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Showing 4 results for Seal

Khalilollah Beik Mohammadi,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
There are important events in Ebraham’s life in Babylon - Mesopotamia so, his name was familiar to Babylonians. Babylon is one of the civilizations and cities in Southern Mesopotamia the people of Babylon did not know the alone and grand God and worship stony idols. Abraham defeated idols with his presence in this city. For this reason, to Nimrod command throw up him to the mountain of fire. Fire became to “Golestan” for him. He was a pure Muslim except the grand creator he did not prostration anything else. The prophet who was tested many times and proudly came out of it. One of Abraham’s experiments is to kill his son Ismail. After this test, he reached a high ranking and set on the head the crown of Khalilullah. The events of his life are detailed in the holy Quran. The effect of registered stamps, including visual and writing resources, is one of the ways gets acquainted with ancient times and their social transformations. We can by examining the effect of their stamp become familiar with the social life of prehistoric people and all kinds of activities, customs, beliefs traditions and characteristics of their lives. One of the most important findings of the ancient archaeological excavation is “seal impression”. The engraved role on this pieces depicts the story of cutting of a personal head that is comparable to the slaughter of Islam. The main question of this research is, what is the meaningful relationship between the historical event of the slaughter Ismail and the seal impression of Babylon? Considering a semantic relationship in the content of both stories, this article this is the historical event of the most important parts of the Holy Quran and the religious and mystical literary source. The relationship between two events should be presented with one of the most important finding of the picture of Babylon (including the seal impression on the altar scene similar to the slaughter of Ismail).
Keywords: Seal Effect, Babylon, Hazrat Ismail, Slaughter, Hazrat Ebraham.  

Introduction
The commentators on the Quran interpret the verses related to the life of Hazrat Ebraham has descripted the various parts of his life. The Holy Quran has consistently inspired a great deal of spirituality in the hearts of Muslim mystics, so many Quranic patterns have been reflected in our mystical literature. The clay tablets left over from flat and cylindrical seals, including visual and written sources, have narrated the social and cultural developments of various historical eras from the fourth millennium BC to the late Sassanids period. The main question of this research is, what is the meaningful relationship between the historical event of the slaughter Ismail and the seal impression of Babylon? Considering a semantic relationship in the content of both stories, this article this is the historical event of the most important parts of the Holy Quran and the religious and mystical literary source. The relationship between two events should be presented with one of the most important finding of the picture of Babylon (including the seal impression on the altar scene similar to the slaughter of Ismail).

The Seal Impression Under Study
One of these seal effects has obtained from Babylon in Mesopotamia. This stamp by Jeanne Diemer Nijhowne has been studied in his Ph.D. thesis with title: “The study of symbols of political, religion, and the seal of Mesopotamian cylinders in the second millennium BC”. On the clay tab of this seal impression we are see the stamped role of 6 human figures and a scene this is comparable to the historical fact of the slaughter of Hazrat Ismail. This role do not exactly correspond to the historical fact quoted in the Quran, and only the contents of the stories are comparable to each other.

Conclusion
We start the result with “Roger bayside’s” sentence: for a long time, we have found that the art of a simple interval personal is not fruitless but affects the collective life of humans and can transform the fate of human societies. In order to better understand, the nature of thoughts and beliefs and the social status of human societies one can receive through their study of art. Religious designs in different cultures have a status beyond the apparent beauty. Although the beauty and beauty of art work is an important feature of art, but these roles have higher values. Each role is not just beauty color, and shape it also has a meaning the appearance of many roles in different motifs at the start of seeing is an invisible and in word maiming study and research in various aspects of art will deserve the recognition of many of the signs and roles of various arts. Otherwise, you cannot get enough interest from the art work unfortunately, the study of this image of religious and ritual art (various parts, such as the historical event of slaughter Ismail) is located less discussed in comparison with historical dimension. This issue, addressed in this writing, is primarily aimed at introducing a historical event from past documentation in the context of history that in the Quran and historical sources are mentioned. And attempted to drow on the two - sided (decorative and semantic) relationship of an effect (painted muddy bred discovery from Babylon- Iraq) artistic found to this paid historic event that has been neglected in Persiam source. And in no way intends to make a new claim to the events events that occurred in this historical event. The Babylonian muddy bred repeat the impact of the historical event has been one the beliefs of the people of Babylon in their period. In any event the end result is this with all the probabilities and doubts in the story of Babylonian muddy bred only the themed of both stories can have a meaningful relationship with each other.

Nasir Eskandari,
year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
The western Lut desert is well-known in the archaeology of Southwest Asia because of the existence of an early urban center (Shahdad) that dates back to the 3rd millennium BC. The site of Shahdad, as one of the major urban centers of the Bronze Age of Southeastern Iran, plays an important role in the Near Eastern archaeological studies. After half a century of Shahdad excavations, it is time to have a new look at Shahdad and its objects in light of our present knowledge from the archeology of southeast Iran. Here is an assessment of Shahdad data obtained from Shahdad excavations such as seals, metal and clay objects. In another article, we discussed the rest of finds of Shahdad. In this study we tried to present a revised chronology for Shahdad. This article also provides information on the status of the regional and trans-regional cultural interactions of Shahdad.
Keywords: Shahdad, Chronology, Metal Objects, Seals, Cultural Interactions.

Introduction
The site of Shahdad is located at the base of an alluvial fan where it was in antiquity surrounded by the Shahdad River and a number of streams flowing east from their origin in the western mountains. In 1968, during a general geographical reconnaissance of the Lut depression, the Early Bronze Age site of Shahdad was identified. Excavations lead by Ali Hakemi of the Archaeological Service of Iran began in the following year and continued until 1978. The work concentered on a necropolis in which 383 graves were cleared including many with spectacular grave goods, including impressive human statuettes, elaborate metal objects such as a bronze standard, numerous stone and ceramic containers and ornamental finds. Hakemi also did some excavations in the east of the site, Operation D, which he identified as an industrial area of the urban center of Shahdad. Overall, excavations in necropolis and industrial area provided evidence for local craft activities and cross-regional contact. This article reevaluates the results of Shahdad excavations conducted by Hakemi.

Chronology, Seals, Metal and Clay Objects
The comparative study of the metal artifacts of Shahdad with those of the sites of Southwestern Asia revealed some results. First, the interactions of Shahdad with long-distance areas such as Indus valley, Central Asia, East, West and southwest of Iran were identified, then the evidence of the existence of a very homogenous style in metal objects in a wide geographical area was revealed and third, Shahdad was a metal production center with its own characteristics. Due to the comparative chronology, Shahdad metal artifacts date back from the mid third millennium BC to the early second millennium BC.
According to the comparative studies, Shahdad seals share some similarities and characteristic with those of Early Bronze Age sites such as Shahr-e Sokhta, Jiroft, Tepe Yahya and the remote areas such as Central Asia and the Indo-Iranian borderlands. It was also revealed that most of Shahdad seals are not comparable with those found from other regions and they had their own local characteristics. One-cylinder seal was also uncovered from workshop D that is not yet published. Due to erosion, its motif is not very clear. It seems to represent a winged goddess.
Two unique artifacts were found from Shahdad; one human statues and one house models. In total, 24 human clay statues were discovered from Shahdad cemetery which had ritual functions. The clay house models were uncovered from 33 graves of the cemetery of Shahdad. They are cubical and 20-30 centimeters long. Some researchers take them as a 3D example of house motifs on chlorite vessels. Hakemi called them shrines.
The comparative analysis of the funerary goods reveals that the cemetery A of Shahdad dates to the mid third millennium BC and lasts until the late third millennium BC (2500-2000). This dating is based on the comparative studies on pottery, chlorite and marble vessels, bronze objects and seals of Shahdad with the contemporaneous areas of southeastern Iran and neighboring regions such as Shahr-i Sokhta, Jiroft, Bampur, Tepe Yahya, Mundigak, Umm-al Nar, Susa and the sites of the central Asia. Also, the dating of the second half of the third millennium BC was proposed for the artisans ‘area (area D), the residential areas excavated by Kaboli and, in general, the entire area of the city of Shahdad. In other words, the flourishing period of this city is the second half of the third millennium BC. Furthermore, the early 2nd millennium BC was proposed for the culture after the collapse of the urbanization of Shahdad (cemeteries B and C).

Conclusion
The revision of Shahdad data yielded some new information. Shahdad had been inhabited for a long period from the middle third millennium BC to the early second millennium BC and it was flourished during the second half of the third millennium BC. By studying cultural materials found from Shahdad area, one can find cultural interactions of Shahdad with other regions. The impact of Shahdad on Central Asia through the Bronze and chlorite materials can be easily observed. Despite all the cultural interactions with all these regions, the local and regional cultural traditions dominated in Shahdad and it has all the characteristics of a city with local cultural character in 3rd millennium BC. In general, the similarity and harmony between the cultural materials of Shahdad and different parts of the Southwest Asia, from Mesopotamia and Southwest Iran to Central Asia, the Indus valley and the south of the Persian Gulf indicate the existence of a cultural interaction sphere in the west of Asia during the early and middle Bronze Age.

Mosayeb Amiri,
year 3, Issue 8 (9-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
The most important way of understanding human being in the past is to study their relics and among the works that have made a significant contribution to identifying culture and civilization and many other issues of ancient Iran, the motif are seals. Studies of this kind of data have been the focus of archeologists and historians for many years and many articles and books have been published on this endless subject. Because the seal and sealing in answering some questions, the correct orientation of a number of questions and new questions about social, economic and people perceptions of the past have been raised. In some motives the artist describes his/her world and this kind of description is actually the optimal use of symbols. In the Persepolis museum, there is a black seal that differ substantially from other Achaemenid seals. This bilateral seal is a lesser-known role in the art of molding and is unique in Achaemenid molding. This seal is first published and revised based on various criteria such as art style and symbol interpretation. The main purpose of this article is to document and introduce the symbols of this seal; the author will also answer a few questions about this seal by using descriptive-analytic methods and by using authentic library resources after fully describing this seal. First, what are some of the concepts used on the engraving on the seal? How these symbols originated and whether these forms were the result of Achaemenid thought or a legacy of a very ancient culture?
Keywords: Seal, Achaemenid, Persepolis, Symbol.

Introduction
On the occasion of the plan of organizing the repositories of the Persepolis museum in the summer of 2015, I had a black seal on a meeting in august of that year. This seal had differences A double-sided stamp seal that is unique in the Achaemenid period. On the other hand, the seals have a special place among the represent the customs, habit and believes of a people and also showcase history, religion, philosophy and art alongside administrative. Social management for centuries, these motives are rooted in ancient Iranian civilization and sometimes influenced by neighboring nations. This portable data has also spread art and culture to other lands due to its use in commercial exchanges, office letters and political relationships. The main purpose of this article is to document this seal and to interpret the emblems that have reached the Achaemenid from the distant past. Recorded in the Persepolis museum of bilateral seal No. 1267. It has a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 9 mm. It is made of stone and its location is Persepolis. There are three distinct roles on the seal. First the man sitting and holding a bowl in his hand and a flower in his other hand. The second is the cedar tree behind the man, and the third is censer in front of the man. The man is Probably a king with a short crown, the hemisphere is like the Achaemenid image.

Identified Traces
Three separate images can be seen on the seal, first is the man sitting and holding the wine cup in one hand and the flower in the other the second is the cedar tree behind the man and the third the udsuz in front of the man.
The man is probably a king with a short crown with several congresses, it is depicted from the half- face like the other Achaemenid image, the crown is similar to the Ahura Mazda round Cap. On the king’s seal has the original image and the role of cendar and is quite marginal.
Beneath the crown of hair, curly like all the motifs of persepolis the forehead and back, the king’s face wide and his eyebrows reached the ears, the nose is delicate, long and straight, lips are up and drinking and beard shorter than persepolis motifs but curly, the king’s eyes look great. The king’s neck was proportioned to the body, part of which was nuder the dress, the king’s hands are long and stretched and he looks thin. The king has a lotus flower in his left hand with a bud in his right hand corner, like Darius in the Naghshe Baram. The branch of the flower is tall and its end protrudes from the king’s hands. The king has a large wine cup in his right hand that lifts it up or closes it. The king’s waist is slender and its curvature is quite evident, and the belt is wrapped in two rows around the king’s waist. The king’s feet are on the ground and parallel to the base of the chair. The king’s Boot is a long boot with twisted straps that are not simple in the designs attributed to king Boots, but a simple shoe. Behind the king is a small triangular cedar, there are ten rows of branches on the left and eleven branches on the right of the cedar tree. The branches have all gone upwards and look like praying hands.
It is noteworthy that most tree motifs are on the palm tre seal and less than the cedar tree. Lion painted on a young and very angry seal seems to be a characteristic of most of the lions imprinted in the Achaemenid period. The body of lion is soft and agile, his head turned back. The hands and feet are in a relaxed gait so that the lion triumphantly moves forward the bird on the seal is Dorna that wing has been opened it seems that the artist insisted on drawing the head and neck of the Dorna so as not to induce the role of the Farrah.

Conclusion
Prehistoric believes of Iranian ethnicity have had such a broad role in shaping Iranian art that it is still visible in many works of art, an example is the seal studies. At a time when most of the seals built during the Achaemenid period are cylindrical, a bilateral seal imprinted on Persepolis is the most famous and important Achaemenid city, all the carved motives on it reflect the millennial believes of the Iranian people, some of which still have the same implicatins for contemporary people. None of the motives were devised by the Achaemenid artist, rather, old concepts in a new way with new technology and sophistication are on the seal.

Moein Falaki, Reza Mehrafarin,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
The motifs in Iranian art carry the concepts and themes that represent the worldview of human societies; the motifs that embody the seals reflect the legacy in which the context was created. The present study studies and analyzes animal motifs on lattice seals in southeastern Iran; one of the most interesting phenomena of the Bronze Age cultures in Iran is the prevalence of lattice seals in the southeast of Iran. These types of seals are generally made of bronze as well as silver in rare cases, and various alloys made with the missing wax method. The purpose of the present study is to identify their concepts and themes and to identify the factors that were involved in creation of the motifs of this period. It should be noted that these seals are made in the form of squares, circles and triangles and include geometric, plant, human and animal motifs. No substantiated theory has been put forward regarding the importance of substances on metal lattice seals. Obviously, information extracted from specimens used in the lattice seals of the southeast Iran during the Bronze Age can greatly shed lights on many of the ambiguities in this area. From this point on, we attempt to document the various conceptual and content dimensions of the design, based on a descriptive-analytical research method, relying on a library study method and assuming that the design of these designs is based on the surrounding nature and Indicates the importance of animals in the live hood of the people in this area, we discuss and analyze. The findings of the study indicate that these animals depicted on the seals have a significant influence on the lifestyle and status of these animals in the religious and intellectual beliefs that overwhelm in this area.. 
Keywords: Iran, South East, Seal, Compartmented Seal, Animal Motifs.

Introduction
Since the emergence of man on the scene, his attention has been focused on animals. animals have become an integral part of his life. This attention in the Paleolithic times was in the form of paintings on the caves wall, which somehow created a sense of power and superiority over these creatures, and somehow reflected his mastery over hunting. In this way, archaic man, without writing, only made the future known to his imagination and beliefs, instead of just visual arts. However, today’s human beings cannot experience their ancient culture and discover their mystery. Because some of the elements that today seem trivial and are part of human biological practices were once sacred and divine to them. Scientists and anthropologists have different views on the emergence, evolution, transformation, and diversity of the gods. But we can still draw a weak line from this. It may be somewhat plausible that it has a direct relationship with the production system and the environmental characteristics of humans in the emergence and development of gods. From the logic of practical philosophy, man has created gods at the shepherd stage that are different from the gods at the agricultural stage (Darwish, 65: 1355). During the Neolithic period, this dependence was inseparable from the extent to which humans were interested in domesticating animals and using them in their daily life (agriculture and animal husbandry). He also designed and used animal bones on his artifacts, including pottery. And it has benefited from agriculture and commerce. During the Bronze Age, the interest in animals was not only diminished, but also had a special place in the way that the role of animals was performed on reticular seals specific to southeastern Iran. Important questions that are addressed in this study are: What is the role of the applied seals and for what purpose? The purpose of this study is to determine the status and importance of these animals in the life cycle of these populations, and the hypothesis is that the function of animals is essential in the economic and livelihoods of these populations.

Animal Motifs
Thousands of years have passed, and humans have continued to ambush, trap, or hunt for their own livelihoods and for the survival of their generation. The hunter-gatherer thus established a long, intimate, unbroken bond with the animals through hunting, and owed his long life to them. It is not clear to us what kind of animal that human was feeding at that time, or what beliefs, beliefs, and beliefs they had. Our scant information only includes the remains of bones and the kind of tools that come from ancient sites and give a very clear picture of those communities. However, this little information suggests that from a Paleolithic perspective, everything was sacred. “Everything that human beings have used, felt, seen and loved, has become a holiness magazine,” says Mircha Eliade. Therefore, even the animal, which was all human, could not be sacred (Eliad, 32: 1372). The first evidence that we can find in the hunter-gatherer beliefs and ideas is the paintings they left in the dark caves. And. Perhaps these paintings “were a means of human control of the animal and of the animal being called to the hunt. In this way, the man was supposed to first capture the prey in the depths of the cave and to take his carcass out of the cave easily” (Asadian Khorramabadi, 58: 1358). Animals such as eagles, scorpions, cows, goats and fish are found in the lattice of southeastern Iran. It seems that due to the presence of such animals in this region, they have been engraved on the seals.

Conclusion
Thousands of years have passed and humans have been lurking for animals to feed themselves and their offspring, trapping them or hunting them with very simple and basic hand tools. The most important manifestation is the role of animals in their beliefs. Totem and totem worship. According to them, their great soul has become an animal or a bird after death, as a result of which all of them have been created from an animal or a bird. Therefore, this animal or bird was sanctified by them, and in all aspects of their lives, such as religion, magic, ordinary and everyday currents, especially artistic creations, it was manifested and found a significant presence. By examining the animal motifs used on the south-eastern lattice seals, their importance in the life of the people of this period can be achieved. This importance has been so highlighted and valuable that they have illustrated their artifacts. It is also possible to understand the existence of this type of animal in its bed and environment and its functional role in providing livelihood and subsistence economy of the people of this period. Animals whose importance and position are rooted in the thoughts, ideas, beliefs of these people.


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