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Showing 3 results for Settlement Pattern

Nasrin Tayefeh Ghahremani, Farzad Mafi, Araz Najafi,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
The present paper is about the result of two seasons of archaeological exploration in the southwest of Kaleibar Township in the Arasbaran Area of the East Azerbaijan Province. The first season of archaeological exploration was conducted in 2014 and the second season was conducted in 2016. The purpose of the first season of exploration was salvage exploration to identify ancient sites in the area within the Peiqam- Chay Dam. Regarding the Tumulus that were discovered in the area of this dam, and considering their incomparability in the northwest of Iran, the second season of the exploration was carried out and in 2016, the area was re-examined. In this survey, the role of geographical factors such as altitude, distance and proximity to the river and the springs, the percentage of slope and access to pastures in the creation of ancient rural settlements were analyzed. concerning the distance and proximity to the river, it was found out that almost 95% of the ancient settlements were located 500 meters or less far from the rivers and most of them were located at altitudes of 1400 to 1500 meters, considered a suitable altitude for residence. In terms of slope, the settlements were created at a slope of less than 10%. With the Geo-Reference of the map, the nowadays nomadic roads were estimated on the map of the study area, which the sites identified on that, the human has used the path to migrate three thousand years ago, as today’s tribes also traverse. Therefore, it can be proven that the migration pattern has continued here for three thousand years, and the chosen human model has been a nomadic or semi-permanent life style. 
Keywords: Kaleibar, The Analysis of Settlement Patterns, Spatial Distribution, Peiqamchay River.

Introduction
In archeology, reconstructing the natural environment is trivial in order to understand how ancient settlements taking advantage of geography science, since the influence of human and environment throughout the life of the planet has been unequivocal.
In this study, the factors affecting the formation and distribution of human settlements and the spatial distribution were considered. A total of 72 ancient sites were identified in two seasons with two types of settlement patterns, permanent settlement and pastoral nomadic settlements. The method of exploration in this study was pedestrian survey and stepwise scrolling. The whole study area of 306 square kilometers was surveyed and scrolled. The relationship between the identified sites with the river and its distance, height from the sea level, the proper slope of the land for settlement and its overall environmental status were carefully analyzed. 
The exploration was carried out based on maps of 1.25000, site visits and surface sampling. Finally, the findings were analyzed in the Global Mapper program. The study area was morphologically taken intoconsideration from the past, by the livestock communities due to its high mountains, deep valleys and mid-mountain plains and its placement in the nomadic tract. Because of its proximity to the valley of the Aras River, the small Caucasus Mountains (South) and the Qara Baq of Azerbaijan, as well as the Kaleibar Chay River, and suitable annual rainfall, it has a humid climate, the existence of the Arasbaran forests was its most important feature. All of these factors have made the climate suitable for a settlement of at least 3,000 years ago for the communities in which it resides. 

Field Work
The method of this study was field survey and almost all the study area was surveyed. the majority of the sited restricted into the historic Kurgans and sites of the first millennium BC which were obtained in the southern regions. The study of sea level elevation indicated that almost all of ancient settlements were formed at altitudes of 1400 and 1500 meters above sea level. Slope percentages showed 5 Kurgans (first millennium BC) less than 5% slope, 18 slope effects between 5 to 10% slope, 20 slope effects between 10 to 20% slope effect, and slope between 20 and 30 slope effects. And 1 effect on the slope between 40 and 50%. There is a direct correlation between the river and the number of sites. As we move away from the riverbank, the number of yards’ decreases, and the closer we get to the river, the greater the number of yards. But in the southwestern part of the region the volume of sediments is higher and probably part of the buried archeological findings. The item of Resilient lands indicates that the topography of the river bank in the southern part due to the mahogany collision was not necessary for settlement.
The adaptation of the modern nomadic tribes showed with the map of the identified ancient sites. The route of the ancient nomadic nomads is somewhat in line with the present-day route, and of course there is some change in direction.

Conclusion
In general, this paper seeks to examine the role of environmental factors on shaping the human ecological spaces of the first millennium in the city of Kaleibar, and finally, the ecological factors have been survived three thousand years ago in the life of the modern nomad tribed, are being analyzed.
Referring to the types of landscape, it should be noted that those areas which are located closest to the Peiqamchay River and its main valley, due to their location on agricultural land, are within the average height of 1500 m. suitable climate, proximity to the river, easy access to exchange routes, the richness of alluvial soils, forest cover and the rich rangelands of its peripheral parts make it possible to establish permanent habitats. The best example of these areas is in the southern half of the Peiqamchay Valley. The type of landscapes in the northern part of the city can be very difficult to identify, but given the high altitude of this part of the city and its cool climate for half a year, the existence of mounds, river avoidance and proximity to many springs, the rich rangelands, along with the slight scattering and excessive corrosion of the pottery, may be attributed to the settlers in this area. The relative results in both the north and south sections of the study area of the valley indicate the dominance of the nomadic or semi-permanent settlement patterns.

Zahra Rajabioun, Ali Behnia, Amir Saed Muchashi,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
The city of Ghorveh is located in the south east of Kurdistan province and in the east of central Zagros. This city is a part of the Qezal Owzan River Basin. This region has an archaic history from prehistoric periods to the Islamic ones due to favorable geographical conditions. According to the surveys, in the Ghorveh City, 35 sites dating to the Parthian period have been identified. This paper studies the Settlement Pattern of Parthian sites and their relationship to the geographical environment. The settlement pattern initially divided into four clusters based on the area of the premises and then five factors were considered based on the maps drawn from the GIS. These factors include: Altitude from sea level, The distance from the river, The slope, steep direction and Land use. In addition, taking advantage of Spss software, the settlement clusters have been statistically studied and their correlation and relevance using factors were discussed. Based on the results, there is a significant relationship between clusters and some factors. In general, most of the sites are located in clusters one and two that are less than two hectares. In terms of settlement pattern, some of these sites were temporary settlements that were grazing and a number of others are not known exactly, but probably there were fixed settlements that were small villages of agriculture and livestock. But clusters three and four were all permanent settlements that were engaged in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. In general, two types of temporary and permanent settlement patterns observed in the Parthian period in the city Qorveh.     
Keywords: Ghorveh, Parthian, Settlement Patterns, GIS Software, SPSS.

Introduction
The Parthian dynasty is one of the most important Iranian historical kingdom who entered the arena in extremely difficult political and social conditions and revived some of the ancient Iranian features (Mohammadi, 2010: 4). This dynasty ruled Iran for nearly five centuries from 248 BC to 224 AD (Mohammadi, 1391: 13) they were able to establish cities and government centers (Kiani, 1374: 240). And their territory expands from the eastern parts of Iran to the Tigris and Euphrates. During this period, in addition to Sedentary and urban settlements, there are nomadic settlements. Examples of this type of nomadic settlement during this period can be found in the Central Zagros (Niknami & Mohammadi, 1394; Mohamadifar & Niknami, 2013; Niknami et al., 2013).
In Qorveh city 35 sites have been identified related to Parthian period (Behnia, 2008). Most sites of this city are small settlements (Mafi et al., 2009. 85). Parthian pottery is simple, glazed, imprinted, and clinched in Qorveh. But the most prominent Parthian pottery is in western Iran as well as in the Qorveh city of Klineik pottery. The pottery has been scattered from Kermanshah to the northern parts of Zanjan in terms of its geographical extension. Also from Chamchamal plain (Mohammadifar, 2007). Kangavar Plain (Young, 1975) and in historic sites of Bistoon, Jogar Malayer Tape, Noshijan, Ray, Shush, West Islamabad and Boroujerd have also been reported (Hernik, 1997: 117). 
In this area, there have been Sedentary and nomadic settlements since the pre-historic time. It is necessary to study the continuity of these settlements in historical periods. It is necessary to study the continuity of these settlements and types of Sedentary and nomadic settlements in historical periods. This research is based on data obtained from the field survey. In this research is used a descriptive-analytical method, and for accurate analysis of Parthian period settlement pattern in Qorveh city has been used the Gis software and Spss statistical software. Based on the available data, 6 factors are considered. Including: 1. Altitude above sea level 2. Distance from river 3. Distance from road 4. Slope 5. Slope direction 6. Land use. To analyze the settlement patterns, it is divided into four clusters based on size of the sites. Then, to analyze these clusters using factors and according to data type and purpose of research were used one-dimensional, regression and R-pearson tests of Spss software.

Identified Traces
In order to analyze the settlement patterns, the sites are divided into four clusters based on by size. According to the type of data which are nominal and scaled and the purpose of the research were used One-Dimensional, Regression and Rpirson tests of the Spss software. This analysis consists of two descriptive and inferential stages.  
The cluster one is the largest in the series. sites of this cluster are less than 1 hectare. According to the data, %57/1 of the sites belongs into this cluster. Cluster two consists of sites between 1 and 2 hectares. The third cluster is sites ranging from 2 to 3 hectares and the fourth cluster consist of sites of more than 5 hectares.
The size of the sites was considered as an independent variable and the six factors mentioned as dependent variable. According to the results of multivariate regression test, there is a significant relationship between the size of the sites factor with other factors. This relationship was strongly inverse between The size of the sites and the distance from the river was Relatively Severe Reverse.  Briefly, Larger sites are closer to the river and as the sites are smaller, they appear farther from the river. But there is no relationship between the size of the sites with the factors of altitude and slope. In addition, to understand the test results, the Cluster diagrams need to be studied. By studying the cluster diagram it can be seen that clusters one and two are in all factor categories. For this reason, there is no correlation between all factors. 

Conclusion
Based on the results of the analysis on four clusters. Cluster One is the largest cluster, There are two types of settlements. The first type of settlements is far from the river so they are located at higher altitudes. The second type located on the lower elevations and slopes near to the river. In the second cluster, the settlements are closer to the river. these sites are located at higher altitudes and different slopes. In the third cluster, the sites are closer to the river. These sites are located at low slope and low altitude. The fourth cluster settlements approach the water source. But in terms of slope and altitude are at different altitudes. In clusters one and two, there is Sedentary and nomadic settlement, But clusters three and four are Sedentary settlement that constituted a small percentage.
In general, the settlements of Qorveh city in Parthian period are in two forms: Sedentary and nomadic. Sedentary settlements have agricultural and Husbandry economies due to their geographical Charactristics, But seasonal settlements used to grazing. In fact, most of the sites include seasonal settlements. This type of settlement in this region have been prehistoric times of chalcolithic and Bronze Ages (Kura-Araxes) and in this period we also see the continuation of this type of settlements.


Khosrow Ahmadi-Khoei, Morteza Hessari, Alireza Khosrowzadeh,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
In The studying of the settlement layout of an area, the environment and its contexts landscape is considered. most attention is toward to natural Geography and humans relations to locations and living in geographical region. The archaeological and geographical data, is used to analysis of settlement patterns of Bacun communities in the high Zagros. So, the main research questions is to: What factors impacted on the Location Patterns of the High zagros′s Bacun Sites? How is impacts of this Factors on the site numbers? There For, By considering of applicable nature of the subjects and the research mettods. The authors by plaing of theoretical  fram includs of theoretical basis and site visit, will be to study of survey and Excavation evidences. In total the bacon site numbers are 106 in this region. The main factors such as ASL-(altitude of sea level). Site distance to roads and waters water sources, accessibility to agriculture lands vegetation Types, Slope and its directions is considered as independent, and, Bacun site areas as Dependent variable. the relationship of variables are 1 to -1 in the correlation coefficient. the high correlation is showed by closeness to +1, and lowe correlation indicated by closeness to. If the correlation is -1, so the result is convers. The results shows that the variables such as site distance to roads, water supply and land use taype is more important than other variables in the formation of Bacun Sites. 
Keywords: Settlement Pattern, Bacun Period, High Zagros Region, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari.

Introduction
Always, the choice of settlementlocations depend to a large extent on environmental characteristics. In studying the arrangement of settlements in an area, the role of the environment and its contexts in a geographical landscape is important (Rostaei, 2010: 8). In this regard, one of the main goals of archaeological activities is to study how the interaction between human societies and environmental diversity, which ultimately led to habitation and location. Important environmental variables affect the location, distribution, sphere of influence, physical development and appearance of human settlements- (Dark, 1995: 134). Therefore, in spatial analysis, since “Landscape” represents the area of human interaction with the environment, the relationship between location and environmental characteristics is considered¬(Clarke, 1976: 119). In fact, by understanding the geographical space, the capacities and potentials present in the area have influenced the new type of settlement (migration, sedentism, or a combination of both). The high Zagros region, which overlaps the current political borders of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, is a defined area that we live in because of our habitat. The High Zagros, in fact, includes the highest part of the Zagros Mountains, and for this reason, it is called “High Zagros”(Darvishzadeh, 1991:175). This region is mountainous and about 76% of it is made up of mountains and hills; While only 24% of it consists of alluvial plains and valleys (Heidari et al, 2014:4). Leading research on this area, which has long been considered as a suitable place for nomadic communities, farmers and pastorals have always been considered by human communities:
The Main Questions Are: What factors impacted on the Location Patterns of the High zagros′s Bacun Sites? How is impacts of this Factors on the site numbers?
Research Method: In this regard, according to the practical nature of the subject and the studied components of the research method, after the theoretical design of the subject, which included reviewing the theoretical foundations and selecting and visiting the sites, to study the documents obtained from the studies and explore archaeological excavations were carried out.

Archaeological Evidence of Bacun Culture in the High Zagros
Due to the fact that most of the archeological activities in the high Zagros region have been focused on the survey; as a result, most of the data and documents are related to potteries. A total of 420 potterysherdsrelated to the Bacun period were identified and studied. Buffswares tempered by sand and fine sand are common, both wheelmade and handmade. This pottery is often in the form of a bowl with a circular bottom and has embellished ornaments with a compositional pattern in the form of wide stripes, circles patterned with dots around it, rounded lines, square textures, and ornaments. Intersecting with the lattice pattern and motif of the sun disk, they are black in color. These include one to three horizontal sections, half or a large section of the container.

Relation and Distribution of Sites to Environmental Variables
The study area has an undeniable role due to its special strategic location in the path of the well-known cultures of central and southern Zagros and their connection with both their position and role. These factors, along with the perspective of the region, play an effective role in creating the tissues of establishment in any period of time. On this basis, human societies have developed adaptive strategies in the habitat of various ecosystems. It is clear that the climate of the area under study is cold and humid with a variety of calcareous and shallow soils that are not so suitable for agriculture. These environmental and biological conditions prevailing in the region have led to the formation of a nomadic livelihood based on traditional livestock and agriculture. Unlike farmers, settlers whose location depends on livestock are not dependent on specific locations or environmental factors. They set up their own camps in places that, in addition to their own safety and that of livestock (against the sedents and predatory animals), had enough pastures for grazing. This new way of life has long been practiced in the highlands, and the area has been used seasonally by nomads. One of the most important shreds of evidence for proving this issue is the low correlation between environmental factors and areas, which indicates that the areas under consideration should be taken into light of the consideration. In the evaluation and study of settlements, altitude, distance, or proximity of sites to communication routes and water resources, the possibility of access to arable land, type of vegetation, slope, and slope direction are considered as independent variables, and the area of Bacun region as the dependent variables. Examining this number of sites, it was concluded that the altitude of 2000 to 2500 meters above sea level has been one of the most suitable elevations for the settlements of the Bacun Zagros; Because these heights have more fertile pastures than areas with lower altitudes at which, there is more evidence of migration in the area. It is clear that slopes less than 15 degrees are suitable for agricultural activities, and lands that have a high slope are in the form of pastures that are not usable for agriculture. This factor indicates that most of the ancient sites, which are located on higher slopes and have a relatively steep slope, did not matter to their inhabitants. This factor, along with the large distribution of cultural findings over a large area, indicates the temporary and seasonal use of these places, which can be related to nomadic communities. In addition, the slope direction factor indicates that no specific direction has been used. It seems that the use of different slope directions indicates temporary residences that have been used for nomads in the summer and the proper slope for their settlement has not been very important. The water and road factor indicates that most areas are close to water sources and roads. The study of land-use variables also shows that lands with poorer vegetation are smaller areas and vice versa. Even today, the distribution of villages is directly related to the type of uses. However, based on a superficial review, it is not possible to comment definitively in this regard, and more evidence is needed. However, it is understood that human beings in this region have long been dependent on places that can, in addition to suitable pasture, also provide the possibility of hunting or gathering food. 

Conclusion
High Zagros in different prehistoric and historic periods due to its strategic positioning and being located in the route of known cultures in central and southern Bacun, and the role of their relationship together,  enjoys an undeniable role and situation. These factors, together with the perspective of the region, play an effective role in creating the tissues of establishment in any period of time. On this basis, human societies have adaptive strategies in various bios. It is clear that the climate of the study area is cold and humid with a variety of calcareous and shallow soils that are not desirable for agriculture. These environmental and biological conditions throughout the region have led to the formation of a nomadic lifestyle based on a limited version of traditional livestock and agriculture. Unlike farmers, nomads, whose location depends on livestock, are not dependent on specific locations or environmental factors. They set up their own camps in places that, in addition to their own safety and that of livestock (against the sedents and predatory animals), had enough pastures for grazing. This type of lifestyle had existed from Bacun period in High Zagros and has been used by nomads in a seasonal manner. Among the most important documents to prove this, is the low correlation between environmental factors and landscaping that indicates that the areas under study have been used for short-term deployment. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the distribution of settlements in the study area in Bacun period, there is a relatively positive correlation between water sources, roads, and the function of the lands but this correlation is mediocre while in regression studies, other factors such as slope and distance to communication paths were also effective with low and medium effect. It is noteworthy that the intensity of the influence of these factors in relation to the Bacun periods of the high Zagros area using multiple linear regression analyzes is equal to 0.336. This number also strongly expresses the correlation between the set of environmental factors and the area of the sites. The results of the correlation and regression coefficients indicate that the distribution of the studied habitats is regulated in relation to the capabilities and constraints of the ecosystem, but its effects are limited.


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فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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