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Showing 3 results for Late Chalcolithic

Morteza Zamani, Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrian,
year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
The Marivan Plain is a small elongated alluvial plain which lies at the westernmost extent of the Zagros Mountains in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and c. 80 km west of the provincial capital Sanandaj. The plain is c. 60 km from the Iraqi city of Sulaymaniyah and less than 20 km from the Sharizor Plain in Iraq to the west. The plain is located between two archaeologically important regions of western Iran: the central Zagros to the southeast and the Lake Urmia region to the northeast. Early studies of prehistoric periods were mainly conducted in these two regions, while little attention was paid to the region of Marivan. Prior to the commencement of the 2018 project, an earlier survey in the Marivan region had been carried out by Department of Archaeology at Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan (Iran). Research focused on the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods and, unfortunately, evidence from the Chalcolithic periods is yet to be published. In 2018, we began to re-examine ancient settlement in the Marivan region with a 4 week survey. The survey identified and documented more than 60 sites. Preliminary studies of the material collected during the survey resulted in the identification of about 13 sites dating to the Chalcolithic period; it was possible to differentiate the material sufficiently to allocate occupation at the sites to the Early, Middle and Late Chalcolithic periods. This paper presents the important and new evidence of the development of Late Chalcolithic period settlement and is starting to provide an insight into the impact of the Uruk Expansion in this part of the Zagros Mountains. Even the Late Chalcolithic (LC) period in Marivan area is somewhat overlap to Uruk (early, middle and late) period in Mesopotamia, until LC5 phase (Tepe Rasha), not any Mesopotamian influences is evident in Marivan sites. 
Keywords: Marivan Plain, Late Chalcolithic, Uruk, Mesopotamia, Tape Godin.

Introduction
This paper presents the first results from the Marivan Plain Survey (MPS) in the province of Kurdistan – one of the westernmost regions of Iran and the Zagros Mountains. The project recorded important new evidence of the development of Late Chalcolithic period settlement and is starting to provide an insight into the impact of the Uruk Expansion in this part of the Zagros Mountains. The MPS project began work on the Marivan Plain in the summer of 2018. It is undertaking a review of previous survey work in the region and is directed by Morteza Zamani with the assistance of Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrian. The Marivan Plain is a small elongated alluvial plain (UTM 38S 603000E, 3930000N) which lies at the westernmost extent of the Zagros Mountains in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and c. 80 km west of the provincial capital Sanandaj. The plain is c. 60 km from the Iraqi city of Sulaymaniyah and less than 20 km from the Sharizor Plain in Iraq to the west. In the past, the plain of Marivan with its picturesque Lake Zerewar an important node in the communication routes between Iraq and Iran. The plain is located between two archaeologically important regions of western Iran: the central Zagros to the southeast and the Lake Urmia region to the northeast. Early studies of prehistoric periods were mainly conducted in these two regions, while little attention was paid to the region of Marivan. In 2018 the MPS began to re-examine ancient settlement in the Marivan region with a 4 week survey. The survey identified and documented more than 60 sites. Preliminary studies of the material collected during the survey resulted in the identification of about 13 sites dating to the Chalcolithic period; it was possible to differentiate the material sufficiently to allocate occupation at the sites to the Early, Middle and Late Chalcolithic periods.

Conclusion
Investigations conducted by the MPS on the Marivan Plain have resulted in the identification of two preliminary trends related to LC period sites:
Firstly, the MPS has recorded several sites dating to the Middle Chalcolithic and the later part of the LC period. Except for a few earlier LC (2) shreds (Godin VII/VI:3 period) identified from the site of Aba Fatol, not any LC 2 sites have yet been confirmed on the Marivan plain. This contrasts with other areas of western Iran and the province of Kurdistan where early LC2 sites are common. At this stage of research on the plain, it seems that there was a lower number of sites in the earlier LC (LC2) compared to both the previous Middle Chalcolithic period (Seh Gabi and Dalma pottery traditions) and the subsequent later part of the Late Chalcolithic –LC 3-5 (Godin VI: 2-1).
Secondly, the MPS recorded Uruk culture related material from a single site (Tepe Rasha) and only in the form of Bevelled Rim Bowl shreds. This is surprising and suggests that cultural interaction with southern Mesopotamia was limited or that what impact there was from cultural interaction was low and did not permeate into the local cultures. Limited evidence of contact with Uruk Mesopotamia is also evident from recent surveys in north-western Iran and in northern parts of the Iraqi foothills of Zagros. In contrast, distinct and substantial evidence of contact with the south is to be found in the central Western Zagros and Central Plateau of Iran and on the plains south of the Greater Zab River in north-eastern Iraq. Iran  and particularly  its western regions is crucial for the understanding of key events in the history of Mesopotamia, one of which is the spread of Uruk culture from southern Mesopotamian into neighbouring regions during the Late Chalcolithic (LC) period (5th-4th millennia B.C.). 

Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrain,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
The 4th millennium BC is one of the most important periods of the history. During the 4th millennium BC, the first urban societies were established in southern Mesopotamia and south-western Iran. Even southern Mesopotamia and southwestern Iran are among central regions of urbanization, but adjacent areas, particularly Central Zagros in western Iran, have played the main role in this process. Godin Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites during the 4th millennium BC in western Iran which has main role in the urbanization studies. The excavation of this site and Seh Gabi in Kangavar shaped the cultural sequence of Central Zagros until now.  Even this site has close cultural interaction with northern region such as Urmia basin during 5th millennium BC, but later in the 4th millennium BC, this interaction has changed from north to east and to the Central Plateau. The most significant characteristics of the interactions between Godin and the Central Plateau, is some fair painted buff pottery (Godin VI painted pottery) which is reported from the late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau (Sialk III6-7b). Regarding the existence  of this painted pottery throughout chalcolithic period ( not only late chalcolithic) in the Central plateau and the absence of this ware in preceding  period(Godin VII) in Godin sequence, it should be noted that the Godin VI painted buff ware is not local in Kangavar area. It has a foreign provenance that should be looked after in Central Plateau. Our methodology in this paper is comparison of this fine painted buff pottery from Godin VI period with the previous coarse ware of Godin VII, and with same ware of late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau.  We do not believe in immigration hypothesis about this intrusive ware in Godin sequence. Obviously future studies will be needed.
Keywords: Prehistory of Central Zagros, Late Chalcolithic, Godin VI Pottery, Sialk III Pottery.

Introduction
The 4th millennium BC is one of the most important periods of the history? During the 4th millennium BC, the first urban societies were established in southern Mesopotamia and south-western Iran. Even southern Mesopotamia and southwestern Iran are among central regions of urbanization, but adjacent areas, particularly Central Zagros in western Iran, have played the main role in this process. Godin Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites during the 4th millennium BC in western Iran which has main role in the urbanization studies. The excavation of this site and Seh Gabi in Kangavar shaped the cultural sequence of Central Zagros until now. The focus of our studies is on Godin VII-VI strata which overlapped somewhat with Uruk period in Mesopotamia.  About this period and particularly those well-known Godin V rounded building, many papers were published. Our goal is to study the buff painted pottery of period VI (VI1).  Comparing to the previous period (Godin VII) characterized by coarse and plain chaff tempered pottery, the fine wheel made pottery of period VI is an intrusive one. Noted that the same painted buff pottery was reported from the late chalcolithic period sites of Central plateau, Sialk III6-7b and Ghabristan IV (Fazeli et al 2013, Majidzadeh 1978, 1981). In contrast to Central Zagros where this buff painted pottery was introduced in period VI abruptly, in Central Plateau this pained ware was reported from the previous period (Sialk II-III). Also the Central plateau wares have more divers shape and motif comparing to the Central Zagros so our evidence showing that the original provenance of this painted pottery is in the Central plateau and not in Central Zagros. Noted that east of central Zagros and Central Plateau of Iran during the fourth millennium BC had a great interaction with each other that as a result such painted pottery was developed from the Central plateau to Kangavar.  
Question, Research Method: As mentioned, the focus of this paper is on the fourth millennium BC and on the chalcolithic period strata of Tepe Godin and particularly Godin VI painted buff pottery (Levine and Young 1987, Young 2004, Rothman and Badler 2011, Moghaddam and Javanmardzadeh 2012, Wiess and Young 1975, Young 1969, Young and Levine 1974, Badler 1995, Mattews 2006). Godin tepe reached its maximum level of social complexity in the fourth millennium BC and has great interaction with neighboring areas and particularly the Central plateau of Iran.
 This painted buff pottery is reported from the late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau of Iran. Our methodology in this paper is comparison of this fine painted buff pottery from Godin VI period with the previous coarse ware of Godin VII,and with same ware of late chalcolithic period sites of the Central plateau. Introducing this painted pottery in the Godin sequence abruptly, the occurrence of this ware not only in late chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau but throughout the chalcolithic period and diverse shape and decoration of this ware in chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau, demonstrated that this ware is related to the  Central Plateau. It was considered as an intrusive ware in the eastern Central Zagros area such as Godin Tepe. Godin Tepe has solid cultural interaction with neighboring areas during the prehistory. During the middle chalcolithic period, this interaction was toward the north and particularly the lake Urmia basin. But in 4th Millennium BC this interaction was changed from north to east and to the Central Plateau.(Roustaie and Azadi 2017). This painted buff pottery is considered as a main evidence of this interaction. Future studies will tell us more about the eastern Central Zagros- Central Plateau interaction.

Conclusion
Introducing this painted pottery in the Godin sequence abruptly, the occurrence of this ware not only in late chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau but throughout the chalcolithic period and diverse shape and decoration of this ware in chalcolithic period sites of Central Plateau, demonstrated that this ware is related to the  Central Plateau. It was considered as an intrusive ware in the eastern Central Zagros area such as Godin Tepe. The main question regarding this fine painted pottery is about the sudden emergence of this pottery in the sequence of Godin and how it developed from the central Plateau and reached the eastern Central Zagros in the west of Iran?    
 We do not believe in immigration hypothesis about this intrusive ware in Godin sequence as those theory explained for Godin VII Plume ware at Central plateau. As noted at fourth millennium BC, Godin tepe at west of Iran reached its maximum level of social complexity and is one of the most important trade centers which has great contact and interaction with neighboring areas and particularly the Central plateau of Iran. This trend was started at Godin VII period and those plume wares of Zagros were reported from the Central plateau of Iran. noted that before Godin VII period and during the fifth and sixth millennium BC, west of Iran had great interactions and contact with the northwest of Iran. With the beginning of Godin VII period and specially Godin VI period, the direction of communication was changed from north to the east and the areas like the Central plateau become the main commercial partner of the western Iran at fourth millennium BC. Consequently, this fine painted ceramic was evidence of this interactions and communications.  Obviously future studies and excavations will tell more about this fine painted ware in western Iran.

Mandana Sadafi, Sajjad Alibaigi, Francois Desset,
year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022)
Abstract

Abstract
Considering the importance of the Late Chalcolithic Period, especially at the end of the period, we see the emergence of the first cities and early state formation; therefore identifying the types of sites and cultural materials of this period can add important information to our knowledge about it. Among the most noteworthy tendencies of this period are the population growth, the expansion of exchange, and growing craft specialization. Despite our knowledge of different types of cultural materials, especially the pottery traditions of the Late Chalcolithic Period of the Central Zagros region, our knowledge of “Coba” pottery in Iran is limited. which were mass-produced in the northern Mesopotamia, Syria and Turkey in different forms during the “Post-Ubaid” and from the LC1 period onwards. So far, there has been little discussion about the presence of this type of vessel in Iran. This study examines Coba bowls in western Iran, especially the Kermanshah plain, and tries to answer the questions by a descriptive andanalytical method, while discussing the technological characteristics and the time span of Coba bowls in the prehistoric site of Taq-e Bustan? Also, what view do these new findings give us in terms of the distribution of these wares? The abundance of these bowls in the excavation of Taq-e Bustan in 2015 and other discovered samples from Kermanshah province and western Iran provide new evidence that this pottery tradition covered a wide area in western Iran. These samples show that we are facing a significant abundance of type 3 and 4 of Coba bowls and the bold presence of these types indicates the spread of this ware to western parts of Iran such as the Central Zagros in the Early Uruk period.
Keywords: Kermanshah, Taq-e Bustan, Late Chalcolithic, Post-Ubaid, Coba Bowls.

Introduction
Given that the fourth millenium B.C coincides with major structural changes, including the emergence of social hierarchy, technological innovations and economic reorganization, and finally the emergence early states and cities, the presence and distribution of Coba bowls, also known as mass-produced, represents a wider range of communication and interaction in the early fourth mill B.C between Mesopotamia and the Central Zagros than previously thought. Here, we aim to answer the two following questions: What are the technological characteristics of the prehistoric Taq-e Bustan place bowls? Which time period does this type of ware cover? Also, what image do these new findings provide of the distributional pattern? Therefore, the authors in this article will try to evaluate the presence of these findings in relation to the origin of this pottery and the main area of its development.
The area of Taq-e Bustan West Park, which is also known as Parthian Cemetery, is located in the northeast of Kermanshah city and the foothills of the mountains and in the west of Taq-e Bustan historical place next to a spring full of water at an altitude of 1395 meters above sea level. During the excavations of this area in 1394, a new collection of finds associated with the fourth millennium BC (traces of the Late Chalcolithic Period settlement beneath the layers containing the Parthian Cemetery) was revealed. During the initial studies, this area was considered to be on the same horizon as the Godin IV3 period.

Discussion
During the classification, typology and comparison of the pottery collection, one of the special types of pottery forms called Coba bowl was revealed in this area. The Coba bowls are the hallmark of the Post-Ubaid ceramic horizon, which has been present in four different types from the LC1 to LC3, in a wide range, including northern Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Syria. Samples of bowls from the Taq-e Bustan site are found in large numbers, upside down on the bottom floor and inside the jar. The presence of these bowls along with spherical body bowls (also know as curved bowl) -with simple rim and grooved body-, beaded-rim bowls, bowls similar to Hammerhead bowl, painted pottery comparable to pottery from Godin Tapeh of the VI3 period and other forms of pottery, are important. Based on the comparisons made, and considering the samples with absolute chronology of the Central Plateau, Central Zagros and areas outside the borders of Iran, as well as according to the radiocarbon samples obtained from the Godin period VI1, a date of about 3800 or 3700 (LC2-3) can be suggested for the settlement of Late Chalcolithic period of the Taq-e Bustan and its pottery. Samples of bowls from the Taq-e-Bostan prehistoric place are comparable to Coba bowls, such as Wide-Flower pots, conical, or V-shaped bowls. These bowls, which are considered as a relatively unknown types of this period in Iran, have not been noticed so far, if in addition to the Taq-e Bustan site, they have been obtained from Ja-baq site in Doroud Faraman of Kermanshah, Tepe Kheibar of Rawansar, Tapeh Morad Weis 2 in Sar Pol-e Zahab, Godin Tapeh period VI3, Shahzade Abdollah site in Khorramabad, Garmesi Site in Deh Luran, Tepe Badamyar of Rabat and Qale Nane in Marivan. The presence of this type of pottery in areas far from its already known areas of distribution, especially in the Central Zagros, can provide a new perspective for transregional interactions and further our understanding of the nature of society in the early fourth millennium BC in the Zagros.

Conclusion
Among the cultural finds of this site, the Wide-Flower pots with a relatively rough and uneven surface, straw temper and generally with grey core have a strong presence in the studied assemblage. Its already known sphere of development includes the northern Mesopotamia, Syria and Anatolia. The Coba bowls are an important feature of the Post-Ubaid ceramic horizon which lasts until the LC3 period. According to the division that the researchers have considered for Coba bowls, the Coba bowls of the prehistoric site of Taq-e Bustan are comparable to the third and fourth types of this V-shaped bowl, which are mostly known in the eastern areas such as Keban, Habur and Iraqi Jezira. It is certain that with further excavations and surveys, there is a possibility of changing this zoning/sphere, because examples of these bowls (V shape) are also found in western areas such as Amuq, Cilicia and southern Anatolia. These bowls are generally referred to as mass-produced bowls due to the discovery of large quantities in archaeological contexts, and the function attributed to this type of bowl generally includes household activities. Excavation in the prehistoric site of Taq-e Bustan shows the expansion of the Coba bowl sphere to the western regions of Iran, such as the Kermanshah plain in the Central Zagros. Existence of these bowls along with other comparable pottery forms in different regions within the current borders of Iran and many comparable examples in the Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Syria and the use of the Flint-scrap Technique on the surface of vessels of these sites, especially the bowls which are one of the features of the Northern Mesopotamian pottery tradition (Chaff faced-ware or Post-Ubaid culture) during the late fifth and early fourth millennium BC, indicate the prevalence and continuity of the presence of Northern Mesopotamian pottery traditions, along with the early Uruk pottery culture in the Central Zagros. This reflects the extensive regional and trans-regional relations between these areas.


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