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year 3, Issue 8 (9-2019)
The most important way of understanding human being in the past is to study their relics and among the works that have made a significant contribution to identifying culture and civilization and many other issues of ancient Iran, the motif are seals. Studies of this kind of data have been the focus of archeologists and historians for many years and many articles and books have been published on this endless subject. Because the seal and sealing in answering some questions, the correct orientation of a number of questions and new questions about social, economic and people perceptions of the past have been raised. In some motives the artist describes his/her world and this kind of description is actually the optimal use of symbols. In the Persepolis museum, there is a black seal that differ substantially from other Achaemenid seals. This bilateral seal is a lesser-known role in the art of molding and is unique in Achaemenid molding. This seal is first published and revised based on various criteria such as art style and symbol interpretation. The main purpose of this article is to document and introduce the symbols of this seal; the author will also answer a few questions about this seal by using descriptive-analytic methods and by using authentic library resources after fully describing this seal. First, what are some of the concepts used on the engraving on the seal? How these symbols originated and whether these forms were the result of Achaemenid thought or a legacy of a very ancient culture?
Keywords: Seal, Achaemenid, Persepolis, Symbol.
On the occasion of the plan of organizing the repositories of the Persepolis museum in the summer of 2015, I had a black seal on a meeting in august of that year. This seal had differences A double-sided stamp seal that is unique in the Achaemenid period. On the other hand, the seals have a special place among the represent the customs, habit and believes of a people and also showcase history, religion, philosophy and art alongside administrative. Social management for centuries, these motives are rooted in ancient Iranian civilization and sometimes influenced by neighboring nations. This portable data has also spread art and culture to other lands due to its use in commercial exchanges, office letters and political relationships. The main purpose of this article is to document this seal and to interpret the emblems that have reached the Achaemenid from the distant past. Recorded in the Persepolis museum of bilateral seal No. 1267. It has a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 9 mm. It is made of stone and its location is Persepolis. There are three distinct roles on the seal. First the man sitting and holding a bowl in his hand and a flower in his other hand. The second is the cedar tree behind the man, and the third is censer in front of the man. The man is Probably a king with a short crown, the hemisphere is like the Achaemenid image.
Three separate images can be seen on the seal, first is the man sitting and holding the wine cup in one hand and the flower in the other the second is the cedar tree behind the man and the third the udsuz in front of the man.
The man is probably a king with a short crown with several congresses, it is depicted from the half- face like the other Achaemenid image, the crown is similar to the Ahura Mazda round Cap. On the king’s seal has the original image and the role of cendar and is quite marginal.
Beneath the crown of hair, curly like all the motifs of persepolis the forehead and back, the king’s face wide and his eyebrows reached the ears, the nose is delicate, long and straight, lips are up and drinking and beard shorter than persepolis motifs but curly, the king’s eyes look great. The king’s neck was proportioned to the body, part of which was nuder the dress, the king’s hands are long and stretched and he looks thin. The king has a lotus flower in his left hand with a bud in his right hand corner, like Darius in the Naghshe Baram. The branch of the flower is tall and its end protrudes from the king’s hands. The king has a large wine cup in his right hand that lifts it up or closes it. The king’s waist is slender and its curvature is quite evident, and the belt is wrapped in two rows around the king’s waist. The king’s feet are on the ground and parallel to the base of the chair. The king’s Boot is a long boot with twisted straps that are not simple in the designs attributed to king Boots, but a simple shoe. Behind the king is a small triangular cedar, there are ten rows of branches on the left and eleven branches on the right of the cedar tree. The branches have all gone upwards and look like praying hands.
It is noteworthy that most tree motifs are on the palm tre seal and less than the cedar tree. Lion painted on a young and very angry seal seems to be a characteristic of most of the lions imprinted in the Achaemenid period. The body of lion is soft and agile, his head turned back. The hands and feet are in a relaxed gait so that the lion triumphantly moves forward the bird on the seal is Dorna that wing has been opened it seems that the artist insisted on drawing the head and neck of the Dorna so as not to induce the role of the Farrah.
Prehistoric believes of Iranian ethnicity have had such a broad role in shaping Iranian art that it is still visible in many works of art, an example is the seal studies. At a time when most of the seals built during the Achaemenid period are cylindrical, a bilateral seal imprinted on Persepolis is the most famous and important Achaemenid city, all the carved motives on it reflect the millennial believes of the Iranian people, some of which still have the same implicatins for contemporary people. None of the motives were devised by the Achaemenid artist, rather, old concepts in a new way with new technology and sophistication are on the seal.
Mossayeb Amiri, Majid Badiei Gavarti,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)
In the repository of Persepolis Museum, there are about 700 pieces of inscribed stones related to the cinctures of Persepolis Palaces, almost all of which are broken and incomplete. It us noteworthy that all the pieces are incomplete and broken in one place and only one cincture in the museum hall is complete and the rest of the pieces are all incomplete. Even the healthy piece was broken at the same point where the other cincture were broken and later repaired. All these fractures and defects have been done intentionally and from two specific places. About 40 of these pieces belonged to Thatcher Palace, and after their arrangement and reconstruction, 12 cinctures were obtained equal to the number of Thatcher Palace columns. In all this number, the name of Xerxes is seen as the builder and there is no other name of the Achaemenid kings. The sculptors have followed a certain pattern for their work. Apparently, all the pieces have inscriptions and these inscriptions were in three living languages of that time, namely ancient Persian, Elamite and Babylonian, and all the inscriptions were carved with cuneiform. These three civilizations were the most important civilizations of their time and they certainly had interactions with each other. In this article, we will try to study the cincture inscriptions of Thatcher Palace columns by descriptive-analytical method. How many paragraphs dose the writing contain and what does it contain? The three languages are compared and analyzed, their differences are identified and finally the cause of their breakdown is investigated.
Keywords: Cuneiform, Cincture, Persepolis, Thatcher Palace.
The common script in Achaemenid times is cuneiform, which some scholars attribute to the previous kings of Darius and even the period of historical beginning (Young, 2007: 38). Elamite was the official language and Aramic language common is most areas under Achaemenid rule. But it should be considered in mind that with the vastness of the Achaemenid territory, there were certainly many linguistic differences in this land, which according to recent linguistic research, probably more than 10 languages were common in this territory, (Anthony, 2013,37). The number of inscriptions from the Achaemenid period that have been discovered so-far is over 40 inscriptions, the most famous of which is the great Bistoon, which is written in three languages: ancient Persian Elamite and Babylonian. With the coming to power of Darius, this line was completed so that the types of verbs and their tenses, as well as pronouns and objects and the construction of verbs in it were well observed, and because it was based on grammar, it was possible to decipher it. It is noteworthy that the cuneiform is the only line that there is slash sign between words, and this feature led Rawlison to decipher it for the first time, and then the starting point for deciphering other lines, such as the Babylonian, Elamute and Assyrians...... The main goal of any linguistic research based on a silent language is to go through the veils of historical and cultural language and to achieve a correct understanding of the inscriptions and a report that is as enlightening as possible, in addition, providing an opportunity to teach a silent language has been a sub-goal of this research. In this research, apart from the ancient Persian language, the Elamite language of the Achaemenid period, which was strange in its birthplace, Iran, has been studied. Unfortunately, less of this research has been by domestic researchers in the field of ancient Iranian languages in the field of Elamite language. Thatcher Palace, column and its cinctures.
Thatcher’s stone cinctures in Persepolis are divided into three categories in terms of material, shape, color, and size.
1. Cinctures made of limestone which has a light gray color and in terms of shape and form has a simple cut and no geometric tools and on it inscriptions in three languages of ancient Persian, Elamite and Babylonian in a very beautiful, technical way carved without the slightest fracture. All letters and symbols have a dimension in the sculpture and have elongated symbols and are neither short nor long due to the small space. For this reason, this type of current is called cuneiform by Nasta’liq writers. (picture7). This cincture sample has not been found more than two samples so-far, for this resin, this specimen must belong to the columns inside Thatcher Palace Hall. The stones with which the sculptors used to build these types of columns were extracted from the mines of the same area. (picture, 1,4,5).
2. The cincture is made of decorative stone or hematite, which is glossy black, this type cincture is smaller in diameter and height than the other two, similar in shape to the first sample, which is made of limestone. The reason for the simplicity of this sample is probably the high degree of hardness of the lathe. On this cincture unlike the first sample, trilingual inscriptions with cuneiform lines are carved in a row and in the same order, a few centimeters apart. In this way, the last sign of the Babylonian cuneiform, which is the end of the inscription, is located a few centimeters behind the beginning of the ancient Persian inscription, the carving of the symbols and letters on it were simple and had no dimension, and perhaps due to the hardness of the stone, they used narrow and simple symbols and letters, and had no small, crushed pieces and also there are two samples of this cincture, one almost complete, which attracted the inside the Persepolis Museum, and the other was half of cincture that was placed in the tank of the same museum. (Picture 2 and 8).
3. Cincture made of decorative stone and light blue color with a gutter tool around its upper edge, also this cincture is larger in diameter and height than the other two types, and triple cuneiform are carved in a row on it. This type of cuneiform has beautiful but it does not have concave dimension and beauty of the first type. (Picture 3and 6). The size of the cinctures starts at 5 Cm and covers up to one third of a cincture. Its inscriptions were masterfully sculpted in ancient Persian, Elamite and Babylonian languages. After arrangement, the pieces reached 12 cincture, which were the number of columns in the Palace. After translating each word, it replaced them and finally a text was obtained that was repeated 12 times in 3 languages. The important point with our discussion was that a common part this text disappeared in the sentence and then continued the sentence to the end.
When Alexander entered Persepolis, more than two centuries had passed since the Achaemenid Kings ruled the world, and more than one hundred and seventy years had passed since the construction of Persepolis. Conqueror historians have written that after Alexander’s conquest of Persepolis, he ordered it Tobe burned while intoxicated at the request of his mistress, and they know this commandment against his inner desire and try to remove this shameful act from his face on the other hand, if Xerxes or his father Darius, he immediately rebuilt it, although such an action, ie the burning of Athens by the Achaemenids, was never reported. With these details, the authors of this article found that the fire and destruction of Persepolis had nothing to do with the above story, Greek soldier, consciously and under Alexander’s direct order, destroyed the inscriptions, symbols and looted the architecture and its treasures. When they translated these inscriptions for Alexander, he saw himself defeating the Achaemenids without a rival to the emperor of the world. As a result, he ordered the destruction of all inscriptions that had such meanings, especially titles such as king of the world etc., for this reason, broken pieces were not found when translating the cincture. There is also a broken statue of Darius in the treasury of Persepolis, which is clearly visible due to the strong blow, especially the left eye of the statue, which is split on both sides and the place of the blow corresponds to the arrow of Alexander’s soldiers, and as you fill the gap with the sculpting paste, it becomes an arrow, the same shapes can be found at the fracture site of the cincture.
year 5, Issue 17 (12-2021)
Obviously Persepolis is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. Numerous scholarly works have been published about this site since the last century. However, this article stresses on a specific and new topic concerning a tool on shoulders of an Indian among India’s delegation in Apadana Palace of Darius the Great. The portrait of the delegation has been pre-served in the eastern and (damaged) northern staircases. The author, unlike previous works, be-lieves that this tool reflects a bamboo-stick which is known in India. Indians used accessible bamboo-sticks, as a native plant, to carry their loads. They put a bamboo-stick on the shoulders while tied two containers in its two sides. The bamboo-stick is also widely used in ritual cere-monies (Hinduism). Clearly, to transfer the holy water of Ganges River to Shiva temples, pil-grims use a bamboo-stick tied to two containers. The bamboo-stick has been a significant tool in Kanwar Cult or Kanwar-yatra in India. Furthermore, Krishna’s Flute is made of a bamboo wood! In the famous Indian story of Shravan Kumar, this devoted child takes his blind parents to pilgrimage with a tool exactly like the one depicted in Persepolis, two baskets attached to bamboo-sticks on the back. Flexible bamboo-stick does not hurt the shoulders, it is easier to control with both hands and it is less likely to break. For this reason, these flexible sticks - un-like scales - do not need handles in the middle and fastenings at the two ends with their bas-kets! In fact, the Indian bamboo-stick carrier arrived at Darius the Great court with a pure Indi-an traditional manner. So, the author relying on the special standing of bamboo stick in Indian culture ranging from ritual ceremonies to the life style challenges previous scholarly works on this subject.
Keywords: CPersepolis, Apadana, India, Bamboo-Stick.
Obviously, Persepolis is one of the most important archeological sites in the world. Many sci-entific works have been published about the site since one hundred years ago. Persepolis is lo-cated 60 km northeast of Shiraz in the Marvdasht plain. Around it, the glorious heritage of the Achaemenid to the Sasanian Empire can be seen on the mountains and valleys. The oldest de-scription of Persepolis, according to Diodorus Siculus (Herzfeld, 1941: 230), is based on ac-counts of Alexander’s appearance in the East. Nevertheless, Iranian geographers of the first Is-lamic centuries such as Mas’udi, Ibn Balkhi and Moqadasi ... have also pointed to this area in-tertwined with King Jamshid (cf. Akbarzadeh, 2014: 36). This magnificent national historical site was registered in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979.
From the late Qajar period, western scholars began exploring and studying ancient sites and Persepolis was one of them. Shapur Shahbazi (2009: online) has referred to a list of these peo-ple. Among them, I should refer to the masters like Schmidt (1953, 1957, 1970; Herzfeld,1941; Stronack, 1961-1963; Behnam, 1939, Mostafavi, 1951, Shahbazi, 1976) and etc.
Topic of the Article
However, the subject of this article is a new research on the portrait of a tax-paying Indian del-egation on the eastern (also damaged northern) stairs of Darius the Great’s Apadana.
An Indian (of the delegation) is carrying something like a scale (according to previous work i.e Schmidt, 1953-1970; Root, 1979, Callieri, 2004: online; Briant is silent; Briant, 2002: 268). Meanwhile, the main question is that: Can this tool be a scale?
This tool, which is the main topic of this article, will be discussed according to a photo about the delegation (Persepolis). To challenge the previous works, I will refer to Indic texts where I will describe some old significant Indian rites.
In the photo, a long carrying stick all over the man’s shoulder (with protrusions on both sides), two cheek baskets that hang from the end of each piece of wood, without any fasteners is clear-ly visible. Moreover, the man’s hands are the most important factor in maintaining this flexible wood attached to heavy baskets on both sides. The powerful Achaemenid craftsman accurately displayed the flexibility of the wood.
A look at the scale’s forms in the ancient world from the Hellenic borders to Egypt and Iran (Buttner & Renn, 2016: 757) as well as text studies (see next) clearly diminishes belief in that the Indian man is carrying a scale!
However, to answer the main question: I should note that this tool can never be a scale as all western and Iranian scholars have been convinced. I would explain it as a bamboo-stick, the fa-mous native plant of the country (India). This plant can be seen all over India, especially along rivers and valleys. The Indians have widely used (even today in villages) flexible bamboo wood to carry light cargo.
In the famous Indian story of Shravan Kumar (Balasokulam, 2005: no. E32), this devoted child takes his blind parents to pilgrimage with a tool exactly like the one depicted in Persepolis, two baskets attached to bamboo-sticks on the back. “Once upon a time, when king Dashrath ruled, there lived a boy named Shravan Kumar. His parents were old and blind. He had to do all the works for them, since they couldn’t see. One day, Shravan Kumar’s parents expressed their de-sire to go on pilgrimage. As an obedient son, he wanted to fulfill their wish; but how would he do that? He couldn’t afford any transportation since he did not have money. He found another way. He took a strong bamboo-stick, tied baskets at its two ends and placed his parents in those baskets…”
Furthermore, the bamboo-stick is mingled with the Hindu beliefs. Krishna normally appears with a flout which is made of bamboo! Sacred Ganga water carries by bamboo-stick (Kanwar) to Shiva Shrines. In fact, Kanwar (Kanwar-yatra-) is a genre of religious performances where participants ritually carry water from a holy source in containers suspended on either side of the pole (cf. Singh: 2017, 46).
The author believes that the portrait of that Indian tribute/gift bearer in Persepolis is only a re-flection of an Indian tradition in which Indians carried their goods in this way. It is strongly be-lieved that the two baskets at the two ends of the stick are the least reason why some scholars have confused it with the scales. In fact, this Indian man, according to his tradition, has brought a gift to the king! The multifunctional bamboo-stick of Persepolis (Skt. Vaina-, Hindi. Behngi and Kanwar (Bihar), probably Sogd. wn-, wn’kh (Apte, 2006: 27; Gharib, 2004: 408) were strongly supported by Indic texts and religious rites. In the story of Sravan Kumar, the loyal child took his parents to the pilgrimage by a bamboo-stick tied to two baskets! Also, Kanwar rite is one of the most important Hinduism beliefs where the bamboo-stick plays a significant role.
A part of religious aspect, flexible bamboo-stick was controllable by hands and it was accessi-ble and none-costly in all parts of the country. Also, Indians were skilled to bring things by such bamboo-sticks.
So, the craftsman recorded a detailed Indic tradition in the court of the Achaemenid king, Dari-us the Great, where this Indian man arrived with a bamboo-stick and nothing more. The author thinks that the bamboo-stick’s flexibility is a reason that some scholars mistakenly supposed some heavy things like gold stones (cf. Shahbazi, 2002, 268) can be referred in the boxes (of the baskets).