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Showing 5 results for Decorations

Arash Lashkari,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
Stucco art in Islamic period, in terms of technique and decorative motifs, pattern is taken from decorative art of Sassanids period. Motifs of stuccoes Sassanids period with inspiration from nature, does communicate (communication doesn’t exactly, but close to it), and can be easily identified similar samples it. This shows that unrealistic patterns less used in these motifs, and artist has shown less tendency to this direction. But these elements under the influence Islamic wisdom, have changed their form and meaning. One of the important findings and indicator in Aveh site were decorations stucc, that during the excavation in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman, obtained in the third chapter excavations this historic site in 2009. According to the date mentioned on one of the luster tiles found from this building (684  A.H.), this decoration is belongs to Ilkhanids period. The authors seeking to prove such dating, have done shape and technique used in this motifs and compare them to other historic sites stucco decorations from Ilkhanids period. This research has done to study this question related with Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building that, basically, this building based on stucco decorations, related with which period? And, stuccoes related to which style? In this regard, the present study seeks to prove these assumptions in execution of decoration motifs of stuccoes this building, has been used two styles stucco decorations with high bulge and decoration motifs caved. The decoration motifs are contains foliate, geometric, and inscribed. These motifs and their styles have been modeled from Ilkhanids styles. The method of doing this research is descriptive – analytical – comparative. Data in this study are taken from Library resources and field work. Field works in this study are contains extensive excavations in Aveh plain and in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman. Furthermore, cultural material obtained from excavation, have been drawn.
Keywords: Ilkhanids, Stucco decorations, Decorative motifs, Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman of Aveh.

Introduction
The decoration of buildings Islamic period of Iran, usually have been used from brick, plaster, and tile. From of stucco, from early Islamic period to Timurids period as there has been template element in the decoration, and it has been most used in prayer niches and inscriptions of buildings (Pope, 1987: 166). Stucco at first has been more used for cover the rugged surfaces and decorate them; but, in the fifth century  A.H., stucco has been transformed from a simple decorative mode to unique coating of decorative. Traditionally, stucco art has been among of decorative art dependent on architectural of Iran, that after from flourishing in the Sassanid period in middle centuries of Islamic and in Ilkhanids period has reached the peak of flourishing.  In fact, Ilkhanid period is golden age of stucco in Islamic period Iran. This art in Ilkhanid period in vast areas as a decorative element in architecture of this period has used. From this period are remained traces very beautiful and unique. 24 km from Saveh County to Salafchegan is separate road to Qom; this is road of Jafarabad – Qom. The village of Aveh is located about a 6 km from this road. (Hashemi, 2007: 125). Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman in Aveh plain, based on obtained indications from field works of authors (discover the luster tile in this building with date 684  A.H.), is one of the architecture monuments in Ilkhanid period with decorations of tile-making and stucco. Stucco decorations this building, although a small number is obtained, but they are represents the pinnacle of stucco art Ilkhanid in middle centuries of Islamic. The main purpose of authors in this study, in first place, have been presented available sample from stucco art Ilkhanids from Aveh area; In second place, have been analysis of their decorative motifs (technique), and type of motifs used (foliate, geometric, and inscription), and comparison them with other similar samples in other historical places.

Stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman Aveh
After reviews on these stuccoes, their technique was studied in two groups: stucco decorations with high bulge, and decoration motifs caved. Techniques of shaping stucco decorations are with high bulge to form of in situ, mold, or combined from both techniques. In technique decoration motifs caved, has used from both techniques in situ, and mold. Furthermore, decoration motifs of stuccoes this building has been studied in tree group foliate, geometric, and inscribed. The foliate motifs of stuccoes is to form of arabesque and cinquefoil motifs (high and stretched), and Rosette flower. The most of foliate samples obtained in decorations of stuccoes Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman Aveh, are from of type of foliate motifs six and eight of fimbria, flowers and leaves (several of fimbria) with buds, and arabesque motifs.The geometric motifs used in stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are most to form of the honeycomb motifs. 
In stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building has been seen inscribed. Unfortunately, inscriptions used in decorations this building, aren’t in good position for recognize the type of script and decorative style. Authors have been results based on speculation and also based on lines used in decoration of tiles luster painted this building (that from of types of Sols and Naskh script).

Conclusion
As was mentioned, decorative motifs of stuccoes in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are divided to foliate, geometric, and inscribed, and they have been created to two styles: stucco decorations with high bulge, and decoration motifs caved. With comparison decorative motifs this building with decorations other traces in Ilkhanids period Iran, could be seen significantly specifications of decorative style of Ilkhanids in this building. So, decoration motifs Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are related to Ilkhanids period. Therefore, date mentioned on the tiles this building and decoration motifs of stuccoes have been contemporaneous. On the other hand, comparison of shaping stuccoes Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman with contemporaneous buildings, power of architects Islamic in Ilkhanids period is show.

Reza Ghaffari Haris, Rana Fasihi,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The purpose of this research is analysis and survey architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh. The research method in this study is based on surveying and descriptive analysis. The data of this research are contains 14 mosques in Maragheh, that from these numbers 8 mosques haven’t been studied because of that general reconstruction or without being pillars. So, in this study 6 mosques of Maragheh have been surveyed and analyzed. Today, because of the lack of use this kind of decorations in the construction of mosques and their uniqueness, this study is essential. The wooden capitals in this research are decorated with motifs of stalactite work and woodturning with shapes of geometric dangling, stair, and crenate. On these capitals are abundantly seen decorations of arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names. The results of this study indicate that decorations architecture of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh despite having art style of unit, they have variety of colors, designs and form of pillars. The method of doing this research is field-library. The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. Thus, two main questions in this research that the authors try to analyze them is as follows: Can with compare and analyze the decorations of pillars common tips between them found? And, what have decorations of pillars pattern? 
Keywords: Decorations, wooden pillars, mosques of Maragheh, Islamic architecture.

Introduction 
In monuments and mosques have been used from the wood as the main components and also as a decorative element. The slender and long wooden trunks with decorations as carrier pillars of roof have been used in buildings. These wooden pillars have played a key role in holding pillars and prayers hall of mosques. The decorating the inner surface of wooden roofs has been of evolved over time and arrived in the late centuries of Islamic to ultimately development. During the Safavid period, that construction of wooden ceilings, known as Chehelsotun, has become spread (Soleymani et.al, 2011: 27).
In Maragheh city is remained wooden mosques of beautiful from Safavid period. These mosques have been contains 14 mosques, but in this research have been studied decorations of pillars mosques Molla Rostam, Molla Moez Aldin, Zarir, Sefid, Ghazi, and Najarlar. These mosques have wooden decorations and the capitals of wooden stalactite in these mosques have been decorated with motifs of arabesque and calligraphy. The artists tried in decoration of these pillars have been used the most beautiful and diverse designs. The authors in this research, after survey all of the pillars, have been presented the fixed pattern from them. So, due to the registration of Maragheh wooden mosques in the national monuments list and wooden decorations of unique them, do this research is essential.
The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. The study of library resources is contains of study the articles and books published in this field and also use the archive of cultural heritage administration of Maragheh County.

Introducing samples of mosques
Mosque of Molla Rostam: This mosque is located in the south side of the Molla Rostam square and among the Chay Osto Bazaar. Most of the pillars of this mosque are made of wood and stalactite motifs. The wooden pillars in this mosque have been prepared from Sepidar tree and woodturning to form of octagonal.
Mosque of Molla Moez Aldin: This mosque is located on the west side of the Khoshkbar square (Salar neighborhood and Hatam alley) in Maragheh city. The mosque of Molla Moez Aldin has two prayers halls of eastern and western. These two prayers halls have roof with flat cover and beamed ceiling, and with the capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Zarir: This mosque is located in the northeastern part of Maragheh City and in street of Mir Habib Agha. The roof with flat cover of prayers hall in mosque of Zarir has six wooden pillars in two rows. Each of these pillars are consists of a stone pedestal, stem of wooden pillar, and capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Sefid: This building is located in the southeastern part of the historical context of Maragheh city, and along one of the historical and main gates of this city in the name of “Darvazeh Biron Ghaleh”. The prayers hall of this mosque has the pillar, and the pillars of them are numbers three.
Mosque of Ghazi: This mosque is located in the Ghazi neighborhood of Maragheh city and corner of Ghods street. The date of construction this mosque is Safavid period. The prayers hall mosque of Ghazi has roof with flat cover, and six of pillars with capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Najarlar: This mosque is located in the Qom neighborhood of northern in Maragheh city. The plane of this mosque is to form of rectangle, and has a prayers hall with three numbers of pillars with stalactite.

Conclusion
The motifs and schemes in architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh, in addition to the have artistic style of unit, they have color variation, scheme, and form in pillars. According to the construction period these mosques, we can see differences in them. The main decorations in these mosques are contains of the rich motifs and arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names.

Karim Haji Zadeh Bastani, Esmaeel Maroufi Aghdam, Said Satar Nezhad, Fariborz Tahmasebi,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The tombs or funerary monuments are one of the most important elements of Iranian-Islamic architecture that in different fields require careful investigation. This group of buildings is important among Iranians; for this reason, in each period of the Islamic era of Iran the most important and most used arts related to that period have been used in their construction. Generally, the decoration in buildings has a more effective role, because, if it is understandable in terms of form and structure for archaeologists and designers, it’s possible this isn’t understandable for the general public. So, decorations in the buildings at first sight are attracts the viewer. In this article epigraphy art as one of the most important decorative elements of Islamic buildings have been reviewed in the four Seljuk tombs of Northwest of Iran: Gonbad Sorkh, Borj Modavar in Maragheh, Seh Gonbad, and Gonbad Kabood. The research method in this study is interpretive – historical. In this study with analytical method have been studied decorations of these four tombs (especially in terms of architecture, motifs, inscriptions and their position on the buildings). Also, in addition to reviewing the articles, books, and evidences, with field survey from these tombs, plan and decorations, and then a comparison table of inscriptions has been provided. In this regard, the following questions are raised:
- How is architecture, motifs and decorations of the Seljuk tombs in northwest Iran? And, their inscriptions are divided into several categories in terms of content?
- What are the effects of concepts of the inscriptions on position them on the buildings?
Reviews show that inscriptions of Seljuk tombs in the Northwest are divided into four groups: The Quranic verses, inscription with the theme of the date of construction, inscription with the topic of prayer, and inscription with the theme of the architect and the builder. On the other hand, position these inscriptions in the buildings have been differed proportional in their content. Inscriptions of the Quranic verses in the highest section of building, inscription with topic of prayer in the lower, inscription with the theme of date of construction and architect and builder are placed on the lower levels and on the body of building.
Keywords: Islamic architecture, Seljuk tombs, Northwest of Iran, decorations, inscription.

Introduction
Generally, one way of cognition more about periods of Islamic architecture besides of decorative elements and motifs, is study of inscriptions and their texts. In the Seljuk period, one of their architectural features, are create inscriptions and decorative lines from shaved bricks, that in most of buildings this period (especially tombs) is seen. Furthermore, due to the difficulty of shaving the bricks and the formation of letters and words with it, during this period, the Naskh script was replaced by the Kofi script and inscription with style of stucco was used (Hatam, 1999: 162).
In this article, in addition to reviewing the historical background and the process of build tombs in the Seljuk period to study and compare four tombs in the Seljuk period in Northwest of Iran, first have been introduce architectural features and decorative motifs them. Then, in comparative tables have been specified types of inscriptions and their position on the tombs. In this regard, following questions are raised: How are architecture, motifs and decorations of the Seljuk tombs in northwest Iran? And, their inscriptions are divided into several categories in terms of content? And, what are the effects of concepts of the inscriptions on position them on the buildings?
This study shows, inscriptions of Seljuk tombs in the Northwest are divided into four groups: The Quranic verses, inscription with the theme of the date of construction, inscription with the topic of prayer, and inscription with the theme of the architect and the builder. On the other hand, position these inscriptions in the buildings have been differed proportional in their content. Inscriptions of the Quranic verses in the highest section of building, inscription with topic of prayer in the lower, inscription with the theme of date of construction and architect and builder are placed on the lower levels and on the body of building.

Buildings under study
Gonbad Sorkh: The Gonbad Sorkh is oldest tomb in the Maragheh that is located in the southern part of the city and west side of Hashtrod road. Generally, in the Gonbad Sorkhon and in different parts and also on all sides this tomb is inscription.
Borj Modavar: The Borj Modavar is second tomb built after the Gonbad Sorkh and inside the city of Maragheh. This tomb now is located in Khaje Nasir Street and behind the building of Bank Melli. The Borj Modavar has two inscriptions that both of them are located in the main direction of the building and facing the North. 
Seh Gonbad: The Seh Gonbad is third tomb that was built in the Seljuk period in Azerbaijan. This tomb is located in the southeastern of Urmia city. The three inscriptions with Kofi script and geometric motifs at the facades of this tomb have created beautiful view.
Gonbad Kabood: The Gonbad Kabood after the Gonbad Sorkh and the Borj Modavar is third of building that has been made in the Maragheh city. In this building 5 inscriptions are visible.

Conclusion
It’s certain, in Seljuk period and in the method architects and artists of this period, concepts of inscriptions have played an important role in location of inscriptions. According to this, inscriptions of Quranic verses and inscriptions of mystical concepts and prayers have usually been located at higher levels. Other inscriptions (such as inscriptions with historical or political themes) have usually been located in lower levels. The location of inscriptions in buildings from the down to up in four sections 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the table below is shown.

Mosayeb Amiri,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
Using stucco as decoration in buildings has a long precedent. Scrutinizing the surviving edifice from historical periods shows that the art of plastering has been methodical and has a special style since the Parthian era. These methods evolved in the Sassanid era and continued with nuance in the Islamic era. Our knowledge of the art of stucco decoration of the Sassanid period is mostly based on the excavation of several important sites of this period, including the historic city of Bishapur. Bishapur is the center of the Shapur-province which was considered to be one of the cities or the state of five states of Persia and it was established during the reign of Shapur I, the second Sassanid emperor. Manifold artworks have been found in Bishapour’s excavation such as unique mosaic paintings as well as plastering and painting on plaster, especially in the part of the royal citadel. Many of these findings which are some important artifacts and features, exploring in the ninth season of excavation such as the revelation of architectural spaces in the south of the mosaic porch in the part called “Royal Citadel” and stone objects such as mortars, Xunak: stone table, stone statues made of marble and decorative beads, glass kilns and pieces of glassware, pottery and metal. The most important architectural works revealed in the excavation are the corridors on the south side of the mosaic porch, rooms with plaster works’ niches, while some of them are painted and decorated with red ocher clay, plaster of the walls, and plaster of the floor of architectural spaces have been found in these rooms as well. The plaster artworks are mostly included the parallel strips that are used at the edges of niches and entrances. Gypsum mosaic porch decorations include plaster coating and painting on the plaster, as well as plaster works and remains. Considering that all these pieces belong to the Sassanid period, the main question in this research is: How were they made? The method of data collection has been done in two ways, fieldwork and by researching in the library in this article. Besides, the tendency in this research was to introduce and analyze these findings in the context of the plaster art of the Sassanid period in this historical city
Keywords: Sassanid Period, Bishapur, Architectur Decorations, Stucco.

Introduction
The city of Bishapur, with an area of about 155 hectares, is an enormous area where comprehensive exploration is impossible in a short time. The ninth season excavation program started on 22/05/2011 and lasted until 6/07/2011.
The most important objects found from the excavation were: Three pieces of human sculpture of a man as well as a piece of human sculpture of a woman, both made of marble. A significant number of archaeological findings in the ninth season of the excavation of the historic city of Bishapur were metal fragments. The metal findings based on the type of metals are iron, copper, and silver, in order of frequency respectively. In addition to these findings, several earthenware jars and pots of different dimensions are among the main objects of the ninth season of the excavation of the historical city of Bishapur. For the first time, in the same excavation season, all the pottery pieces founded in the excavation, have been collected, washed, and classified. The first category includes decorative objects such as statues and precious and semi-precious stones, which include ring agate stones and necklace beads, as well as turquoise stones; and the second category, including oil trays, mortars, and stone tables which is known as “Xunak” by the locals. There were also recovered many pieces of broken glassware along with a glass kiln during the ninth season of excavating the historic city of Bishapur. In the same season, manifold remnants of glass-making furnaces and mosaic pieces were discovered. The most important findings of architectural works include the corridors on the south side of the mosaic porch, rooms with bedside niches, which are sometimes painted and decorated with red ocher mud. Another finding in this season was plaster pieces which is the purpose of writing this article, is to introduce and classify these plaster findings.

Identified Traces
The ninth season of the excavation in the historical city of Bishapur focused on the south and west sides of the mosaic porch, and although in the development of the excavation and the pursuit of walls and spaces, the scope of the excavation was extended to the eastern boreholes; But most of the findings come from southern boreholes, especially the D-3, D-4, and D-5. In terms of plastering and decorations, these three boreholes were richer than the other boreholes.
In general, there are two types of indicator hypotheses about the construction of gypsum decorations; In the first hypothesis, it is believed that the plaster decorations in this area were drawn on the walls at once, and then the artist created his desired designs on the plaster with a tool similar to a scraper; But in the second hypothesis, it is believed that the plaster’s decorations were made in the form of molding and then installed in place. Given the available evidence, it is not wise to simply accept or reject any of these theories. Applying and combining these two methods was certainly not impossible, and the artists of the Sassanid period could create innovative and new methods in this field; Because it seems that in some cases the designs have been prepared by molding method and in some cases, the plasters have been applied on the wall at once; Thus, in Bishapur, the two methods of in-situ shaping and fabrication using mold can be considered as the main methods in performing plastering techniques. In the in-situ shaping method, after applying the gypsum paste on the desired surface, such as a wall or ceiling, etc., and the expiration of the gypsum setting to a suitable level that does not cause the gypsum to fall, the gypsum master forms the gypsum mortar. In the method of using the mold, it is done in two ways: in situ and prefabricated. In the in-situ method, gypsum mortar is poured into a one-piece or multi-piece wooden mold that has been pre-made, and in some cases, it is injected and after setting the plaster and kneading it, it separates the mold from it and the masterworks on its joinery. In the prefabricated mold method, all the parts are pre-made and the master connects them and after joining all the parts, he pays them. Gypsum pieces with geometric designs found from the ninth season of excavation in Bishapur are usually mold-making and do not have various shapes, and are usually spoon-shaped, in other words, tube-shaped. It seems that all these parts have been used to cover around the ledges, corners of walls, windows, and doors. Parts of this type of plastering around a ledge have also been found. Another example of stucco is “shell designs”. These pieces represent a bunch of bivalve mussels. The use of these parts is all as fillets next to the dome and porch as well as the corners of the rooms. These pieces were also made by molding and probably did this on the spot.
Other parts are plaques that are found in the form of broken pieces. These parts usually belong to the edge of the plate and are only one part of the center of the plate. The plaques sometimes have human motifs depicting kings, princes, princes, and gods, and provide valuable information for researchers in the analysis of political history, art, and archeology. The face of a king or prince was found inside a plaque in the Bishapur, the preliminary stages of which have been completed and the results will be published in the future. The designs of these gypsum boards are usually geometric and floral. The geometric patterns are mostly related to the square border of the plate. Several pieces of red and black colored plaster are also obtained, which are related to flat walls.
The artists of the Sassanid period could create innovative and new methods in the field of plastering; Because it seems that in some cases the designs have been prepared by molding method and in some cases, the plastering has been applied on the wall all at once; Thus, in Bishapour, the two methods of in-situ shaping and fabrication using molds can be considered as the main methods in performing plastering techniques, which are usually prefabricated parts made in two sizes; One of them is 12 x 12 cm and the other is 18 x 18 cm.

Conclusion
From all the discovered artifacts, little information can be figured out from the plastering around the ledges. Upper back injuries are more common than lower back injuries. These plasters consist of two categories; The first category is plastering that is prefabricated in parts that have been molded due to mass production and the findings of this category are more. The second category is plastering which is built on-site and this category has a greater role. From the first category, most of the stucco is found with a cross and spoon design, and from the second category, there are a little number of gypsum plates. In terms of shape and role, it can almost be said that role limitations are observed in the discovered samples and the designs are not very diverse. These parts had the least similarity with the parts discovered from other Sassanid sites.

Milad Baghsheikhi,
year 4, Issue 14 (2-2021)
Abstract

Abstract
This research intends to investigate, describe, and analyze architectural decorations by focusing on Kashan Tabrizi Mosque during the Qajar Period. The data was collected based on field and library (documentary) studies and interpreted through a comparative descriptive-analytical method. This research has been conducted to identify and classify the main motifs and themes of the architectural decorations of the Kashan Tabrizi Mosque, including buildings that belonged to the early Qajar period, and to compare with the Sepah Salar School Mosque of the middle of the Qajar monarchy in the center of their rule. There were two main questions: What are the architectural decorations of the Tabrizi Mosque in terms of decoration and themes? and what are its differences and similarities with the Sepah Salar School Mosque? The results indicate that the Sepah Salar Mosque-School in Tehran was built by a person who had an outstanding position in terms of political and social rank; thus, it has a more decorations compared to the Kashan Tabrizi Mosque. The architectural decorations for Kashan Tabrizi Mosque include tiling, carving, inscriptions, wall paintings, and plaster-molding, following the decorations of the earlier traditional architecture. The main religious motifs employed in the mosque include plant and geometric motifs that have been accomplished in the form of painting and tiling techniques.
Keywords: Tabrizi Mosque Kashan, Sepah Salar Mosque-School Tehran, Architectural Decorations, Qajar Period.

Introduction
During the Qajar period, many mosques were built in Iranian cities, including the Tabrizi Mosque in Kashan, one of the religious buildings of the Qajar period, about which no comprehensive research has been done. Accordingly, in this study, we examine one of the religious buildings that a businessman from Kashan built during the first years of the reign of Fath Ali Shah. Meanwhile, Sepah Salar Mosque-School (Shahid Motahari) in Tehran was built in the second period of Qajar architecture (Mohammad Shah and Nasser al-Din Shah) or other words, in the middle of the Qajar dynasty (Zarei, 2017: 424). During the time that Tehran, in particular, were affected by the urban development of Paris, and Western elements (such as the Clock Tower, the Pit, etc.) can be detected in the city, and especially in the Sepah Salar School Mosque (such as Gol Farangi), while there are no signs and such elements in Kashan Tabrizi Mosque.
Research Methodology: The data was collected using the field method and library research (documentary) using written sources. This research has been conducted in the descriptive-analytical method, and subsequently, the main motifs and themes of the decorations associated with the architecture of the mentioned mosques were recognized and classified based on the attributed tables.

Introducing Kashan Tabrizi Mosque
Tabrizi Mosque is located in Bab-ul-Hawaij Street and the historical context of Kashan Bazaar/Market, near the Mian Chal Safavid Mosque-School. This mosque was built in a unique location, and one of the entrances of Kashan Bazaar/Market passes through this place and Malek bazarche, built by Haj Mohammad Hussein Tabrizi, one of the merchants from Kashan.

Analyzing and Comparing the Decorative Arrays of Kashan Tabrizi Mosque
A set of cultural developments and new sciences were formed in the West, including the invention and presentation of photography, and the extensive application of stamps in postal items. These developments affected the decorations of the mosques of the Qajar Period so that the natural scenes of architecture, flower and vase designs, particularly roses and lilies in the designs and decorations of tiles and carvings have been applied in these buildings (Sajjadzadeh et al., 2017: 227). The inscriptions were as important as in the previous period, and mainly the chirography of Qajar inscriptions is in two types: Thuluth and Nastaliq, Quranic inscriptions and narrations have been written in the Thuluth and narrative phrases or history and poems have been written in the Nastaliq (Husseini and Ahmadzadeh, 2017: 72). The decorative motifs of the Tabrizi Mosque can be generally divided into two classes: plant motifs, geometric motifs, and the type of inscription scripts, and each one has different components.
1. Plant motifs include: a) Arabesque traceries/motifs b) Khatai flowers (Lotus motif with buds and leaves) c) Flower and plant motifs; 2. Geometric motifs include: a) embroidery b) rhombus motifs c) star-shaped motifs d) Mogharnas /decorated with paintings; 3. the type of inscription scripts including a) Thuluth b) Nastaliq c) Naskh.
A) Tile decorations: Tile decorations have been performed in the Kashan Tabrizi Mosque in the form of seven-color and mosaic techniques. Motifs are geometric and plant, but tiles have been extensively used in the form of seven-color, Bannai, and mosaic techniques, along with the various natural, geometric, animal, religious, and western themes in Sepah Salar School - Mosque. But, except for plant and geometric themes, no other motifs have been used in the Tabrizi mosque.
B) Carving decorations: The carving in Tabrizi Mosque is in the form of spiral columns, the base of the vase around the crescent of the altar of the nave, and the cypress motif on the side dado of the entrance of the mosque. Foreign decorations in the form of flower and vase designs have been performed naturally in the carving of Sepah Salar Mosque-School.
C) Inscription decorations: The inscriptions applied in Tabrizi mosque include the Thuluth, Naskh, and Nastaliq scripts, which the Thuluth has been used for writing in the inscriptions of the porch and the altar of the mosque, the Naskh has been used for writing the four-pillar inscriptions of the nave column, and the Nastaliq has been used for short phrases on the walls of the nave and on the inscription on the seven-colored tile at the entrance of the mosque, and all of their themes are Quran verses, hadiths, and divine names. The Nastaliq scripts of Tabrizi Mosque are simple and frequently have no decorations and have been performed in rectangular frames. The inscriptions have more variety and themes in Sepah Salar Mosque-School and include verses of the Holy Quran, hadiths, divine names, founders, calligraphers, tilers, architects, sculptors along with the materials of history, which have been used Naskh, Kufi, Thuluth, and Nastaliq scripts for writing.
D) Plaster-molding decorations: The plaster-molding / Stucco of Tabrizi Mosque has been used to construct the decorative moqarnas in front of the mosque altar entrance and the construction and writing of inscriptions on the entrance and porch of the mosque. Stucco /plaster has been used in abundance in decorating and writing inscriptions and plant motifs, including stucco flowers and vases in Sepah Salar Mosque-School.

Conclusion
Architects have always considered the most important mosque as the most important religious building of a city and a religious, political, and social focus. Examining the architectural arrays related to the architecture of Tabrizi Mosque and comparing them with the arrays of Sepah Salar School Mosque in Tehran as the Qajar capital, as well as analyzing their structural and decorative features, indicate a combination of Iranian and Western elements. There are many rooms built around the courtyard for summer, but the winter naves here are not comparable to the Sepah Salar School Mosque in Tehran, which was built for high-ranking government officials in the form of four porches, tall domes, and minarets, and is so glorious. This small mosque is built as a summer and winter nave on two floors. Kashan Tabrizi Mosque includes tile decorations, inlays, inscriptions, murals, and plastering to write inscriptions in terms of decorations and follows the art and decorations related to the traditional architecture of the previous periods as this mosque was built in the early period Qajar in 1212 AH and many natural themes can be seen in its decorative elements, as it can be considered the only building in which there are weak influences of Western culture. Tehran Sepah Salar School-Mosque was built in 1296 AH and its decorations and decorative motifs originated from traditional and western architecture. In such a way that western elements such as architectural landscaping have been used as a house or church, in contrast to which there were no western elements in the Tabrizi Mosque of Kashan.


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فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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