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Showing 3 results for Islamic Architecture

Reza Ghaffari Haris, Rana Fasihi,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The purpose of this research is analysis and survey architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh. The research method in this study is based on surveying and descriptive analysis. The data of this research are contains 14 mosques in Maragheh, that from these numbers 8 mosques haven’t been studied because of that general reconstruction or without being pillars. So, in this study 6 mosques of Maragheh have been surveyed and analyzed. Today, because of the lack of use this kind of decorations in the construction of mosques and their uniqueness, this study is essential. The wooden capitals in this research are decorated with motifs of stalactite work and woodturning with shapes of geometric dangling, stair, and crenate. On these capitals are abundantly seen decorations of arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names. The results of this study indicate that decorations architecture of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh despite having art style of unit, they have variety of colors, designs and form of pillars. The method of doing this research is field-library. The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. Thus, two main questions in this research that the authors try to analyze them is as follows: Can with compare and analyze the decorations of pillars common tips between them found? And, what have decorations of pillars pattern? 
Keywords: Decorations, wooden pillars, mosques of Maragheh, Islamic architecture.

Introduction 
In monuments and mosques have been used from the wood as the main components and also as a decorative element. The slender and long wooden trunks with decorations as carrier pillars of roof have been used in buildings. These wooden pillars have played a key role in holding pillars and prayers hall of mosques. The decorating the inner surface of wooden roofs has been of evolved over time and arrived in the late centuries of Islamic to ultimately development. During the Safavid period, that construction of wooden ceilings, known as Chehelsotun, has become spread (Soleymani et.al, 2011: 27).
In Maragheh city is remained wooden mosques of beautiful from Safavid period. These mosques have been contains 14 mosques, but in this research have been studied decorations of pillars mosques Molla Rostam, Molla Moez Aldin, Zarir, Sefid, Ghazi, and Najarlar. These mosques have wooden decorations and the capitals of wooden stalactite in these mosques have been decorated with motifs of arabesque and calligraphy. The artists tried in decoration of these pillars have been used the most beautiful and diverse designs. The authors in this research, after survey all of the pillars, have been presented the fixed pattern from them. So, due to the registration of Maragheh wooden mosques in the national monuments list and wooden decorations of unique them, do this research is essential.
The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. The study of library resources is contains of study the articles and books published in this field and also use the archive of cultural heritage administration of Maragheh County.

Introducing samples of mosques
Mosque of Molla Rostam: This mosque is located in the south side of the Molla Rostam square and among the Chay Osto Bazaar. Most of the pillars of this mosque are made of wood and stalactite motifs. The wooden pillars in this mosque have been prepared from Sepidar tree and woodturning to form of octagonal.
Mosque of Molla Moez Aldin: This mosque is located on the west side of the Khoshkbar square (Salar neighborhood and Hatam alley) in Maragheh city. The mosque of Molla Moez Aldin has two prayers halls of eastern and western. These two prayers halls have roof with flat cover and beamed ceiling, and with the capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Zarir: This mosque is located in the northeastern part of Maragheh City and in street of Mir Habib Agha. The roof with flat cover of prayers hall in mosque of Zarir has six wooden pillars in two rows. Each of these pillars are consists of a stone pedestal, stem of wooden pillar, and capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Sefid: This building is located in the southeastern part of the historical context of Maragheh city, and along one of the historical and main gates of this city in the name of “Darvazeh Biron Ghaleh”. The prayers hall of this mosque has the pillar, and the pillars of them are numbers three.
Mosque of Ghazi: This mosque is located in the Ghazi neighborhood of Maragheh city and corner of Ghods street. The date of construction this mosque is Safavid period. The prayers hall mosque of Ghazi has roof with flat cover, and six of pillars with capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Najarlar: This mosque is located in the Qom neighborhood of northern in Maragheh city. The plane of this mosque is to form of rectangle, and has a prayers hall with three numbers of pillars with stalactite.

Conclusion
The motifs and schemes in architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh, in addition to the have artistic style of unit, they have color variation, scheme, and form in pillars. According to the construction period these mosques, we can see differences in them. The main decorations in these mosques are contains of the rich motifs and arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names.

Karim Haji Zadeh Bastani, Esmaeel Maroufi Aghdam, Said Satar Nezhad, Fariborz Tahmasebi,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The tombs or funerary monuments are one of the most important elements of Iranian-Islamic architecture that in different fields require careful investigation. This group of buildings is important among Iranians; for this reason, in each period of the Islamic era of Iran the most important and most used arts related to that period have been used in their construction. Generally, the decoration in buildings has a more effective role, because, if it is understandable in terms of form and structure for archaeologists and designers, it’s possible this isn’t understandable for the general public. So, decorations in the buildings at first sight are attracts the viewer. In this article epigraphy art as one of the most important decorative elements of Islamic buildings have been reviewed in the four Seljuk tombs of Northwest of Iran: Gonbad Sorkh, Borj Modavar in Maragheh, Seh Gonbad, and Gonbad Kabood. The research method in this study is interpretive – historical. In this study with analytical method have been studied decorations of these four tombs (especially in terms of architecture, motifs, inscriptions and their position on the buildings). Also, in addition to reviewing the articles, books, and evidences, with field survey from these tombs, plan and decorations, and then a comparison table of inscriptions has been provided. In this regard, the following questions are raised:
- How is architecture, motifs and decorations of the Seljuk tombs in northwest Iran? And, their inscriptions are divided into several categories in terms of content?
- What are the effects of concepts of the inscriptions on position them on the buildings?
Reviews show that inscriptions of Seljuk tombs in the Northwest are divided into four groups: The Quranic verses, inscription with the theme of the date of construction, inscription with the topic of prayer, and inscription with the theme of the architect and the builder. On the other hand, position these inscriptions in the buildings have been differed proportional in their content. Inscriptions of the Quranic verses in the highest section of building, inscription with topic of prayer in the lower, inscription with the theme of date of construction and architect and builder are placed on the lower levels and on the body of building.
Keywords: Islamic architecture, Seljuk tombs, Northwest of Iran, decorations, inscription.

Introduction
Generally, one way of cognition more about periods of Islamic architecture besides of decorative elements and motifs, is study of inscriptions and their texts. In the Seljuk period, one of their architectural features, are create inscriptions and decorative lines from shaved bricks, that in most of buildings this period (especially tombs) is seen. Furthermore, due to the difficulty of shaving the bricks and the formation of letters and words with it, during this period, the Naskh script was replaced by the Kofi script and inscription with style of stucco was used (Hatam, 1999: 162).
In this article, in addition to reviewing the historical background and the process of build tombs in the Seljuk period to study and compare four tombs in the Seljuk period in Northwest of Iran, first have been introduce architectural features and decorative motifs them. Then, in comparative tables have been specified types of inscriptions and their position on the tombs. In this regard, following questions are raised: How are architecture, motifs and decorations of the Seljuk tombs in northwest Iran? And, their inscriptions are divided into several categories in terms of content? And, what are the effects of concepts of the inscriptions on position them on the buildings?
This study shows, inscriptions of Seljuk tombs in the Northwest are divided into four groups: The Quranic verses, inscription with the theme of the date of construction, inscription with the topic of prayer, and inscription with the theme of the architect and the builder. On the other hand, position these inscriptions in the buildings have been differed proportional in their content. Inscriptions of the Quranic verses in the highest section of building, inscription with topic of prayer in the lower, inscription with the theme of date of construction and architect and builder are placed on the lower levels and on the body of building.

Buildings under study
Gonbad Sorkh: The Gonbad Sorkh is oldest tomb in the Maragheh that is located in the southern part of the city and west side of Hashtrod road. Generally, in the Gonbad Sorkhon and in different parts and also on all sides this tomb is inscription.
Borj Modavar: The Borj Modavar is second tomb built after the Gonbad Sorkh and inside the city of Maragheh. This tomb now is located in Khaje Nasir Street and behind the building of Bank Melli. The Borj Modavar has two inscriptions that both of them are located in the main direction of the building and facing the North. 
Seh Gonbad: The Seh Gonbad is third tomb that was built in the Seljuk period in Azerbaijan. This tomb is located in the southeastern of Urmia city. The three inscriptions with Kofi script and geometric motifs at the facades of this tomb have created beautiful view.
Gonbad Kabood: The Gonbad Kabood after the Gonbad Sorkh and the Borj Modavar is third of building that has been made in the Maragheh city. In this building 5 inscriptions are visible.

Conclusion
It’s certain, in Seljuk period and in the method architects and artists of this period, concepts of inscriptions have played an important role in location of inscriptions. According to this, inscriptions of Quranic verses and inscriptions of mystical concepts and prayers have usually been located at higher levels. Other inscriptions (such as inscriptions with historical or political themes) have usually been located in lower levels. The location of inscriptions in buildings from the down to up in four sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the table below is shown.

Nourmohammad Monjezi,
year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022)
Abstract

Abstract
The Iranian house is full of structural units. The cohesion of the units creates more complex patterns, which, as a result of their location in different parts of the building, also form its physical structure and functional and cultural characteristics. Since the combination of these patterns in the home is always a reflection of the customs and lifestyle of residents and local conditions, knowing each of the patterns allows them to be used on a larger scale in the design of new homes. The content of structural patterns and the extent of their impact on Iranian-Islamic residential architecture is the basis of research inquiry. The research intends to take a physical approach to express the structure of the architectural language of the house in the sample buildings of the Qajar period; and in this way provide the basis for restoring the architectural values of the past. The research method is descriptive-historical and the method of finding research is a combination. The basis of observational studies has also been done through the presence of buildings that have a relatively complete architectural composition, and citation of existing maps, images and texts. The abstracted contents with the help of AutoCAD software introduce the basic units in geometric shapes and check their applicability in 50 houses of historical-cultural value. One of the important results of this search is the generalizability of the logical order of the initial units identified in various combinations and the production of more complex spatial units than the initial units of 5040 patterns. The results show that the patterns participate in various proportions from 0.06% to 27.16% and 42 in selected houses. Among these, pattern number 8 has the most (453) presence; while Patterns 12, 33 and 42 have the least (1) applications.
Keywords: Iranian-Islamic Architecture, Architectural Model, Architectural Physical Order, Language of Architecture, Qajar House.

Introduction
Due to the common economic and social prosperity, the residential houses of the Qajar period define a rich language in architecture that can be extended to Iranian-Islamic houses in the contemporary and future periods. Field studies show that there are a variety of patterns in residential homes that are physically part of a sequential structure and order. From the coherence of these initial units, more complex patterns emerge, which, according to their location in different parts of the building, express the physical structure and functional and cultural characteristics of the building. Since the combination of these patterns in the home is always a reflection of the customs and lifestyle of residents and local conditions, knowing each of the patterns allows them to be used in the design of new homes on a larger scale.
Housing construction in the contemporary era of Iranian architecture and urban planning, especially in recent decades, has found significant differences with the previous era. Field studies and observations indicate a significant reduction in physical-cultural values arising from new housing methods. For example, the gradual obsolescence of the middle fabric of cities is an issue that easily causes their instability. 
This study tries to identify the past methods in housing architecture and highlight the points of emphasis in its structures and concepts, and then shaping those features into a new format, introduce the most important effective spatial patterns in order to improve the physical and quantitative structure of modern house.
According to historical background of home architecture in Iran, and the need to review the structure of modern home architecture, research seeks to find answers to these questions: 1- What are the basic spatial units in the architecture of the Iranian-Islamic house? 2. What patterns does the spatial order of the units create? 3- What is the frequency of these patterns in the existing samples?

Survey of Basic Spatial Units
The research has summarized the data using a descriptive-historical method. A review of studies conducted by researchers and experts in Iranian and non-Iranian architecture and urban planning confirms the similar and sometimes different points of view of the linguistic structure of Iranian-Islamic architecture. Each of the statements has somehow emphasized the characteristics of Iranian-Islamic architecture; and they are summarized at the crossroads of the world of meaning and the world of matter and are located in six directions (Falamaki, 2012, 194).
In the Iranian- Islamic culture, it is believed that matter or the material world is opposite to light or the spiritual world (Holy Quran, Esra: 70). In Iranian-Islamic architecture, the spatial arrangement of the body shows that, in its spatial organization, attention is directed from light to matter. In fact, “it is a journey from pure light to the depths of matter” (Holy Quran). Although architecture is shaped by the combination of matter and space, form is created by the domination of space. Therefore, the form depends on the arrangement of the initial units that make up the architecture of the building. These units include a closet, room, living room, hall, porch, Platform, courtyard and basement.
Examination of the frequency of practical application of patterns in sample houses shows that out of a total of 42 patterns used, pattern No.8 has the highest presence among the 42 units; Patterns No. 12, 33, and 42 have the least presence in the composition of houses. Among the most complex patterns, pattern No. 1 with 15 times the company had the least and pattern No. 18 with 40 times had the most use. The results also show that the patterns contribute in various proportions from 0.06% for patterns No. 12, 33 and 42 to 27.16% for pattern No. 8 in the sample houses.

Conclusion
The seven structural foundations of house architecture in Iranian-Islamic, including: basement, room, living room, hall, porch, platform and courtyard are clearly recognizable. Each of these seven primary units is distinct due to its purity and structural simplicity. The reason for the differentiation of the primary units is their placement in a successive series from darkness to light. For this reason, these units are turning points in marking the evolution of syntax and syntactic language of Iranian-Islamic housing architecture, and their location in the series of units generates patterns that allow them to produce a significant variety in housing architecture. In order to accept this theoretical view, field observations on houses of historical-cultural value make the existence of diversity correct. Based on factorial 7 mathematical calculations, there are 5040 possibilities for the logical arrangement of the initial space units and the production of a pattern; while according to field observations, only 42 possibilities have been used in sample houses so far. Primary units, in part or in whole, can communicate with other units in four directions. Studies show that the two directions of north-south and east-west are the most important patterns in terms of complexity and the extent of their use in Qajar period houses. Patterns together create a large, controlled space that joins together in hot conditions to create a larger space; while in cold conditions, these spaces separate from each other and create small and independent single spaces.
The coherence of the patterns in both longitudinal and transverse directions shows that the design language of the Iranian house, based on the flexibility of the constituent patterns in practice, has the ability to create newer examples. The flexibility of the patterns is affected by the integrity of the initial units, which is provided by adding and subtracting some initial units in the form of order.


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