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Showing 1 results for Rayen Citadel.

Masoumeh Barsam, Yosof Faryabi,
year 3, Issue 7 (5-2019)

Rayen and Bam citadels, dating back to ancient civilization from the Sassanid period, has a favorable commercial position due to its location at the intersection of the North to the South of Khorasan and Govashir of Kerman to Bandar Abbas and the west to east of Fars to Baluchistan. Its geography and position on the route of the above-mentioned communication way has always been threatened and invaded by various ethnic groups and governments; the Kerman province during the Islamic period has been the base of riot clashes with the government forces, and construction of many of the Kermans’ citadels and castles had a security and defense function. Two citadels of the Rayen and Bam, from the Sassanid to Qajar era, have played an important role in the life of the communities and the preservation of security in the Kerman area. The main question is, what are the similarities and differences of the defense structures of these citadels from a security perspective? The present study want to identify the security defenses of the two Rayen and Bam citadel in Kerman province and achieve structural defensive patterns and ways to connect, share and differentiate them. The information of this paper was collected through library (documentary) methods, visual observation and comparison of the findings and the research was conducted using an adaptive-analytical method. The presence of a fence, ruler, watchdog, as well as crossed stands and machicolation indicate the military and security function of the two citadels. One can hypothesize that structure of the Rayen defense fortifications is influenced by the Bam Citadel. The results of this study indicate that due to the location of these citadels in the communication paths of Khorasan, Sistan, the center of Iran, these citadels and defense fortifications have been formed in these two regions.
Keywords: Comparative Study, Security Fortification, Bam Citadel, Rayen Citadel.

There are numerous citadels in Kerman province. The importance of Kerman’s citadels is their value to Kerman local rulers and Rayen and Bam citadels are the most well-known castles. These citadels, dating back to civilization of Sasanian times, have a good commercial position due to their location at the intersection of the north-south of Khorasan and Gavashir of Kerman to Bandar Abbas and the west highway to east of Fars-Baluchistan. Their geographical position and route of the highway has always been threatened and invaded by different ethnic groups and governments; therefore, the main question is, how were the ways of sharing and differentiating the defense structures of these citadels from the point of view of defense and security? The present study sought to identify the security defenses of the two Rayen and Bam citadel in Kerman province and achieve structural defensive patterns and their connection, similarities and differentiations.

Research Methodology
The research data were collected using documentary methods, field observations, visual observation and comparison of the obtained results. Then, by comparative studies, considering the similarities and differences between the defenses used in these two categories is adapted with each other.

Background Research
The most comprehensive research on the defense fortifications of Rayen citadel is an article entitled security factors affecting the architecture of the Rayen-Kerman Citadel in 1394, carried out by the writer and Amir Hajlo at the second Birjand Archeology Conference, which dedicated solely to the fortifications of the Rayen Citadel. (Barsam, Amir Hajlo: 1394). Article titled Recognition of the Defense Forces of Bam citadel by Farah Bakhsh and Safa Mansouri (1394) carried out to recognize and introduce the southern fence of the Bam Citadel and has not referred to other defensive elements (Farah Bakhsh; Safa Mansouri: 1394) . Asadpoor Behzadi, in the book “Pearl of the Ancient Sea”, expressed the similarity review of the tower of the citadel to the Bam citadel (Asadpoor Behzadi, 1381). But emphasis is on Bam’s citadel historical perspective. Therefore, this paper conduct comparative study on the defensive fortifications of Bam citadel and Rayen citadel.

Rayen is part of Kerman city with an area of 2596 square kilometers (Khayam and Rajab Ghaneh, 1393: 58), located in 110 kilometers south of Kerman and 28 kilometers southwest of Kerman to Bam road. Bam city, in north of Kerman, from east to Zahedan and Iranshahr, from south to Jiroft and from west to Bardsir city.
Factors affecting the development of defensive and security structures of Bam and Rayen Citadels
1. Military-defense factors
2. Positioning in the communication-commercial direction
3. Climatic features

A Comparative Study of Defense and Security Structures of Rayen and Bam citadels
The defense and security structures of citadels can be examined from enemies attack point of view from the exterior and the interior.
- External defense structures of the citadel
- being on the high
- Fence
- Tower
- Bowstring or outlets
- Ditch
-  Internal Defense Structures
- Entrance to the citadel
- Narrow alleys
- Ruling citadel
- way to escape
- Comparative analysis of defense and military fortifications of two citadel (similarity and differentiation aspects)
- Exterior structure analysis
- one of the first security and defense measures in the location of the citadel is their placement on a relatively high hill.
- the two citadel has a high and solid fence made of mud and brick
- the towers are built in sensitive areas that are located around the aristocracy or overlooking the entrances of the citadel to control the flow and departure of the people.
- other security measures in the construction of citadels were the presence of openings on the entrance that control the movements of people, the shooting or pouring boiling water or molten materials on the attackers.
- Ditch construction
- internal structures:
- Main entrance:
- Narrow alleys
- Ruler position
- the escape way of the ruler house and the ruler place in the citadel is another strategy in security and defense system.

Field studies and documentation show that the architectural structure of the Rayen and Bam citadel can be compared from three perspectives.
A): Security and Defense: The reason for the existence of these citadels for housing is due to the lack of security in the region, wars and bloodshed occurred in the area, these citadels built to protect the ruler family and his courtroom against local opposition. In fact, it can be said that the maintenance of sovereignty of government under any circumstances was a key point in the political structure of the past societies, since the fall of the ruler was the fall of a city. In designing a ruler house in these citadel, security issues strictly observed so that under siege conditions, escape routes prepared secretly for the ruler. More security provided by the passages of these citadels with a low and twisted screw width.
B): Climatic and communication conditions: citadels located in two completely different regions: the Rayen is in a cold and mountainous region in the foothills of the high mountains of Lalezar, Ramshak, Sarabnah, which is a natural barrier. Bam with tropical rainforest in a vast plain has no natural barrier but high and strong towers.
C) Plan and Materials: The principles of Iran traditional architecture are observed in the design and structure of these citadels. In terms of plan, both designed in rectangular form, but in terms of the dimensions, Bam citadel is larger.

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فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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