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Showing 3 results for Comparative Study

Arash Lashkari, Akbar Sharifinia,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
The monuments of Qajar and early Pahlavi periods in the valley of Darreh-Shahr of Ilam province are among the works that reflect the political and social developments of this era. The purpose of this study is to investigate the adaptive study of the spatial and temporal structure of Ghala Poursharf, Mirgholam Hashemi and Ghaleh Jahangirabad, the causes of their formation and pattern of distribution. The research method in this study was experimental research, field and library studies. In this regard, by studying the architectural elements each of the buildings, the Appellation of them according to their spatial-physical structure is to be re-evaluated. The results of the research are show that the construction of the studied buildings in the city of Darreh-Shahr, according based on military and security necessity and then on political and social grounds. The results of the research are show that the construction of the studied buildings in the city of Darreh-Shahr, have been according based on military and security necessity and then on political and social grounds. These buildings are located at the most appropriate geographical locations and related to agricultural affairs and tax affairs. On the other hand, according to architectural and archaeological studies, other buildings of Pourashraf fortress, has been built on the basis of military and security necessity, and the buildings of Mirgholam Hashemi and Jahangirabad have been manor house and where built at the beginning of the Pahlavi period for political and social reasons. So, in this study, these questions are raised: What is the pattern of distribution of these buildings in Darreh-Shahr? How are the spatial structure of these buildings? Can be used the title of fortress for these buildings?
Keywords: Darreh – Shahr, Late Qajar and Early Pahlavi, Fortresses, Comparative Study.

Introduction
From the location, the fortresses of Iran have been made in different ways in relation to the natural situation of the place and materials. So that, construction of fortresses in the Pre-Islamic Era and the Islamic period of Iran had a close connection with the political, economic and geographical necessities. For this reason, they have made the fortresses in the harsh mountains and beside the water and springs, around the cities and overlooking them. They have made these fortresses for their role in various political developments, such as the rise and fall of governments, the internal crises and used in the onslaught of foreign nations as a refuge for political opponents. Also build these fortresses have been important in the formation of cities. The shape, type, and number of Iranian fortresses towers in the Islamic period have been depend on the social, natural and military conditions of each region. The Iranian fortresses have a long, wide and long wall, cylindrical and multifaceted towers, one or more gates for entry and exit, and sometimes entrenchment on around fortresses. The type of relations governing the life of the fortresses was almost the same. These relations, along with the natural and geographical factors of the region, played a decisive role in function of the various parts of the fortresses, and they all brought together in a special type of architecture. In general, fortresses had several functions that including: for holding detainees, state treasury holdings and the status of government. With this introduction, the monuments from the Late Qajar and Early Pahlavi periods in the city of Darreh-Shahr called “fortress” have been selected for study. The main purpose of this research is to first introduce, describe and analyze the spatial structure of the buildings of Pourashraf, Mirgholam, and Jahangirabad, and then analyze their structure and location. The main purpose of this research is to first introduce, describe and analyze the spatial structure of the buildings of Pourashraf, Mirgholam, and Jahangirabad, and then analyze their structure and location.

Finding Research
The archaeological excavation in the Ziyat area is considered to be a collection of rescue researches of the ancient sites of the basin of the Kurih dam. In order to, this study has done identify and understand the status of the remains architecture and the ancient layers this site. Ziqi enclosure is one of the sites that was quickly destroyed by the first stages of dewatering in the dam buried lake, due to its location and texture; therefore, the implementation of ancient archaeological research on this site before the dam drainage of Amiri, It was essential and important to carry out these researches a valuable step in the process of recognizing and introducing this ancient work before its complete destruction. The Ziqi area has always been part of it due to its proximity to the Guria Monument. The first mention Piran in 1380 was identified during the first chapter of the Ancient Cognitive Examination of the Ivan County of Guria, which Zich was also part of it (Pirani, 2001: 159-183). In 2004, Ibrahim Moradi introduced the Ziqi site in an archaeological study of the Kyrgyz Dam basin independently of the “Guria” building (Moradi, 2004: 40-53). 

Conclusion
The archaeological excavation of the archaeological site of Zich has done in three parts distinct but related sections, including systematic survey, speculation to determine the area and extensive exploration of the site was accomplished. The results of these studies have ultimately led to the recognition of the temporary deployment area (seasonal settlement). The study of the architectural and architectural remnants of the spaces in the excavated workshops and their comparative comparisons with contemporary samples in the region has showed that the Ziqi area was a temporary deployment site (seasonal deployment) and a one-stage deployment that during a period (to Seasonal but for several years) has been used by the Cubans. Establishment in tents that surrounding it with single or double-edged stone and one or two row strips separated from each other, have been outside the tent space (outside the tent) cooking utensils and other day-to-day activities. The nomads have been set up stairs and set up tents on their slopes and have been facilitates their settlement. The healthy and complete example of such settlements that are related to the life of contemporary localities is to the present day and in the same style, and their works are clearly visible around the site.

Mehdi Razani, Yassin Sedghi, Yadollah Heidari Babakamal,
year 3, Issue 7 (5-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
Stones are important and durable material in construction building; objects and make cultural artifact on the prehistory until now. Objects are very important between the entire artifacts that made by stone, Easy stuff catches for artist due to improve making stone object in the different region. One of the most important stone in the prehistoric of Iran that is good material for carving and applies in life was chlorite. A best attribute for decorated due to this metamorphism stone used in all of Iran history so after 5000 years, this time some workshop in Mashhad city is Functioning and must be support these for improve industrials and identity this handicraft in contemporary, Hence in this paper by Analytical and technical approach based on comparative studies to examine the species, extent , methods of making and decorating stone chlorite in ancient times (archeological areas in the South East of Iran) and contemporary (Mashhad  carving stone workshops) will be paid. The result of this research show that we need rehabilitation this industrial decoration by bankroll  of the history background of carving chlorite stone and also try to find a new technology for improve  quantity and quality  making in Kerman province and Mashhad city According to the chlorite stone sources  in contemporary. Meanwhile, Iran’s stone-cutting art with its various uses in buildings and monuments over the thousands of years of flourishing its artists have created remarkable masterpieces of various types of stone. One of the most prominent stones in the pre-history of Iran due to its functional and decorative nature and has been used for thousands of years, is the chlorite which is under the main branches of the Metamorphic rocks. In the ancient world, chlorite stones were used as fillings for necklaces, stamps, religious sculptures, burners, bowls, pots, jars and other kitchen utensils, molds for molding copper and bronze, and in some cases has been used as Pottery fillers. 
Keywords: Comparative Study, Chlorite Stone, Halil Civilization, Technology, Harkareh Mashhad.

Introduction
Generally, the most important reasons that led to the use of these stones from the prehistoric period to the present are as follows: Availability and ease of mining operations, ease of mining, ease of carving (simplicity of decorating, shaping, cutting, engraving, etc.), appropriate heat resistance (phase-shifting properties), porosity and density above is chemically neutral to acids and bases. The purpose of the present study was to identify more and better the pre-historic (Bronze Age) chlorite containers southeast of the Iranian plateau and study the methods of making the above mentioned containers Also, their comparative studies with the works and methods of making chlorite containers of Mashhad in contemporary are. The present study is an effective step in understanding the traditional methods of stone construction in Mashhad which has now fallen out of economic prosperity and production because of advanced machinery and machine mechanization and it will forget and not pass it on to future generations. It is, therefore, hoped that by further knowledge and extensive study of such arts and crafts in the past, it would be prevented from being erased in the mind of the contemporary man. In the present study, it is attempted to address two basic and important questions in the field of techno lithic works of chlorite and its comparison with contemporary lithography in Mashhad. In the first stage, it was attempted to gain a comprehensive understanding of the technology and methods of making prehistoric chlorite works from the southeastern parts of Iran. Therefore, to answer this question, have been referred to reviews of areas such as Yahya, Shahdad, Jiroft and Shahr e sokhteh sites. The second question in the present study was how to construct and methods of stone work in Mashhad. In this regard, it has been attempted to answer this question with comparative field studies existing between the methods of production and the prehistoric works of contemporary times. Considering the importance of lithography and the creation of chlorite art in prehistoric-Iranian to contemporary times and its ability to be revitalized as an art-industry, the present study together with the analysis and description of information and data from archaeological studies followed the various stages of production and decoration of chlorite stones in ancient and contemporary times as well as comparing their subtle and subtle changes in terms of construction technology and their decorative and qualitative differences over time. For this reason, it has been attempted to address the above issues by using library and field studies.

Conclusion
In an overview of today’s state of this art - industry in Iran and especially in Mashhad as the only active producer in the country it can be said that it retains some of the ancient methods that add to its authenticity. But new machinery and marketization, in contrast to its religious and antiquity in antiquity and many other issues, have led to a lack of creators’ sales and cheating in the production of poor quality works. Also, since there has been no attempt by the Cultural Heritage and Crafts Organization to revive traditional designs and not to repeat past poor quality work the industry today has been artificially depleted and its creativity has been lost in most cases, and it is not reproduced at present with the repetition of the past. Therefore, it is recommended that by investing in this industry, it should be positioned among the export basket and dynamic handicrafts of the country. Today, countries such as India, which have had significant stone-making industry in the past, have today advanced the industry by investing and encouraging craftsmen to produce handicrafts from various stones. It has become one of the country’s most important artistic exports. In the contemporary era and state of the art in the country today, the issue of identifying materials and tools used in traditional arts and examining the possibility of producing them while maintaining their authenticity is of great importance. Considering the continuity of the industry - art of lithography of soft rock, and in particular chlorite, for about 5,000 years in the country, Unfortunately, new products have had a remarkable decline in quality given the simplicity of the work and the mechanization of many of the actions. This applied industry is becoming a low-quality decorative industry. In this regard, the stone industry of Mashhad, which is today the only place and the most active center for the production and decoration of chlorite stone objects in Iran, needs serious attention because its products have undergone a severe decline in quality over the past few decades. In addition, with the loss of old masters, efficient young people have not been attracted to it. Therefore, considering the abundant resources of chlorite rock in Khorasan and Kerman province, there is potential for activating and enhancing the quality of its production in these centers by studying its artistic and industrial capabilities as well as trying to The revival of traditional designs and non-repetition of current high-quality work, as well as their up-to-date productivity and new technology can be achieved by artisans and artists.

Masoumeh Barsam, Yosof Faryabi,
year 3, Issue 7 (5-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
Rayen and Bam citadels, dating back to ancient civilization from the Sassanid period, has a favorable commercial position due to its location at the intersection of the North to the South of Khorasan and Govashir of Kerman to Bandar Abbas and the west to east of Fars to Baluchistan. Its geography and position on the route of the above-mentioned communication way has always been threatened and invaded by various ethnic groups and governments; the Kerman province during the Islamic period has been the base of riot clashes with the government forces, and construction of many of the Kermans’ citadels and castles had a security and defense function. Two citadels of the Rayen and Bam, from the Sassanid to Qajar era, have played an important role in the life of the communities and the preservation of security in the Kerman area. The main question is, what are the similarities and differences of the defense structures of these citadels from a security perspective? The present study want to identify the security defenses of the two Rayen and Bam citadel in Kerman province and achieve structural defensive patterns and ways to connect, share and differentiate them. The information of this paper was collected through library (documentary) methods, visual observation and comparison of the findings and the research was conducted using an adaptive-analytical method. The presence of a fence, ruler, watchdog, as well as crossed stands and machicolation indicate the military and security function of the two citadels. One can hypothesize that structure of the Rayen defense fortifications is influenced by the Bam Citadel. The results of this study indicate that due to the location of these citadels in the communication paths of Khorasan, Sistan, the center of Iran, these citadels and defense fortifications have been formed in these two regions.
Keywords: Comparative Study, Security Fortification, Bam Citadel, Rayen Citadel.

Introduction
There are numerous citadels in Kerman province. The importance of Kerman’s citadels is their value to Kerman local rulers and Rayen and Bam citadels are the most well-known castles. These citadels, dating back to civilization of Sasanian times, have a good commercial position due to their location at the intersection of the north-south of Khorasan and Gavashir of Kerman to Bandar Abbas and the west highway to east of Fars-Baluchistan. Their geographical position and route of the highway has always been threatened and invaded by different ethnic groups and governments; therefore, the main question is, how were the ways of sharing and differentiating the defense structures of these citadels from the point of view of defense and security? The present study sought to identify the security defenses of the two Rayen and Bam citadel in Kerman province and achieve structural defensive patterns and their connection, similarities and differentiations.

Research Methodology
The research data were collected using documentary methods, field observations, visual observation and comparison of the obtained results. Then, by comparative studies, considering the similarities and differences between the defenses used in these two categories is adapted with each other.

Background Research
The most comprehensive research on the defense fortifications of Rayen citadel is an article entitled security factors affecting the architecture of the Rayen-Kerman Citadel in 1394, carried out by the writer and Amir Hajlo at the second Birjand Archeology Conference, which dedicated solely to the fortifications of the Rayen Citadel. (Barsam, Amir Hajlo: 1394). Article titled Recognition of the Defense Forces of Bam citadel by Farah Bakhsh and Safa Mansouri (1394) carried out to recognize and introduce the southern fence of the Bam Citadel and has not referred to other defensive elements (Farah Bakhsh; Safa Mansouri: 1394) . Asadpoor Behzadi, in the book “Pearl of the Ancient Sea”, expressed the similarity review of the tower of the citadel to the Bam citadel (Asadpoor Behzadi, 1381). But emphasis is on Bam’s citadel historical perspective. Therefore, this paper conduct comparative study on the defensive fortifications of Bam citadel and Rayen citadel.

Text
Rayen is part of Kerman city with an area of 2596 square kilometers (Khayam and Rajab Ghaneh, 1393: 58), located in 110 kilometers south of Kerman and 28 kilometers southwest of Kerman to Bam road. Bam city, in north of Kerman, from east to Zahedan and Iranshahr, from south to Jiroft and from west to Bardsir city.
Factors affecting the development of defensive and security structures of Bam and Rayen Citadels
1. Military-defense factors
2. Positioning in the communication-commercial direction
3. Climatic features

A Comparative Study of Defense and Security Structures of Rayen and Bam citadels
The defense and security structures of citadels can be examined from enemies attack point of view from the exterior and the interior.
- External defense structures of the citadel
- being on the high
- Fence
- Tower
- Bowstring or outlets
- Ditch
-  Internal Defense Structures
- Entrance to the citadel
- Narrow alleys
- Ruling citadel
- way to escape
- Comparative analysis of defense and military fortifications of two citadel (similarity and differentiation aspects)
- Exterior structure analysis
- one of the first security and defense measures in the location of the citadel is their placement on a relatively high hill.
- the two citadel has a high and solid fence made of mud and brick
- the towers are built in sensitive areas that are located around the aristocracy or overlooking the entrances of the citadel to control the flow and departure of the people.
- other security measures in the construction of citadels were the presence of openings on the entrance that control the movements of people, the shooting or pouring boiling water or molten materials on the attackers.
- Ditch construction
- internal structures:
- Main entrance:
- Narrow alleys
- Ruler position
- the escape way of the ruler house and the ruler place in the citadel is another strategy in security and defense system.

Conclusion
Field studies and documentation show that the architectural structure of the Rayen and Bam citadel can be compared from three perspectives.
A): Security and Defense: The reason for the existence of these citadels for housing is due to the lack of security in the region, wars and bloodshed occurred in the area, these citadels built to protect the ruler family and his courtroom against local opposition. In fact, it can be said that the maintenance of sovereignty of government under any circumstances was a key point in the political structure of the past societies, since the fall of the ruler was the fall of a city. In designing a ruler house in these citadel, security issues strictly observed so that under siege conditions, escape routes prepared secretly for the ruler. More security provided by the passages of these citadels with a low and twisted screw width.
B): Climatic and communication conditions: citadels located in two completely different regions: the Rayen is in a cold and mountainous region in the foothills of the high mountains of Lalezar, Ramshak, Sarabnah, which is a natural barrier. Bam with tropical rainforest in a vast plain has no natural barrier but high and strong towers.
C) Plan and Materials: The principles of Iran traditional architecture are observed in the design and structure of these citadels. In terms of plan, both designed in rectangular form, but in terms of the dimensions, Bam citadel is larger.


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