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Showing 8 results for Sassanid

Alireza Khosrowzadeh, Siamak Sarlak,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)

Due to few is excavated Sasanian sites in southwestern Iran and Persian Gulf, the region still lacks a securely dated pottery assemblage from this period, which renders identification of the Sassanid sites there extremely difficult. Therefore, a reliably dated ceramic collection is essential for better understanding of the Sassanid period. The present paper addresses this issue and sets to introduce one of the typical type of Sassanid pottery of southeast Iran based on material recorded during surveys and excavations at Southeast of Iran and northern and southern coast of Persian Gulf. This type which is famous to fine orange painted ware or “Namord” Widely distributed in the Northern and Southern coasts of the Persian Gulf and Southeast of Iran. This type was only obtained from excavated sites at Kush, Mleiha and ed-Dur in United Arabian Emirate, Tape Yahya in Kerman and Tame Maroun in Minab. Also many of these types have been found in survey of these areas. There are two type of Namord ware; one type is belonging to late Parthian period and another one dated back to early and middle Sassanid period. Due to the wide distribution of the Namord ware in southeast of Iran and northern and southern beaches of the Persian Gulf, probably, this type of pottery in the Persian Gulf has been used as a kind of commercial goods. The absence Namord ware in Kuwait, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia is representing close relationships between eastern parts of the Persian Gulf (Emirates and Oman) and south and southeast beaches of Iran. Also, the existence of Namord ware in Gana of Yemen, is represents expanding the trade of this pottery to the east beaches of the Indian Ocean.
Keywords: Namord Ware, Sassanid, Southeast, Persian Gulf.

As we know, pottery in the Sassanid period like the Parthian period has been local style, and each region of Iran in this period have been a special style of pottery. One of the areas, that Sassanid pottery in it little known, is southeast of Iran and the Persian Gulf beaches. A very large part of southeastern Iran (Kerman, Hormozgan, Sistan and Baluchestan provinces) in terms of archeology is less recognize than other parts of Iran. Unfortunately, due to the lack of archaeological excavations in this area of Iran, we can’t present correct theory about Sassanid pottery this area. One of the most important sites in the south east (that has the Sassanid period) is Tape Yahya in the southeast of Baft county near of Soghan. The Tame Maroun is another important Sassanid site. Sarlak based on the pottery obtained from different layers of this site, five cultural periods have been identified on this site (Sarlak, 2011: 374). Emirates and Oman (that have done more excavations in them) are located in the cultural area of the southern of Persian Gulf. The Sohar excavations in Oman, and excavations of Addor, Koush, and Meliha in Emirates are most important excavations in this area. Koush is important of site in southern beaches of the Persian Gulf that has a fairly accurate chronology. Based on excavations done in this site, period 1 is the oldest settelement in Koush, includes two steps of brick building that can be related to 6th and 7th century AD (Kennet, 2005). From this period (6th and 7th century AD) has been obtained large number of pottery related to Namord. In addition to excavation, a lot of surveys have also been conducted in this cultural area. These surveys have been done by Descartes, Potts, and … In these surveys have been obtained large number of pottery related to Namord.
Pottery dispersion of Namord in southeast of Iran and northern beaches of Persian Gulf
In 1983 Seyyed Mansour Seyyed Sajjadi with an archaeological team was surveyed Rodbar valley in southern Kerman. Seyyed Sajjadi was obtained Namord ware from the four sites of Ghaleh Kharg, Dogari, Tamb Namord, and Sitamb. Also, this pottery has been obtained from the layer 1 of Tape Yahya. Furthermore, Namord ware has been obtained from the third period of the Tame Maroun. Namord ware in third period of the Tame Maroun has red and orange paste. This type of pottery in Bushehr has orange color and with gravel temper. Also, Namord ware is obtained in surveys conducted in Damb Koh and Qeshm Island.

Pottery dispersion of Namord in the southeast of Saudi Arabia and the south beaches of Persian Gulf
The Namord ware is obtained in Alganam Island, Addor, Koush, Meliha, and Tal Abrak. From the Meliha fort has been obtained a few glasses of delicate and painted from the type of Namord. The paste of this pottery in Meliha is so stiff and has orange color. In surveys of northern Oman in the peninsula of Mosandam has been obtained samples similar to painted pottery of Namord.

Due to Widespread of Namord ware in southeastern Iran and northern and southern beaches of the Persian Gulf, probably, this pottery as a commodity has been exchanged between the north and south of the Persian Gulf. Trade this pottery have probably been for the quality this type of pottery. Namord ware has been obtained most from areas the eastern of the Persian Gulf, especially from Alganam Island, Addor, Koush, Meliha, and Tal Abrak. It seems, this type of pottery has been produced in one or two small areas (probably in Minab plain and Halil Roud), and has been exported to other places as a valuable commodity.

Majid Badiee Gavarti,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)

The fortresses of Iran, due to the geographic location and weather conditions have been built to two types of lowland us and mountainous. For this reason, used building materials are different in these two types. Due to the location of the city Jey and southern highway in Isfahan (that have been location of the Caravans passage from the south to the center of Iran), in Gavart area (At the highest point of Mount Gavart) has existed defensive fortress. Due to the full control Gavart fortress on southern highway in Isfahan, this fortress in addition to defensive destination has also been role of the Caravans guide. The research method of this study is based on method of historic, and in this research preliminary data is obtained from field survey. Due to the architecture style and potteries Gavart, this fortress was made in Sassanid period and has probably been used in early Islamic period. The Gavart fortress has a mountain architecture, and hasn’t regular geometric shape. In this fortress, from the top of each tower is seen roof of the front towers. This site probably has other buildings in the lower of the mountain that troglodytic building in lower of the mountain is from these buildings. This fortress is made in three levels and ten architectural parts. The ceramic founds in Gavart fortress aren’t decoration, and they have been practical. In this research, after full description of this building have been answered to the following questions: What period is this building? What is the use of this building?
Keywords: Fortress, Sassanid, Ancient Jey, Gavart.

Iran in terms of geographic location (placing on the road of great Khorasan and Silk Road) has always been threatened from different ethnicities and governments. In prehistoric periods, humans have been created fortresses around of villages and cites for defense of animal’s invasions, but later, fortresses created for defense against of invasions humans. Today, in all Iran can be seen remains of strong enclosures residential castles, that indicates are technique Iranian against of aliens.
The fortresses of Iran, due to the geographic location and weather conditions have been built to two types of lowland us and mountainous. For this reason, used building materials are different in these two types. The fortresses located in the plain areas have usually been made to shape of square or rectangular whit circular towers in four corners. The used building materials in these fortresses have been more than mud and adobe brick, and from bricks and plaster have been used less. The walls of these fortresses are made from thick of pies and adobe bricks. In most cases the thickness of these walls are four meters. Inside the fortress are have meandrous alleys, that all of them have led the main passage of the fortress (fortress gateway). In around some of these fortresses is drilled ditch. The mountainous fortresses at the top of the mountains and heights have been made. In construction of mountainous fortresses has usually been used from rubble and mountain stone and river stone with plaster or mortar. Around these types of fortresses have been deep abysses, that impassable these fortresses have been difficult carrying siege devices. At the end of the towers have been congresses. In this research, after full description of this building have been answered to the following questions: What period is this building? What is the use of this building?

Research findings
The Gavart neighborhood is located in 5 km of east of Esfahan city. The height of Gavart is 1710 meters above sea level, and one part of the Ghohab block (from nine blocks of Esfahan). The “Gavart” means nice breeze (this is for stay in the middle of Dasht-e Kavir and Zagros Mountains that is cause interference warm and dry weather with mountainous weather). This area is located in longitude 51° 48ʹ 44ʺ and latitude 32° 38ʹ 01ʺ and in height 1866 m. The architectural traces this collection are 110 m in 40 m. The Gavart fortress has cylindrical towers, long stairs, antemural, wall, cube buildings inside the fortress, and rocky towers. In this fortress has been used highest skill level in build fortress (in terms use of land and natural side effects to increase the strength of the fortress defense). The Gavart fortress is a type of mountainous fortresses that is located in range and the summit of Gavart Mountain. The architectural components of Gavart fortress are includes of the following: stairs of entrance, and architectural sections 1 to 10 (these sections are located in different parts of the fortress). The Gavart fortress has a mountain architecture, and hasn’t regular geometric shape. In this fortress, from the top of each tower is seen roof of the front towers. This site probably has other buildings in the lower of the mountain that troglodytic building in lower of the mountain is from these buildings. On the surface of this fortress are seen ceramic traces to form of scattered. The pottery findings Gavart fortress: fine ware of buff and clinkey, fine ware of red, ware of medium fine and red and clinkey, ware of medium fine and buff, and glazed ware. The ceramic founds in Gavart fortress aren’t decoration, and they have been practical.

The Gavart fortress has been made from rubble and mortar. The location of this fortress in Gavart Mountain has led to invincible this fortress. The elements of main and structural Gavart fortress are including of rocky walls and impassable of mountain. In the one level of this fortress is located architectural part 7. In the second level Gavart fortress is located architectural parts 1, 2, 3, and 8. In the third level of this fortress (that is highest level of Gavart fortress) are located architectural parts 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10. The pottery in this site more is from type of simple.

Mohammad Afrough,
year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019)

Sassanian metalwork is one of the most influential ancient arts in Islamic art, especially metal working. in the art of this period, aesthetic dimensions including all kinds of mythical and symbolic concepts in the art of metallurgy were revealed. with the advent of Islam and the development of the art of metallurgy, in addition to the aesthetic dimensions, the technological aspects including methods and techniques of making and decorating in the art of the metalwork of the Islamic era and especially the metalwork of Mosul reflected and continued. in the metalwork school as one of the most prominent centers for the production of metal works in the Islamic world, various types of metallurgical works were produced and presented for various purposes. in these works, there are well-known traces of various types of motifs and concepts commonly found in the Sassanid Empire. therefore, the important question of this article is: what are the motifs and concepts used in the works of Mosul metal that is influenced by the art of Sassanian metallurgy? concepts such as hunting (riding or walking along with arrows or arrows or sword), two beasts on either side of the sacred tree or life, the sultan (motif) sitting on the bed with legs stretched out and servants in Two sides and a hand on a sword or in a quadrangle (And the crescent of the moon or cup of wine in hand), Bahram and Azadeh, bass, dance and music, plant motifs including the tree (cypress, pine), tangled and interconnected ivy (slavic), various flowers (lilies , Leafy leaves, multicolored flowers), animals and birds (lion, hog, bear, elephant, camel, ram and gooseberry), gazelle, deer, ram behind me, hawk (eagle), birds in front. Pearl strings (rows of round shapes). is the result of this research? This research is of fundamental type and research method is descriptive-analytical. the method of data collection is in the form of a library and search in museums.
Keywords: Sassanid, Seljuk, Metal Working, Khorasan, Mosul.

During the observation of Iranian art and its civilization, it is possible to find a lesser period that was as impressive as the Sassanid art of the art of the contemporary civilizations and, more importantly, beyond itself. metalworking is one of the most prominent Sassanian arts that has made itself in the manufacture of all types of metal works, especially silverware. Artists of this age, using the techniques of making, decorating and reflecting many old Iranian beliefs and traditions in metal works, have preserved the identity, artistic values and experiences of the past, and transmitted and continued it to the Islamic era. the artistic work of the Islamic era and the geography of Iranian civilization, especially during the rule of the Seljuk Empire, expanded rapidly in the light of security and tranquility, and outstanding metallurgical schools appeared in the production of metal works such as Khorasan and Mosul. artists active in these two schools, while paying attention to and modeling the Sassanian art of art in technical and artistic dimensions, were able to with their innate innovations, ingenuity and creativity, as well as the attention to common religious beliefs in some sciences such as astronomy and astrology, the nature They created a new artistic dimension for this art. the mentioned schools, especially Khorasan, were very dynamic and thriving during the Seljuk period. In addition to the influence of Sassanid art, there were significant effects, especially in decorative styles, on visual effects and roles on the metal works of Mosul. in fact, Mosul was directly (neighboring the Sassanid-Madan capital - and included in the Sassanid civilization) and indirect (the modeling and influence of the metal art of Khorasan through the interactions and the migration of artists from Khorasan, especially the artists of Herat to Mosul in the direction Mongol invasion) has benefited from Sasanian art and this is evident in Mosul’s works. The purpose of this research is to identify the dimensions of the influence of the Sassanian metalwork art on Mosul’s metalwork, its introduction and documentation in order to protect and protect an important part of Iranian art and civilization. what are the motifs and concepts used in the Mosul metal works affected by the Sassanian metalwork art? the topics discussed in this article are as follows: The influence of the Sassanian metalwork art on the art of metalworking of the Islamic period, the impact of the Mosul metal school on the metalwork of Khorasan [Herat], and the impact on other metalworking schools, the general coordinates of the Sassanid metal works of Khorasan and Mosul, decorative practices and content (Patterns and roles mapped from Sassanid art and specific themes and roles of Mosul) Mosul metal works.

Type and method of research
This research is of fundamental type and research method is descriptive-analytical. What is the way to collect data in a museum-like book-house?

The most important result of this research is the introduction and reflection of the concepts and motifs of Sassanid metal works in the metal works of the Mosul metalwork school. Hence, the metalworkers have been instrumental in aesthetic and technological aspects of the methods of making, decorating and paying the art of Sassanid metalworkers through the metalwork school of Khorasan during the Seljuk period. In the aesthetic aspect, we can refer to a variety of themes and motifs commonly used in Sassanian Iranian art that also reflected Seljuk art. The themes of hunting, the two beasts on the two sides of the tree of life, the Sultan (ruler) sitting on the throne with legs, Mars and Azadeh on horseback, which, of course, has been used in camel works in place of horses, music, Dance, plant motifs including the tree (cypress, pine), various flowers such as flowering flowers, palm trees, etc.

Meysam Shahsavari, Seyed Mehdi Mosavi Kohpar,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)

In the classical society of the Sassanid era, the clerical class was one of the most important pillars of the community. It had influence, credibility and popularity, and represented an important and influential institution from the lowest to the highest levels of society. This important institution is however not well-known and many uncertainties remain about it. One of these ambiguities is the inner structure of this class, which is still almost unknown. Due to the vagueness of the information coming from various sources other than a few titles, there is almost no precise data about its hierachy. Due to the great importance of this class, a proper understanding of the Sassanid era would not be possible without a proper understanding of the clergy class. This is the topic of the present paper, mainly based on literary material. It could notably be proven that the Zoroastrian clergy of the Sassanid period can be divided into two general groups in terms of the presence or absence of governmental professions and official titles. It is not possible to determine the upper ranks of this class, such as Rad, Dastour or Mowbed, while the head of the clergy class (as the Mowbedān-Mowbed) was a member of the class known as the Sassanid privileged ones (Vozorgan).
Keywords: Zoroastrian Clergy, Sassanid Era, Structure and Hierarchy of the Zoroastrian Clergy.

It is difficult to reconstruct the internal structure of the institution of Zoroastrianism. It is due to two fundamental factors: first, the length of the Sassanid era and the dynamics of the society that inevitably led to profound changes and transformations in various institutions during these 430-year periods.  and the second the final prophecy What happened during this time was long after the collapse of this dynasty, which was modified by the same institution in accordance with the goals and purposes of this institution and in accordance with the conditions of the time.  Thus the texts further complicate matters rather than the help solving the problems. For example, in the Sad Dar Nasr is written: “In the case of sin, one should try to repent to the Hirbads and the Dasturs and the Rads.” In this phrase, three important cleric titles or positions are mentioned without any precision concerning their precise attribution (Sad Dar Nasr, Dar-e 45). It is probably explained because the main target audience of these books were familiar with these definitions and titles, and that the authors of the texts did feel consequently the need to explain them clearly. So what is the meaning of the titles used by clerics during the Sassanid period? How did this social class evolve? Almost all scholars who worked on the Sassanid period inevitably dealt with Zoroastrianism, and consequently the institution of the clergy (Christensen, 1368. Frye, 1382. Shaked, 1384. Zarinkob, 1388. De Yong, 1390. Daryaee, 1383. Shaki, 2011. Miri. 2013 &...).

Daryaee segregated the Sassanid clergy class “in terms of their rank and duty”, including “Mowbeds, Hirbbads, Dasturs, Dadvars, and Rads”, which meant: the senior clergy, the Fire Worshiper clerics, specialist theologians or jurists, judges and scholar clerics “ (Daryaee, 1392B: 144). It is further shown in this study that it is not possible to deal with the internal division of this class clearly. For example, while Manouchehr, the author of the letters of Manouchehr, introduced himself in his letters as the Rad of Pars and Kerman, at the beginning of his third letter to all Behdinān, he called himself the Hirbad-e Khodāy. On the other hand, some of the categories are sometimes mentioned for a specific task, so it becomes very difficult to determine exactly what each of these positions was. In the Ravayat-e Azarfranbag-e Faroxzadan, in response to the question, “If all members of a family are to be Behdin except one woman, can she become the Padehah Zan?” it is said: “Rads, Mowbeds and Dasturan have to choose a guardian for her.” There are many similar cases in Sassanid texts which make it impossible to draw any definitive conclusions in this regard. Unfortunately, seals are not really helpful as Gyselen points out: “It should be noted that glyptic does not offer anything other than a very few titles or whether the lack of findings was because some authorities needed Have they not used the seal? Or the cause of something else is unclear “(Gyselen, 1995: 123). Accordingly, this paper is divided into two parts. The first deals with the official titles and ranks of the Zoroastrian clergy and the second part deals with the informal titles.

- Some clerical titles correspond to official titles, employed in government offices or bureaucracies, while most of clerics were not State employed and devoted themselves solely to religious activities.
- There were clerics who had no position in the clerical hierarchy and were usually referred as clergymen with specific characteristics, such as the title of Zartoshtom, which was probably something like a polar and a disciple.
- Although it is possible to imagine Rads, Dasturs and Mowbeds in the top ranks of the clergy, it is not possible to determine precisely the position of each of these titles in the hierarchy and their priority.
- The clergy class, like other classes of Sassanid society, had a leader whose title varied in different eras. The title Mowbedān-Mowbed is only attested since the middle of this period and probably did not exist in the early Sassanid era. It is still unclear what was the title or name of the head of this class at that time.
- It seems incorrect to distinguish the titles of Mowbed and Mog (Magi), and to place them in two separate degrees in the Zoroastrian hierarchy, at least until the mid-Sassanid era. They have the same linguistic meaning. Of course, in the later periods, and given the dynamics of Sassanid society, a distinction may be drawn between these titles, in which Mowbed took precedence over Magi.

Abbas Namjoo,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)

Khozestan and Ilam, the two geographically important provinces have always been under consideration by all reigning powers of all history in Iran. The attention was not limited to one or two governments and the fortune was with them even written history due to the suitable geographical situation and the shared borders with Mesopotamia. Because of political, religious, ethnic, etc. reasons, the power epicenter stayed out of the southwestern part of Iran’s plateau in the time of Sassanid and Achaemenian for example. Sassanid, over four centuries of power in a vast area in west of Asia, had an especial interest toward the Persian territory. Significant cities of the time, such as Estakhr, Goor and Shaporkhoreh were established in this very region. The extra ordinary number of reliefs, common wealth buildings and fire temples (Chartaqi/ groin vaulted buildings) existing in the area is a witness to Persia’s distinct status. In this paper, based on historical and geographical documents and writings (inscribed between the 3rd to 9th centuries), groin vaulted buildings (Chartaqi) and many fire temples of this area, the mentioned attention has been taken under study. The research method is historical descriptive and through studying the literature and archeological documents (groin vaulted fire temples) and the study on the progress of groin vault buildings from south to north approaching the ancient Mesopotamian borders, and the references in most of historical documents to numerous fire temples of the area, it can be concluded that this piece of land had the equal value of the whole country to Sassanid and this field needs more excavation as far as the Sassanid are concerned.
Keywords: Sassanid, Groin Vaults, Fire Temples, Khozestan, Ilam, Peshtkooh in Lorestan.

The biggest part of attention of the ruling perspective, spending huge budget of improvement, building magnificent cities, designing and building roads and buildings in Sassanid era, was devoted to the central territory, meaning Fars province. Founding big cities such as Goor (Firuz Abad), Shapurkhoreh (Bishapur next to Kazerun) and Estakhr signifies that the special attention being paid from the administrations to this area. Their predecessors, Achaemenian, had made their home and place to stay in Persepolis and Pasargadae. The area under study was taken to consideration with following Achaemenian but such causes such as keeping the throne away from western borders to maintain more safety, keeping more control over Persian Gulf and religious, racial and tribal motives were the main reasons of this attitude.
In the following study, the two sites of Khozestan and Ilam are scrutinized geographically and archeologically because of being situated in the same geographical crest. Although two zones of Islam Abad Qarb and Gilan Qarb, both located in Kermanshah province were forgone in order to establish a locale. Examination criterion has been set due to political divisions of the country. The study time expand is the Sassanid period and the population expand is the groin vaulted buildings (Chartaqi) as a practically religious structure. 

The Fire Temples and Groin Vaulted Buildings in Khozestan
Sim Band Chartaqi: situated in north east of Masjed Soleiman and on the road to Shahid Abbaspour dam.
Keikavus Chartaqi: located in North West of Behbahan within 20 kilometers distance in a village of the same name. The exterior and interior (dome) had been about 12 meters in height. The building’s height is about 10.5 meters and the walls’ thickness –being made of stone and mortar- is 2.40 meters. 
Kherabad Fire Temple: situated in east of Behbahan by 15 kilometers, it is overlooking the vast field of Behbahan. The bridge over the river is not visible from the distance.

The Fire Temples and Groin Vaulted Buildings in Ilam
Dare Shahr Chartaqi: In Seimareh valley, west of the archeological site which the locals call Plaster hills which is the progressive form of ancient buildings. (Lakpour, 2005: 86-127)
Julian Chartaqi: The remains of the ancient city, known as Julian in the mountain sides of Abdanan, one of the southern cities in Ilam.
Siahgal Ivan Fire Temple: It is located with a distance of 25 kilometers away from Ivan in Zarfeh, near the river Gangir and among the farming fields of the local people.
Moshgab (Sarableh) Fire Temple: in the ancient city of Sirvan or Shirvan in Moshkan Sarableh within 3 kilometers distance of Sarableh city.
Molab Chartaqi: This building which has been registered recently, is located in the east of Molab viledge with 5 meters in height.
Qajar fire temple in Dare shahr: This is one of the ruined buildings of Ilam which Wandburg introduced for the first time in 1977 in an article called the Chartaqi in Poshtkoh Lorestan in Iranica Antiqua and covered some more groined vaulted buildings of the region as well.
Tablkhaneh Chartaqi or Naqarkhaneh or Posh Erisht: This is built in a manner that the angels are oriented to agree with the compass. In 20 meters distance of the north east, the remains of some platforms are visible which can be signs of fire temples and holy fire.
Mayee Mah Chartaqi: Pashtil, is what remains probably from a compliment to a chartaqi. The dome and ceiling are almost gone and very little of the columns are left.
Koshk Qanifar Chartaqi: This one, also called Chahar Kaleh or Chahar pa is located within the distance of 12 kilometers Imamzadeh peer. It is in the form of square with the upper side of the dome, completely destroyed is currently now with 3 meters of height. The total height is about 7 meters.
Mehr-Varpeel Fire Temple: This construction was analyzed and studied in 1969 by Wanderburg during the fifth archeological excavations. It is situated on top of a hill, in 8 kilometer distance to the south of Mehr village.  
Changineh Fire Temple: It is located in the center of a village in 22 kilometers of south east of Ilam, called Chahnjiha. It is not a complete square and each side has a dimension of its own.
Se-pa Fire Temple: Wonderburg studied Ivan from Sartang to Daruneh in his studies in 1970 and found a fire temple called Sepaa.

The present study has been conducted and compiled base on a rather lengthy report on historical data and the remained buildings with groin vaults from the Sassanid period known by many writings as fire temples. The aim and purpose was to change directions in Sassanid studies from Fars province to other directions. West of Iran, especially the southern parts as centers of gravity for the Sassanid with other reigning classes of the west and this area was constantly and seriously threatened by them. The Sassanid could not ignore nor neglect the destructions from the west and insult on its total authority. Thus, the use of religious buildings and related ones was taken into consideration as a serious measure. This is just but some of the existing monuments left in the area and the more western provinces such as Kermanshah are added, the more significance is added to the area during the Sassanid period.
But the west and south west, located in the western borders of the kingdom, also enjoyed an imperative and strategic state as well. The area that is today called the provinces of Khozestan and Ilam in south west and Kermanshah in the west witnessed a great deal of constant upheaval between Iran and West (Greece and Rome) in a manner that just with the two kingdoms of “ASHKANI” and Rome in this area the conflict lasted about 300 years. That is why they (the Sassanid) could not ignore this very area. Constructing the fire temple in Izeh which is mentioned in a lot of historical and geographical documents is one significant example of such. If from the southwest crest to northwest, one can be taken into consideration and study, the Chartaqi built in Poshtkoh in Lorestan to Iran and Dare Shahr, to south and Khozestan, denotes the geopolitical importance of the region for Sassanid.

Azita Mirzaei,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)

Greater Khorasan, which is now divided into six countries, in addition to its geopolitical importance, have great historical importance due to the formation of the Parthian State and then the powerful presence of the Sassanid Empire along with the expansion of territory and protection of borders against the invasion of the Eastern nations. Despite these reasons, there is little information on past events in the area in the historical and archaeological sources. Iranian Khorasan occupies a large part of the northeast and east of the country. Archaeological survey in the middle part of the Kopeh Dagh-Ala Dagh corridor in northern Khorasan has identified various sites from the Parthian and Sassanid eras. Among the identified ancient sites, sixteen architectural structures were identified in the form of a fort. Recognizing the differences and similarities between the architecture of the forts with each other and then comparing them with other similar examples inside and outside the borders of Iran, led to a better understanding of the fort-building styles and their grouping in this region. In this research, in addition to identifying forts and recognizing their architectural features, using remote sensing, ecological studies and the type distribution of forts from each other. This article emphasizes the socio-political role of the study area as the last border access to the central plateau of Iran.
Keywords: Northern Khorasan, Kopeh Dagh-Ala Dagh Corridor, Tappe-Ghaleh & Forts Parthian, Sassanid.

To understand the cultural developments of the Parthian and Sassanid communities in the northern region of Khorasan, it is important to know the nature of the settlements of this period. In written sources, Greater Khorasan is often depicted on the northeastern edge of the civilized world. This region has always played a dynamic role in ancient times due to the function of the pathway and the connection of the East to the West in the field of population movement with the entry or invasion of nomadic tribes and cultural exchanges. The origin and emergence of the Parthian state, the development of eastern territories and the control of borders and communication routes, and the monitoring of trade were other reasons for the importance of this region during the Parthian and Sassanid eras. These subjects had caused the geographical-political-administrative boundaries of the two governments in Khorasan to be constantly changing.
Aims and Necessity of the Research: Typology of forts of Parthian and Sassanid historical periods in the middle part of Kopeh Dagh-Ala Dagh corridor is part of the purpose of writing this article, in addition to the identification of architectural styles and their comparison with other simultaneous examples in the territory of these two governments. The function of forts and their role in the socio-administrative structure presents their historical context and also highlights the importance of the studied geographical area in the political-governmental structure of the Parthians and Sassanids.
Research Questions: What are the architectural features of the forts during the Parthian and Sassanid eras? Is it possible to provide a relative chronology for forts based on architectural features? Did the form and shape of the forts affect their functional role? What was the position of the studied geographical area in the Parthian and Sassanid historical governmental structure?
The middle part of the Kopedagh-Aladagh corridor is located in the northeastern part of Iran and northern Khorasan and is based on the political divisions include the cities of Farooj and Shirvan in North Khorasan Province and the city of Quchan in Khorasan Razavi Province. 
The first systematic survey was conducted in 1977 in the Upper Atrak area (from the western part of Quchan to Shirvan). Archaeological studies have been re-conducted by the author in the last two decades in the middle part of the Kopeh Dagh-Ala Dagh corridor. These studies led to the identification of various sites from the Parthian and Sassnid periods. These studies led to the identification of various sites from the Parthian and Sassanid eras. Sixteen architectural structures were identified in the form of forts. Recognizing their architectural features, differences, and similarities with each other and then comparing them with other similar examples inside and outside the borders of Iran, led to a better understanding of forts construction styles and their categories in this region. By studying the characteristics of forts, they can be divided into two groups according to their geographical location. 1- Mountain fort: Two mountain forts are located on the northern and southern slopes of the Middle Mountain Valley. The position of these two sites is very significant because they had complete control over the opposite plain and the surrounding area. 2- Plain forts: As it is clear from the title, this group of forts is in the plain but based on their physical characteristics, they are divided into three subgroups: a) single forts. b) a fort with a non-enclosed settlement area. c) enclosed settlements. All the structures introduced in the three groups of plain forts, despite the differences, also have common points with each other, which indicate the existence of a common style of architecture and its continuation from the Parthian to Sassanid period, and the differences can indicate the different functions of these structures.
The eastern borders of the territory of the Parthian and Sassanid governments have been one of the main gateways for the invading tribes such as the Scythians, Khyuns, Heptalians, etc. These attacks often occurred from three entrances. 1- Merv route to Mashhad-Neishabour, 2- Herat route to Taybad-Neishabour, and the third route was crossing the northern margin of Kopeh Dagh and entering from Gorgan to the central plateau of Iran.  But in northern Khorasan, the Kopedagh mountain range, as a natural wall, has been part of this defensive system. The Kopeh Dagh-Ala Dagh corridor in the east-west direction has been a geographically enclosed and closed area between two wide areas, namely the Akhal plain in the north and the central plateau of Iran in the south. Therefore, due to this natural feature, it has played a deterrent role against the direct attack of the invading tribes on the central plateau of Iran.

By studying all the conditions affecting the subject of political-administrative, economic-social and military structures in the middle part of Kopeh Dagh-Ala Dagh corridor, it can be concluded that this region, in addition to having relative military security, economically meets the needs of the region’s inhabitants (although it was independent, but politically it had to be under the tutelage or part of one of the satraps of its time. Perhaps it can be argued that due to the density of Parthian and Sassanid castles and sites on the southern slope of Kopeh Dagh, especially their density in front of a passage in the north of Farooj city, was due to a political and administrative relationship with a city in the north of the region. According to archeological excavations and historical sources, the two important cities of Nisa and Merv from the Parthian and Sassanid periods in the north of this region have been the political center of the region. On the other hand, based on the interregional route, the northern and southern parts were interconnected, so the region may be politically subordinate to one of the two states of Parthia or Merv, depending on the time and government.

Mosayeb Amiri,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)

Using stucco as decoration in buildings has a long precedent. Scrutinizing the surviving edifice from historical periods shows that the art of plastering has been methodical and has a special style since the Parthian era. These methods evolved in the Sassanid era and continued with nuance in the Islamic era. Our knowledge of the art of stucco decoration of the Sassanid period is mostly based on the excavation of several important sites of this period, including the historic city of Bishapur. Bishapur is the center of the Shapur-province which was considered to be one of the cities or the state of five states of Persia and it was established during the reign of Shapur I, the second Sassanid emperor. Manifold artworks have been found in Bishapour’s excavation such as unique mosaic paintings as well as plastering and painting on plaster, especially in the part of the royal citadel. Many of these findings which are some important artifacts and features, exploring in the ninth season of excavation such as the revelation of architectural spaces in the south of the mosaic porch in the part called “Royal Citadel” and stone objects such as mortars, Xunak: stone table, stone statues made of marble and decorative beads, glass kilns and pieces of glassware, pottery and metal. The most important architectural works revealed in the excavation are the corridors on the south side of the mosaic porch, rooms with plaster works’ niches, while some of them are painted and decorated with red ocher clay, plaster of the walls, and plaster of the floor of architectural spaces have been found in these rooms as well. The plaster artworks are mostly included the parallel strips that are used at the edges of niches and entrances. Gypsum mosaic porch decorations include plaster coating and painting on the plaster, as well as plaster works and remains. Considering that all these pieces belong to the Sassanid period, the main question in this research is: How were they made? The method of data collection has been done in two ways, fieldwork and by researching in the library in this article. Besides, the tendency in this research was to introduce and analyze these findings in the context of the plaster art of the Sassanid period in this historical city
Keywords: Sassanid Period, Bishapur, Architectur Decorations, Stucco.

The city of Bishapur, with an area of about 155 hectares, is an enormous area where comprehensive exploration is impossible in a short time. The ninth season excavation program started on 22/05/2011 and lasted until 6/07/2011.
The most important objects found from the excavation were: Three pieces of human sculpture of a man as well as a piece of human sculpture of a woman, both made of marble. A significant number of archaeological findings in the ninth season of the excavation of the historic city of Bishapur were metal fragments. The metal findings based on the type of metals are iron, copper, and silver, in order of frequency respectively. In addition to these findings, several earthenware jars and pots of different dimensions are among the main objects of the ninth season of the excavation of the historical city of Bishapur. For the first time, in the same excavation season, all the pottery pieces founded in the excavation, have been collected, washed, and classified. The first category includes decorative objects such as statues and precious and semi-precious stones, which include ring agate stones and necklace beads, as well as turquoise stones; and the second category, including oil trays, mortars, and stone tables which is known as “Xunak” by the locals. There were also recovered many pieces of broken glassware along with a glass kiln during the ninth season of excavating the historic city of Bishapur. In the same season, manifold remnants of glass-making furnaces and mosaic pieces were discovered. The most important findings of architectural works include the corridors on the south side of the mosaic porch, rooms with bedside niches, which are sometimes painted and decorated with red ocher mud. Another finding in this season was plaster pieces which is the purpose of writing this article, is to introduce and classify these plaster findings.

Identified Traces
The ninth season of the excavation in the historical city of Bishapur focused on the south and west sides of the mosaic porch, and although in the development of the excavation and the pursuit of walls and spaces, the scope of the excavation was extended to the eastern boreholes; But most of the findings come from southern boreholes, especially the D-3, D-4, and D-5. In terms of plastering and decorations, these three boreholes were richer than the other boreholes.
In general, there are two types of indicator hypotheses about the construction of gypsum decorations; In the first hypothesis, it is believed that the plaster decorations in this area were drawn on the walls at once, and then the artist created his desired designs on the plaster with a tool similar to a scraper; But in the second hypothesis, it is believed that the plaster’s decorations were made in the form of molding and then installed in place. Given the available evidence, it is not wise to simply accept or reject any of these theories. Applying and combining these two methods was certainly not impossible, and the artists of the Sassanid period could create innovative and new methods in this field; Because it seems that in some cases the designs have been prepared by molding method and in some cases, the plasters have been applied on the wall at once; Thus, in Bishapur, the two methods of in-situ shaping and fabrication using mold can be considered as the main methods in performing plastering techniques. In the in-situ shaping method, after applying the gypsum paste on the desired surface, such as a wall or ceiling, etc., and the expiration of the gypsum setting to a suitable level that does not cause the gypsum to fall, the gypsum master forms the gypsum mortar. In the method of using the mold, it is done in two ways: in situ and prefabricated. In the in-situ method, gypsum mortar is poured into a one-piece or multi-piece wooden mold that has been pre-made, and in some cases, it is injected and after setting the plaster and kneading it, it separates the mold from it and the masterworks on its joinery. In the prefabricated mold method, all the parts are pre-made and the master connects them and after joining all the parts, he pays them. Gypsum pieces with geometric designs found from the ninth season of excavation in Bishapur are usually mold-making and do not have various shapes, and are usually spoon-shaped, in other words, tube-shaped. It seems that all these parts have been used to cover around the ledges, corners of walls, windows, and doors. Parts of this type of plastering around a ledge have also been found. Another example of stucco is “shell designs”. These pieces represent a bunch of bivalve mussels. The use of these parts is all as fillets next to the dome and porch as well as the corners of the rooms. These pieces were also made by molding and probably did this on the spot.
Other parts are plaques that are found in the form of broken pieces. These parts usually belong to the edge of the plate and are only one part of the center of the plate. The plaques sometimes have human motifs depicting kings, princes, princes, and gods, and provide valuable information for researchers in the analysis of political history, art, and archeology. The face of a king or prince was found inside a plaque in the Bishapur, the preliminary stages of which have been completed and the results will be published in the future. The designs of these gypsum boards are usually geometric and floral. The geometric patterns are mostly related to the square border of the plate. Several pieces of red and black colored plaster are also obtained, which are related to flat walls.
The artists of the Sassanid period could create innovative and new methods in the field of plastering; Because it seems that in some cases the designs have been prepared by molding method and in some cases, the plastering has been applied on the wall all at once; Thus, in Bishapour, the two methods of in-situ shaping and fabrication using molds can be considered as the main methods in performing plastering techniques, which are usually prefabricated parts made in two sizes; One of them is 12 x 12 cm and the other is 18 x 18 cm.

From all the discovered artifacts, little information can be figured out from the plastering around the ledges. Upper back injuries are more common than lower back injuries. These plasters consist of two categories; The first category is plastering that is prefabricated in parts that have been molded due to mass production and the findings of this category are more. The second category is plastering which is built on-site and this category has a greater role. From the first category, most of the stucco is found with a cross and spoon design, and from the second category, there are a little number of gypsum plates. In terms of shape and role, it can almost be said that role limitations are observed in the discovered samples and the designs are not very diverse. These parts had the least similarity with the parts discovered from other Sassanid sites.

Mehdi Pirhayati, Alireza Anisi,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)

Lorestan bridges have been of particular importance in different eras due to being located on ancient roads. Bridges built for various purposes, including political, religious and economic, have acted as valley bridges in addition to linking different areas through crossing ravaged rivers of Lorestan at the time such as Kashkan and establishing road safety. Lack of awareness by the local people, the country and the international community of the value of these properties, the destruction of their properties and their associated environments by indigenous peoples and domestic tourists, the lack of a comprehensive and integrated conservation program and the lack of proper budget allocation for their restoration, Their natural context for conservation and restoration has all made these valuable and indigenous properties in the process of destruction. Accordingly, the purpose of the research is to identify the cultural landscape of historical bridges attributed to the Sassanid period of the Kashkan River and to establish a structuralist framework through the analysis of national and international laws, charters, conventions, and treaties to conserve their cultural landscape. In this research, library and field data were collected and four bridges: Kashan, Kelahor-e-Mamulan, pol-e-dokhtar, and Gavmishan were selected as study samples due to historical and architectural values. In the following, recommendations for the conservation of selected bridges’ cultural landscapes were categorized into two categories, generic and specific to the selected bridges themselves using qualitative research method, data analysis, and coding operations at three levels to reach the final results of the research. 
Keywords: Conservation of Cultural Landscape, Historic Bridges, Sassanid Period, Lorestan, Kashkan River.

Lorestan province, with its rich and important rivers such as Seymareh, Kashkan and Cesar, has one of the richest flowing water networks. In addition to communicating with the two capitals (Susa-Ekbatan), this province has always established the connection between the old Babylon, then Ctesiphon, and then Baghdad, to Isfahan, through Khorramabad. (Siroux, 1978: 32-33). From other roads, separated from Lorestan, we can refer to Susa to Bisotun and Susa to Masbazan road (Minorsky, 1937). The need for quick and easy access and constant communication between these areas, despite the rich rivers and deep valleys, has led to the construction of huge bridges that makes a man wonder7 (UNESCO, 2016). These bridges have been built to connect large civilizations and some extent of the realization of human rights, religious, ethnic, economic and cultural ties, as well as development, prosperity, security and comfort in difficult mountainous regions (UNESCO, 2016). The undiscovered identity and value of these works for the indigenous people of Lorestan and at higher levels, the country and the international community, the destruction of the works themselves and the natural environment, associated with, by indigenous people (intentionally interfering with the cultural landscape of the bridges), lack of comprehensive conservation and restoration plans and lack of necessary credit allocations from organizations, entrusted with these works, the non-formal and mere physical restoration of some properties, regardless of the context in which, they are formed, have all made these valuable properties of art and cultural landscape associated with, to increasing degradation. In Lorestan cultural domain, these properties have been constructed with the highest quality of locating and building, and study of these works and conservation challenges of their cultural landscapes, can certainly Conserve bridges, with addition follows:
• To illuminate and conserve various historical layers of the region;
• To preserve the natural environment (including river, valley, etc.) where the bridges are located;
• For legibility and conservation of the region’s indigenous culture and
• To achieve construction technologies of bridges, for future conservation and restoration of these properties.
This research seeks to identify the Cultural landscape of Historic Bridges on the River Kashkan and its conservation challenges, in order to provide a basis for helping, define a systematic model to conserve its cultural landscape. In this regard, the following question is defined as:
• What is the definition of the cultural landscape of historic Bridges on the River Kashkan?
• How can a systematic, structuralist model be achieved to conserve the cultural landscape of historic bridges over the Kashkan River?

According to the epigraph left by the bridge, Badr-ibn-Hasanwayeh has introduced himself as a constructor to this bridges. The cultural landscape of these Bridges is an integrated collection, interacting with humans over time in the geographical domain of middle Zagros. Despite the vagueness of the “cultural landscape” meanings, today this word has become one of the most controversial words in the World Heritage Convention. Challenges are coming into place when modern science cannot face the challenges of different levels and disciplines (Zibalkalam, 2018). Conservation is also no exception to this and has undergone various changes over time to respond to problems, encountered in conservation. The analysis of this research is carried out through “codifying” at three levels: first cycle codifying, second cycle (middle) codifying, and third or final cycle codifying (post-coding). The codes were reviewed and stored to verify the qualitative data, in order to identify conservation principles of the cultural landscape of these Bridge (the core of the research), at the final stage (Afshar, 2014). In the following, by integrating, the results of code analysis are compatible with the dispersive components of the image (Giviyan, 2016). In the following, recommendations for the conservation of selected bridges’ cultural landscapes were categorized into two categories, generic and specific to the selected bridges themselves using qualitative research method, data analysis, and coding operations at three levels to reach the final results of the research.

This research, in the form of fundamental-applied research, was able to identify the conservation of the cultural landscapes of the studied historical bridges and make them applicable to other similar historical bridges in Lorestan. This study was able to introduce recommendations in two general categories Generic and specific to the bridges themselves. In response to the first part of the research question, the concepts and constituent elements of the cultural landscape of historical bridges were identified through the library, field studies, and analysis of various concepts in the subject literature and in accordance with the native conditions of the cultural landscape under study. In answer to the second part of the research question, it can be said that by analyzing the collected literature and taking a look at field studies, by examining and analyzing the challenges of conserving cultural landscapes and the meanings and concepts of conservation in national charters, conventions and treaties, and International; Investigating and analyzing the meanings and concepts of cultural landscapes in national and international charters, conventions and treaties. These recommendations, since taken from the very context of the aforementioned research and context, have been categorized into a specific framework and have created a systematic model for the conservation of the cultural landscapes of the historical bridges studied. 

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