Stucco art in Islamic period, in terms of technique and decorative motifs, pattern is taken from decorative art of Sassanids period. Motifs of stuccoes Sassanids period with inspiration from nature, does communicate (communication doesn’t exactly, but close to it), and can be easily identified similar samples it. This shows that unrealistic patterns less used in these motifs, and artist has shown less tendency to this direction. But these elements under the influence Islamic wisdom, have changed their form and meaning. One of the important findings and indicator in Aveh site were decorations stucc, that during the excavation in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman, obtained in the third chapter excavations this historic site in 2009. According to the date mentioned on one of the luster tiles found from this building (684 A.H.), this decoration is belongs to Ilkhanids period. The authors seeking to prove such dating, have done shape and technique used in this motifs and compare them to other historic sites stucco decorations from Ilkhanids period. This research has done to study this question related with Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building that, basically, this building based on stucco decorations, related with which period? And, stuccoes related to which style? In this regard, the present study seeks to prove these assumptions in execution of decoration motifs of stuccoes this building, has been used two styles stucco decorations with high bulge and decoration motifs caved. The decoration motifs are contains foliate, geometric, and inscribed. These motifs and their styles have been modeled from Ilkhanids styles. The method of doing this research is descriptive – analytical – comparative. Data in this study are taken from Library resources and field work. Field works in this study are contains extensive excavations in Aveh plain and in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman. Furthermore, cultural material obtained from excavation, have been drawn.
Keywords: Ilkhanids, Stucco decorations, Decorative motifs, Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman of Aveh.
The decoration of buildings Islamic period of Iran, usually have been used from brick, plaster, and tile. From of stucco, from early Islamic period to Timurids period as there has been template element in the decoration, and it has been most used in prayer niches and inscriptions of buildings (Pope, 1987: 166). Stucco at first has been more used for cover the rugged surfaces and decorate them; but, in the fifth century A.H., stucco has been transformed from a simple decorative mode to unique coating of decorative. Traditionally, stucco art has been among of decorative art dependent on architectural of Iran, that after from flourishing in the Sassanid period in middle centuries of Islamic and in Ilkhanids period has reached the peak of flourishing. In fact, Ilkhanid period is golden age of stucco in Islamic period Iran. This art in Ilkhanid period in vast areas as a decorative element in architecture of this period has used. From this period are remained traces very beautiful and unique. 24 km from Saveh County to Salafchegan is separate road to Qom; this is road of Jafarabad – Qom. The village of Aveh is located about a 6 km from this road. (Hashemi, 2007: 125). Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman in Aveh plain, based on obtained indications from field works of authors (discover the luster tile in this building with date 684 A.H.), is one of the architecture monuments in Ilkhanid period with decorations of tile-making and stucco. Stucco decorations this building, although a small number is obtained, but they are represents the pinnacle of stucco art Ilkhanid in middle centuries of Islamic. The main purpose of authors in this study, in first place, have been presented available sample from stucco art Ilkhanids from Aveh area; In second place, have been analysis of their decorative motifs (technique), and type of motifs used (foliate, geometric, and inscription), and comparison them with other similar samples in other historical places.
Stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman Aveh
After reviews on these stuccoes, their technique was studied in two groups: stucco decorations with high bulge, and decoration motifs caved. Techniques of shaping stucco decorations are with high bulge to form of in situ, mold, or combined from both techniques. In technique decoration motifs caved, has used from both techniques in situ, and mold. Furthermore, decoration motifs of stuccoes this building has been studied in tree group foliate, geometric, and inscribed. The foliate motifs of stuccoes is to form of arabesque and cinquefoil motifs (high and stretched), and Rosette flower. The most of foliate samples obtained in decorations of stuccoes Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman Aveh, are from of type of foliate motifs six and eight of fimbria, flowers and leaves (several of fimbria) with buds, and arabesque motifs.The geometric motifs used in stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are most to form of the honeycomb motifs.
In stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building has been seen inscribed. Unfortunately, inscriptions used in decorations this building, aren’t in good position for recognize the type of script and decorative style. Authors have been results based on speculation and also based on lines used in decoration of tiles luster painted this building (that from of types of Sols and Naskh script).
As was mentioned, decorative motifs of stuccoes in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are divided to foliate, geometric, and inscribed, and they have been created to two styles: stucco decorations with high bulge, and decoration motifs caved. With comparison decorative motifs this building with decorations other traces in Ilkhanids period Iran, could be seen significantly specifications of decorative style of Ilkhanids in this building. So, decoration motifs Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are related to Ilkhanids period. Therefore, date mentioned on the tiles this building and decoration motifs of stuccoes have been contemporaneous. On the other hand, comparison of shaping stuccoes Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman with contemporaneous buildings, power of architects Islamic in Ilkhanids period is show.