2018 to learn more about the chronological status of the site (Fazeli, 2018). Results of this stratigraphic sounding showed that the upper layers (upper two meters), consisting of artifacts from Islamic and historic eras, are unfortunately disturbed due to agricultural activities as well as unauthorized excavations is some parts of the hill. Below the depth of two meters there is a layer with a thickness of one meter containing fine silt natural-sediment deposit and abundant remains of small freshwater snails. No cultural materials were found in this layer. This layer possibly suggests the remains of the old meander river flow channel, which eventually turned into an oxbow lake marsh or pond, resulting in a cultural gap at the site. The gap could be the period between end of the Bronze Age or beginning of the Iron Age and re-establishment of the site during the Historic Era. At a depth of 3 to 10 meters from surface, the archaeological site of Ghal e-Ben contains undisturbed Bronze Age deposits. The Carbon-14 test results on 36 samples discovered from these layers show that Ghal e-Ben was inhabited from 3300 to 1500 BCE.
Typological and Chronological Investigations Based on the Ceramics of Ghal e-Ben Site in spite of the fact that typological and chronological investigations based on pottery data are quite common in most archaeological studies across Iran, the prehistoric era of Mazandaran province has a very small share of such studies. Indeed, no established typology has been proposed for ceramics of this region. On the other hand, although the archaeological excavations in Mazandaran Province contain more comprehensive information about the Bronze Age, compared to the other historic eras, no accurate chronology had been presented for the excavated sites of this era before excavations at Ghal e-Ben. However, excavation of Ghal e-Ben provided the authors of this article with the chance to investigate and prepare a preliminary typology of Bronze Age ceramics in Mazandaran region using the absolute chronological sequence of this site.
The typology of Ghal e-Ben ceramics was based on four main indicators including: production technique, ornamentation, form of the rim, and form of the body. This study led to reproduction of ceramics and comparing them to those discovered in other sites across Mazandaran Province and the Gorgan Plain.
The present article is the first comparative study of the Bronze Age in Mazandaran Province based on the information acquired from stratigraphic excavation of Ghal e-Ben archaeological site. It presents a relative chronology of the Bronze Age in Mazandaran Province based on the ceramics from excavated, C14-dated contexts. The results show that gray ware ceramics were decorated with diverse ornamentation, from polished and burnished patterns to carved patterns, which can be compared in terms of form and pattern to the ceramics found in the type-sites of northeastern Iran including Hissar IIB-IIIC, Shah Tepe IIA-B, Tureng Tepe IIA- IIIC, and Narges Tepe III as well as at major Bronze Age sites of Mazandaran including Gohar Tepe, Taghut Tepe in Behshahr, Tepe Kelar in Kelardasht, Tepe Ghale Kosh in Amol, Ghale Pey and Tepe Turkam in Sari, Gomishan Cave, and Tepe Abbasi in Neka. It is also interesting to note that material remains of Transcaucasian culture (Kura-Araxes) from the third millennium BCE (ca. 2500-2400 BCE) are observed in Mazandaran and the Gorgan Plain, which indicates cultural ties between these regions and the northwest of Iran during the Bronze Age. A number of ceramics were found in the Early Bronze Age layers at Ghal e-Ben archaeological site that compare to Kura-Araxes ceramics discovered at Tepe Kelar in terms of production technique, color, fineness, and patterns. To what extent these foreign ceramics found together with local types can be indicative of the influence of Transcaucasian cultures must be the subject of further studies, and horizontal explorations can help in this regard. However, it is clear that the comparative study of ceramics discovered in Ghal e-Ben and other Bronze Age sites of Mazandaran suggests cultural ties between this region and both the northwest and northeast of Iran.
Ghal e-Ben archaeological site in Babol was inhabited during the late fourth millennium BCE and was abandoned gradually around 1500-1400 BCE. Such abandonment events have been observed in most other archaeological sites in the north and northeast of Iran, and we do not know exactly how to connect the Iron Age in Mazandaran to the Bronze Age, as the Iron Age emerged in northern Iran around 1100 BCE. These are the questions that will be hopefully answered by future studies on cultural sequence of Mazandaran during the second and first millennia.