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Showing 4 results for Northwest of Iran

Reza Rezalou, Yahya Ayramloo,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
This site is located 60 km southwest of Khalkhal, in Shahrood plane, in Khalkhal city and 180 km south of Ardabil city. In May 2006, during the implementation of the road construction project in Khanghah village, the remains of several graves were revealed. From this date onwards, four seasons of Archaeological studies were conducted on this site. The first season was carried out in the same year, and graves 12, 19 and 25 were explored, among them a grave to the Iron Age I and the other graves belonged to the Iron Age II. The trench B was also explored in order to identify of more tombs. Following the excavation, graves 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 24 were discovered in this trench. According to studies on these graves, 2 graves belonged to the middle Bronze Age, 1 grave to the Iron Age I, 9 graves to the Iron Age II, and 4 graves belonged to the Parthian period. The second season was explored in 2007. In this season, the trench C with dimensions 10 x 10 m on the west side of the trench A and trench D with dimensions of 5 × 5 m along the trench B was explored. As a result, in this season, the remains of the 5 ancient graves were obtained; one of them belonged to the Parthian period, 1 grave to the Middle Bronze Age and three other graves to the Iron Age I. Four scientific explorations have been conducted in which the results of the first season are fully published. In this study, the graves of the Iron Age of the second season of this site are discussed. The comparisons, such as the results of the grave studies of the first season of the cemetery, show a cultural connection with the mid and late bronze Age sites and the Iron Age I and II, indicating a cultural sequence from the Middle Bronze Age to the late Iron Age II, which contrasts with the theory of cultural dynamism. So, the main hypothesis of this study, it is: Theory of cultural dynamism in Iron Age I, in this area isn’t correct. 
Keywords: Northwest of Iran, Ardabil Province, Gilavan Cemetery, Iron Age Burials.

Introduction
Gilavan cemetery is located northwest of Khanghah village and adjoined to it. In terms of archaeological findings, this cemetery is one of the most prominent sites in the north-west of Iran, because of the burial of the three archaeological periods of the middle Ages, the Iron Age and the Parthian period. Four scientific explorations have been conducted in which the results of the first season are fully published. In this study, the graves of the Iron Age of the second season of this site are discussed. During this season, 5 ancient graves were explored, identified by numbers 26, 27, 28, 29 and 31. Grave No. 29 dated to the middle bronze age, graves 26, 28, and 31 dates to the Iron Age I and 27 to the Parthian period. The graves of this cemetery were in the form of a hole in which burials were carried out in single and double burials. In the present study, gravels of the Iron Age of second season were qualitatively, descriptively-analytic and comparative approach, and compared with the effects of other burial grounds of the north-west and neighboring areas. The comparisons, such as the results of the grave studies of the first season of the cemetery, show a cultural connection with the mid and late bronze Age sites and the Iron Age I and II, indicating a cultural sequence from the Middle Bronze Age to the late Iron Age II, which contrasts with the theory of cultural dynamism. The studies of Gilavan cemetery are important because in this area, in the burial findings of the graves, we witness a cultural sequence from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age II. Such results are of particular importance to the studies of the Iron Age, as well as the theory of cultural dynamism in the late period of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, which some researchers believe it to be.

The tombs of Gilavan cemetery in this study
Tomb No. 26: This tomb is located in trench D, and in the northeast it, in a depth of -107 cm from bench mark. This tomb is from type of grave pit that after the burial from the rock has been used to highlighting the grave. This tomb has been belongs to man25 to 30 years old.
Tomb No. 28: This tomb is located in northwest corner of trench C, and highest level this tomb from the ground -149 cm. This tomb is from type of grave pit, and single burial. Tomb No. 28 has been belongs to female 25 to 30 years old. 
Tomb No. 31: This tomb is located in the northern part of trench C, and to form of double burial. Tomb No. 31 is from type of grave pit. 

Conclusion
The study of the graves of the Iron Age of this site indicates that there are many similarities in the burial findings of the northern-western areas of Iran during the bronze and iron period. In other words, the findings of this cemetery can be compared with the burial objects of many sites of the middle bronze, the late bronze and Iron Age I and II, and this represents a cultural sequence during a period to a period Another is in the north-west of Iran and even neighboring areas. It seems that many of the developments in the Iron Age region of Iran are rooted in the earlier period. Many of the forms and techniques of constructing objects represent a kind of evolved designs, and the subject matter that implies the emergence or sudden appearance of them is not visible.

Karim Haji Zadeh Bastani, Esmaeel Maroufi Aghdam, Said Satar Nezhad, Fariborz Tahmasebi,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The tombs or funerary monuments are one of the most important elements of Iranian-Islamic architecture that in different fields require careful investigation. This group of buildings is important among Iranians; for this reason, in each period of the Islamic era of Iran the most important and most used arts related to that period have been used in their construction. Generally, the decoration in buildings has a more effective role, because, if it is understandable in terms of form and structure for archaeologists and designers, it’s possible this isn’t understandable for the general public. So, decorations in the buildings at first sight are attracts the viewer. In this article epigraphy art as one of the most important decorative elements of Islamic buildings have been reviewed in the four Seljuk tombs of Northwest of Iran: Gonbad Sorkh, Borj Modavar in Maragheh, Seh Gonbad, and Gonbad Kabood. The research method in this study is interpretive – historical. In this study with analytical method have been studied decorations of these four tombs (especially in terms of architecture, motifs, inscriptions and their position on the buildings). Also, in addition to reviewing the articles, books, and evidences, with field survey from these tombs, plan and decorations, and then a comparison table of inscriptions has been provided. In this regard, the following questions are raised:
- How is architecture, motifs and decorations of the Seljuk tombs in northwest Iran? And, their inscriptions are divided into several categories in terms of content?
- What are the effects of concepts of the inscriptions on position them on the buildings?
Reviews show that inscriptions of Seljuk tombs in the Northwest are divided into four groups: The Quranic verses, inscription with the theme of the date of construction, inscription with the topic of prayer, and inscription with the theme of the architect and the builder. On the other hand, position these inscriptions in the buildings have been differed proportional in their content. Inscriptions of the Quranic verses in the highest section of building, inscription with topic of prayer in the lower, inscription with the theme of date of construction and architect and builder are placed on the lower levels and on the body of building.
Keywords: Islamic architecture, Seljuk tombs, Northwest of Iran, decorations, inscription.

Introduction
Generally, one way of cognition more about periods of Islamic architecture besides of decorative elements and motifs, is study of inscriptions and their texts. In the Seljuk period, one of their architectural features, are create inscriptions and decorative lines from shaved bricks, that in most of buildings this period (especially tombs) is seen. Furthermore, due to the difficulty of shaving the bricks and the formation of letters and words with it, during this period, the Naskh script was replaced by the Kofi script and inscription with style of stucco was used (Hatam, 1999: 162).
In this article, in addition to reviewing the historical background and the process of build tombs in the Seljuk period to study and compare four tombs in the Seljuk period in Northwest of Iran, first have been introduce architectural features and decorative motifs them. Then, in comparative tables have been specified types of inscriptions and their position on the tombs. In this regard, following questions are raised: How are architecture, motifs and decorations of the Seljuk tombs in northwest Iran? And, their inscriptions are divided into several categories in terms of content? And, what are the effects of concepts of the inscriptions on position them on the buildings?
This study shows, inscriptions of Seljuk tombs in the Northwest are divided into four groups: The Quranic verses, inscription with the theme of the date of construction, inscription with the topic of prayer, and inscription with the theme of the architect and the builder. On the other hand, position these inscriptions in the buildings have been differed proportional in their content. Inscriptions of the Quranic verses in the highest section of building, inscription with topic of prayer in the lower, inscription with the theme of date of construction and architect and builder are placed on the lower levels and on the body of building.

Buildings under study
Gonbad Sorkh: The Gonbad Sorkh is oldest tomb in the Maragheh that is located in the southern part of the city and west side of Hashtrod road. Generally, in the Gonbad Sorkhon and in different parts and also on all sides this tomb is inscription.
Borj Modavar: The Borj Modavar is second tomb built after the Gonbad Sorkh and inside the city of Maragheh. This tomb now is located in Khaje Nasir Street and behind the building of Bank Melli. The Borj Modavar has two inscriptions that both of them are located in the main direction of the building and facing the North. 
Seh Gonbad: The Seh Gonbad is third tomb that was built in the Seljuk period in Azerbaijan. This tomb is located in the southeastern of Urmia city. The three inscriptions with Kofi script and geometric motifs at the facades of this tomb have created beautiful view.
Gonbad Kabood: The Gonbad Kabood after the Gonbad Sorkh and the Borj Modavar is third of building that has been made in the Maragheh city. In this building 5 inscriptions are visible.

Conclusion
It’s certain, in Seljuk period and in the method architects and artists of this period, concepts of inscriptions have played an important role in location of inscriptions. According to this, inscriptions of Quranic verses and inscriptions of mystical concepts and prayers have usually been located at higher levels. Other inscriptions (such as inscriptions with historical or political themes) have usually been located in lower levels. The location of inscriptions in buildings from the down to up in four sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the table below is shown.

Mahnaz Sharifi,
year 5, Issue 15 (6-2021)
Abstract

Abstract
The Zab River basin contains the cities of Piranshahr and Sardasht in West Azerbaijan and parts of the city of Baneh in Kurdistan. The Zab River rises from the Northwest highlands of Piranshahr and after joining many branches passes through the highlands of Alan in Iran and enters Iraq. The extension of this basin is a relatively vertical strip along the Iran-Iraq border and the Little Zab River. Its orientation is Northwest to southeast and from west to east. The Zab Basin is located in an area with a cold and temperate mountainous climate, a Mediterranean rainfall regime, with average annual temperatures between 11.7°C and 13. 3°C and, 700 ml annual rainfall (Hojabri et al 95). This article tries to answer the question of how the cultural relations between this point and other areas of the presence of the late bronze culture have been established by studying the cultural materials belonging to the late bronze cultural tradition in Akhoran tepe. Also, what was the chronology of the stables? The results of archaeological excavations led to the identification of a late Bronze Age camp. The study of Akhoran cultural materials also indicates the presence of a late bronze pottery tradition. Studies and relative chronology of pottery showed that most of the cultural interactions and influences were with Hasanlu regions and outside the borders of Iran with Anatolia and Iraqi Kurdistan. The present study is based on archaeological excavations and then library studies and with a descriptive-analytical approach tries to introduce new pottery of the late Bronze Age.
Keywords: Northwest of Iran, Late Bronze Age, Zab Basin, Akhoran Tepe, Archaeological Excavation, East of Anatoli.

Introduction
The Bronze Age is considered to be the beginning of major social changes in the early third millennium BC. The Hasanlu VI period or the Middle Bronze Age covers from 2100 to 1700 BC (Danti 2013:332 .Table 17.1). During this period, multi-colored and painted wares were commonly used in large parts of Azerbaijan (Dyson 1969). Hasanlu VI ceramic designs were in crossed, checkered, and triangle forms (Dyson 1965). The simple painted pottery, which is the characteristic of the Middle of the 2nd millennium BC, is the same as synchronously identified dishes of Khabur from Northern Mesopotamia and South West Turkey (Dyson 1969: 43-44). Our information on late bronze age in northwest Iran is quite limited. Hasanlu V, is of great importance in this region, but the period has been given relatively little attention. We therefore selected Akhoran Tepe for excavation with the goal of closing this chronological gap in our understanding of Iranian prehistory.
As a local center, the Zab basin generally witnessed the alternation of contacts and conflicts, as is evidenced by the varying patterns in the distribution of recorded sites. Unlike what is characteristic of Mesopotamia and southern Iran in the fourth millennium BC, it has not yet produced any traces of extended settlements and social complexities. 
Previous studies have illustrated that northwest Iran maintained contacts with regions south of Caucasia and the valleys hemmed in by the Aras and Kura rivers to the north, the Central Zagros to the south, and eastern Anatolia and north Mesopotamia to the west via mountain passes. 
Recent archaeological data from the adjacent neighboring regions has corroborated this observation. Therefore, serious investigation in the region has the potential to shed light on broad cultural interactions and evolutions in the middle and northern Middle East. 
The data from Akhoran is thus of considerable importance in this respect, and can improve our understanding of regional and inter-regional interactions. A foremost purpose of this paper is to look into the ties and connections between Akhoran and northwest Iran as a whole, and to explore intra- and inter-regional interactions.
One of our fundamental problems in North West Iran was the lack of excavations, with little information about the Archaeology of the region. The current paper focuses on Akhoran Tepe since we have had a little knowledge about the late Bronze Age in the Little Zab River. 

Archaeological Background
North West Iran has a particular Archeological importance since it accumulates different prehistoric periods. The area is also important from the point of view of Archeological literature since it is at a crossroad facilitating the passing of nations and trading. With regard to the history, the basin is among those that attracted the attention of domestic and foreign scholars at the dawn of professional Archaeology in Iran (Motarjem Sharifi 2014: 50).
A long-lasting Hasanlu Project started by the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania in 1956 under the guidance of Robert H. Dyson, is the most significant work carried out in this basin (Dyson, 1968; 1969). On the other hand, the work at Yanik Tepe, the Northeastern basin of the lake began in 1960 by Charles Burney that furnished important details, among them the identification of the Trans-Caucasian culture’s infiltration into Northwestern Iran (Burney 1961; 1962; 1964). Indeed, earlier excavations conducted by Burton-Brown at Geoy Tepe, in the same basin, had uncovered evidence of the Trans-Caucasian culture at Level K (Burton Brown 1951). Later excavations by Burney at Haftvan Tepe brought to light further aspects of the Bronze and Iron Age cultures.
This region experienced the Middle Bronze culture known as Urmia ware with monochrome and polychrome pottery. Danti divides the Middle Bronze Age into three periods (Danti 2013: 332).
We also know about the Urmia ware in Haftavan VIB. Investigation and recognition of the Urmia ware was carried out by Edwards (Edwards 1983).

Conclusion
Akhoran can well supplement the limited dataset at hand for Hasanlu V. An important point about this site is the absence of the middle bronze material culture. Tepe Akhoran is one of the sites with deposits of the Late bronze age within the prospective reservoir of the kani sib  Dam. The main objective of this excavations is to establish the cultural sequence of the site. Other aims include dating the most important settlement attested at the site, and pinpointing the subsistence system of the late bronze age community that occupied it. The nature of the settlement and material culture of the Hasanlu VI period in Dinkhah Tepe and the limitation of the Khabur pottery to the southern areas of Lake Urmia strongly suggest that during this period, people from Mesopotamia migrated to the Ušnu- Solduz valley (Danti et al 2004.584).  In the Piranshahr area, excavations at Akhoran Hill provided evidence of a new bronze tradition in the Zab Basin.
The most important cultural material of the Akhorn  in  late  bronze age is  potteries, which is produced in a simple and painted sherds. The pottery from Tepe Akhoran is comparable to the material coming from the, Azerbaijan and the Anatoly. 
The pottery is decorated with geometric patterns. The shape of the dishes is more inclined to closed-mouth dishes. Also, what the data of Akhoran excavations show indicates the cultural relations of this region with other parts of the Urmia Lake basin, including Hasanlu, and outside the borders of Iran, the areas of Anatolia and Iraqi Kurdistan. This area may be geographically more inclined to Anatolia. 

Atefeh Rasouli, Alireza Hejebri-Nobari, Haeideh Khamseh,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)
Abstract

Abstract
In explaining Iron Age archeology, the study of metal artifacts is of particular importance because of the hidden technical values. The study of metalworking methods enhances our understanding of the industrial centers of metallurgy, stylistics, and available mines. The purpose of this study is to identify the methods of construction and elemental analysis of “ornaments” discovered from “Iron Age” sites in northwestern Iran, using metallographic experiments and an SEM-EDS elemental analysis device. In the Iron Age, the making of metal objects, especially those with many ornaments, flourished. Therefore, knowing the manufacturing methods and the type of alloy used in them is one of the essentials of this research. This research responds to the question, what methods used to make the discovered ornaments from the Iron Age sites in the northwest? Or what were the most used elements in the construction of these objects? In these areas, the current research hypothesis is that most of the “ornaments” made by hot hammering and casting methods and have a large amount of tin in their structure, which uses for greater strength and flexibility of copper and tin (bronze) alloys. In this study, several samples of ornaments discovered from Iron Age sites in northwestern Iran, which were geographically very close to each other, were tested by metallography and elemental analysis. In this experiment, using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an SEM-EDS element analyzer, making these metal objects and their constituent elements were determined. This study shows that the main methods of making these metal objects have been hot hammering, but those objects that had a large volume made using the casting method. Also, the most used element to increase the strength and flexibility of objects is the element of tin. 
Keywords: Iron Age, Northwest of Iran, Bronze Objects, Metallography, SEM-EDS.

Introduction
In the Iron Age areas of the northwest, metalworking was done at an advanced level. The expansion of the tradition of metalworking in the northwest can be seen in other Iron Age areas of Iran. (Talaei, 2001:77-83) One of the reasons for the development of metalworking in the Iron Age areas of northwestern Iran has been the abundance of copper and iron ore mines in this region. During the excavations of the Hasanlu area in the south of Lake Urmia, founded a large number of iron and bronze objects. The large volume of metal objects discovered in the Hasanlu area indicates the prevalence of metalwork in this region of the Iranian plateau. (Pigott, 1989: 67-79) According to the studies, the residents of Hasanlu have supplied their required copper ore and iron ore from the mines that probably existed around this area. The development of metalworking art in this region, in addition to the existence of metal mines and fuel reserves, has been the development of furnaces and metal smelting molds, which in some Iron Age sites such as Hasanlu, obtained a large number of these metal smelting molds. The main reasons for the development of technology and style of metal products in northwestern Iran in the Iron Age could have been powerful governments such as Urartians and Manas. (Aliun and Sadraei, 2011) They were skilled metalworkers in the vicinity of Iron Age sites. One of the signs of this effect is discovering a bronze bracelet discovered in the Toul Talesh cemetery in northern Iran, which shows the expansion of Urartian territory in this region. There is a Urartian cuneiform inscription on it. This inscription shows that Argishti II, King of Urartu, gave this bracelet to Khaledi God. This person could have been a prince or a military person. (Tahmasebi and Masoudi Nia, 2015) The main issue of this research is to know the construction methods and the constituent elements of the jewelry discovered from the northwestern region of Iran. In the Iron Age, especially the Seldouz valley, these sites are primarily located in the Seldoz Valley and are geographically very close to each other, which can help understand the methods of construction and elemental analysis of the metal samples tested. The present research has been done by analytical-experimental method and based on scientific and laboratory studies. The purpose of this study is to identify the methods of construction and elemental analysis of “ornaments” discovered from “Iron Age” sites in northwestern Iran, using metallographic experiments and an SEM-EDS elemental analysis device. This research responds to the question, what methods used to make the discovered ornaments from the Iron Age sites in the northwest? Or what were the most used elements in the construction of these objects? In these areas, the current research hypothesis is that most of the “ornaments” made by hot hammering and casting methods and have a large amount of tin in their structure, which uses for greater strength and flexibility of copper and tin (bronze) alloys.

Materials and Methods 
In this research, the first eight metal samples from different Iron Age sites in northwestern Iran were collected through the reservoir of the National Museum of Tehran and sampled in the same place, and then sent to the Materials and Metallurgy Laboratory of the Sharif University of Technology for metallographic testing.

Discussion
Laboratory analysis and elemental analysis of metal samples using the SEM-EDS method show that a small amount of arsenic was founded in the alloy composition of the samples Because most copper metal ores before extraction and smelting contain amounts of arsenic. Therefore, there is a possibility of the unintentional existence of arsenic in the composition of these metals. Another element that a large percentage obtained in the composition of these metal samples is tin. Metallographic images of the ML-98-7 and ML-98-8 specimens show that these two specimens have a branched or dendritic structure in their body and are made by casting. Also, tiny cracks on the metallographic images of ML-98-2-ML-98-3 and ML-98-6 samples formed due to stress and fatigue caused by continuous hammering work on these metal works. The dark spots seen in most of these microscopic images indicate oxygen, carbon, and a lack of copper and tin, which have caused corrosion and sulfidation of these metal objects.

Conclusion
The results from the images obtained by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an SEM-EDS device found that the metal samples have a relatively large amount of tin. A small percentage of arsenic found in the metal samples tested. Considering the amount of arsenic in these samples can be concluded that metalworkers of this period may not have noticed the harms of using arsenic at that time and therefore used this element to improve the properties of bronze alloy. Ancient metalworkers used tin, arsenic, and antimony elements in the composition of bronze alloys to increase the hardness of the work. The items in the category of jewelry need to pay more to get the right shape. Another possibility is the unintentional presence of arsenic. The presence of large amounts of tin in these samples indicates that arsenic may have been naturally present in copper ores and Ancient metalworkers used tin to lower the melting point of copper and increase its strength and flexibility. Microscopic studies of bronze objects show that many copper sulfide compounds are present in metal samples. The presence of copper sulfide inclusions dispersed on the surface of the metal matrix and stretched in the longitudinal direction of the microstructure of ancient copper alloys may indicate the use of oxide ores along with some copper sulfide ores for extraction. Most of the ornaments found in the northwestern Iron Age sites, such as bracelets and collars, were made by hot hammering, subsequent hammering or forging, and objects with larger volumes and decorations molded by casting. In general, the objects discovered from the Iron Age sites in the northwest, especially the Hassanlou site, are more complex in terms of technique and construction style than the Iron Age sites in other parts of Iran, where existed local and indigenous governments. This issue has been due to the proximity of northwestern Iran to powerful governments such as Urartu and Manna.


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