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Showing 3 results for Achaemenid

Mosayeb Amiri,
year 3, Issue 8 (9-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
The most important way of understanding human being in the past is to study their relics and among the works that have made a significant contribution to identifying culture and civilization and many other issues of ancient Iran, the motif are seals. Studies of this kind of data have been the focus of archeologists and historians for many years and many articles and books have been published on this endless subject. Because the seal and sealing in answering some questions, the correct orientation of a number of questions and new questions about social, economic and people perceptions of the past have been raised. In some motives the artist describes his/her world and this kind of description is actually the optimal use of symbols. In the Persepolis museum, there is a black seal that differ substantially from other Achaemenid seals. This bilateral seal is a lesser-known role in the art of molding and is unique in Achaemenid molding. This seal is first published and revised based on various criteria such as art style and symbol interpretation. The main purpose of this article is to document and introduce the symbols of this seal; the author will also answer a few questions about this seal by using descriptive-analytic methods and by using authentic library resources after fully describing this seal. First, what are some of the concepts used on the engraving on the seal? How these symbols originated and whether these forms were the result of Achaemenid thought or a legacy of a very ancient culture?
Keywords: Seal, Achaemenid, Persepolis, Symbol.

Introduction
On the occasion of the plan of organizing the repositories of the Persepolis museum in the summer of 2015, I had a black seal on a meeting in august of that year. This seal had differences A double-sided stamp seal that is unique in the Achaemenid period. On the other hand, the seals have a special place among the represent the customs, habit and believes of a people and also showcase history, religion, philosophy and art alongside administrative. Social management for centuries, these motives are rooted in ancient Iranian civilization and sometimes influenced by neighboring nations. This portable data has also spread art and culture to other lands due to its use in commercial exchanges, office letters and political relationships. The main purpose of this article is to document this seal and to interpret the emblems that have reached the Achaemenid from the distant past. Recorded in the Persepolis museum of bilateral seal No. 1267. It has a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 9 mm. It is made of stone and its location is Persepolis. There are three distinct roles on the seal. First the man sitting and holding a bowl in his hand and a flower in his other hand. The second is the cedar tree behind the man, and the third is censer in front of the man. The man is Probably a king with a short crown, the hemisphere is like the Achaemenid image.

Identified Traces
Three separate images can be seen on the seal, first is the man sitting and holding the wine cup in one hand and the flower in the other the second is the cedar tree behind the man and the third the udsuz in front of the man.
The man is probably a king with a short crown with several congresses, it is depicted from the half- face like the other Achaemenid image, the crown is similar to the Ahura Mazda round Cap. On the king’s seal has the original image and the role of cendar and is quite marginal.
Beneath the crown of hair, curly like all the motifs of persepolis the forehead and back, the king’s face wide and his eyebrows reached the ears, the nose is delicate, long and straight, lips are up and drinking and beard shorter than persepolis motifs but curly, the king’s eyes look great. The king’s neck was proportioned to the body, part of which was nuder the dress, the king’s hands are long and stretched and he looks thin. The king has a lotus flower in his left hand with a bud in his right hand corner, like Darius in the Naghshe Baram. The branch of the flower is tall and its end protrudes from the king’s hands. The king has a large wine cup in his right hand that lifts it up or closes it. The king’s waist is slender and its curvature is quite evident, and the belt is wrapped in two rows around the king’s waist. The king’s feet are on the ground and parallel to the base of the chair. The king’s Boot is a long boot with twisted straps that are not simple in the designs attributed to king Boots, but a simple shoe. Behind the king is a small triangular cedar, there are ten rows of branches on the left and eleven branches on the right of the cedar tree. The branches have all gone upwards and look like praying hands.
It is noteworthy that most tree motifs are on the palm tre seal and less than the cedar tree. Lion painted on a young and very angry seal seems to be a characteristic of most of the lions imprinted in the Achaemenid period. The body of lion is soft and agile, his head turned back. The hands and feet are in a relaxed gait so that the lion triumphantly moves forward the bird on the seal is Dorna that wing has been opened it seems that the artist insisted on drawing the head and neck of the Dorna so as not to induce the role of the Farrah.

Conclusion
Prehistoric believes of Iranian ethnicity have had such a broad role in shaping Iranian art that it is still visible in many works of art, an example is the seal studies. At a time when most of the seals built during the Achaemenid period are cylindrical, a bilateral seal imprinted on Persepolis is the most famous and important Achaemenid city, all the carved motives on it reflect the millennial believes of the Iranian people, some of which still have the same implicatins for contemporary people. None of the motives were devised by the Achaemenid artist, rather, old concepts in a new way with new technology and sophistication are on the seal.

Ramineh Sarafzadeh, Mohamad-Taghi Ashuri, Reza Afhami,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
In any society, the sources of legitimacy are justified by the traditions that govern the community; the king arrives at a metaphoric royal position in ancient Iran instead of an objective physical entity, and in this transformation it is necessary to reflect the concepts rather than the body. His material is a reflection of the exemplary notions in which he stands. As one of the exemplars of the concept of “divine religion”, a discourse is formed around the king’s body, in which there is a kind of superiority for increasing power and legitimacy. The questions of this study are: How does the material body in power relations become a body that is believable to the people? How did the discourse of the king’s ideal body reflect on the literature and art of that period? The main question is what attributes played a role in the legitimacy of the king that made the material body of the king distinct and superior to the ideal body and legitimacy of power. For this reason, in this article, various aspects of the Achaemenid king’s body functions are examined and analyzed, and how the process of shah’s body shaping discourse is shaped and deepened into a type of attitude toward legitimacy is gained. The purpose of this study is to analyze the discourse of the Achaemenid king’s body in the form of active behaviors through the exploration of written and visual sources. The research hypothesis is based on the premise that what emerged as a discourse centered around the king’s body, derived from Iranian mythology, reflected in a series of symbolic functions in the Achaemenid idealist body. The findings and results show that all of these collections are indications that the triple concepts of King Farahmand’s body, warrior and blessings have been enhanced in the interest of power.
Keywords: Ideal Body, Active Behaviors, Legitimacy, Mythology, Achaemenid King.

Introduction
After the establishment, the political ruler has always sought to gain legitimacy by reducing direct influence to maintain the state by making changes in the state discourse indirectly and by deceptive and subtle signs. The government disguises itself in various guises to show the subtle domination of power. In ancient Iran, the king was the most faultless person and representative of the gods on earth, and a creature full of divine powers. In this transformation it was necessary for his objective body to reflect the concepts of the ideal King’s example in order to obtain the necessary legitimacy. Applying the concepts of legitimacy, especially the importance of the Divine Faith as the focal point of ideal King, forms a discourse around the king’s body, in which a kind of material superiority with supranational functions is promoted to enhance power and legitimacy. Transcendental functions of the body, relying on pre-existing knowledge, place the king’s power above the legitimate others.
Evidence of this is seen in narrations and stories as one of the bases of power since they incorporate elements of power within the symbolic relationship. The key question is what attributes played a role in the legitimacy of the king that made the material body of the king different and superior to the ideal in terms of power, which is also believed by the people. The results show that the representation of the Achaemenid King’s body was shaped around a king’s body based on a mythological knowledge in the form of a set of propositions, narratives, stories, and pictures as interactive functions. All of these collections are illustrations that incorporate the triple concepts of the function of the king’s supernatural body in the form of a wise king, a warrior, and a blessing for the purposes of power discourse.
Research Objectives and Necessity: The purpose of this research is to analyze the discourse of the Achaemenid King in the form of active behaviors through the exploration of written and visual sources.
Research Questions and Assumptions: 1- How does the king’s body become a supernatural and exemplary body in relation to power? 2- How has the discourse of the king’s ideal body been reflected in literature and art? 
The research hypothesis is based on the premise that what emerged as a discourse centered around the king’s body, derived from Iranian mythology, dominated a series of symbolic functions to gain legitimacy in the Achaemenid body has been reflected.

Mythological Insights and Knowledge
The legitimacy of an affair emerges when its propositional side is the same as the belief in the propositions of knowledge; this insight provides the legitimacy necessary for legislation. Insight enables one to create a form of expressive, prescriptive, and meticulous speech that is appropriate. The characteristic of this insight is to generate enormous volumes of empowering actions embodied within the subject. One of the most important areas for expanding insight is narrative. The narrative format is used to develop insight discourse. The narrative transmission of insights in the form of folk tales allows the community to interpret the criteria of its power. The narrative has authority, and all morality and legitimacy lie within the narrative. Power-oriented insight is shaped by taking advantage of existing insights or making changes to that set of speech to fit its needs. The king in the Achaemenid era is a mythological vision; in the mythical vision every action is a repetition of practice that has been modeled once and for all since the beginning of myths.

Conclusion
According to the propositions expressed in historical texts, it can be said that each one’s message seeks to induce a single message, which is the authority and legitimacy of the ideal king with metamaterial bodily functions. These statements are not intended to express the true character, but to explain the king’s personality as a sample of the behavior of a specimen of good and apt creation, and represent the king’s attempt to display a godly representation of his personality. His attributes are manifested by the characteristics of the gods and their earthly repetition. Most of the King’s similarity is focused on his position as the authentic seal and supplier of the covenant with Ahuramazda. Farah was a divine and Ahuraic force that shows one’s ability and invincibility. Having a king in Iran required race, archery, equestrian, physical strength, divine power, immortality, and so forth. Applying these concepts around the material body throughout life, the accompanying behavioral, locating, and scheduling behaviors accompany the metamorphosis of the king’s body. The king’s physical ability and skill in archery and hunting is due to the divine power bestowed on him. The king has a heavenly routed birth. His divine election, even when he was a child, is under the protection of the heavenly forces.  In the meantime, he has transformed himself into the king until he attains the role of mediator in the continuation of the cosmic order of the army and by placing his body in courtly relations such as coronation and symbolic deeds. All of this emphasizes the heavenly glory and divinity of the ideal king. The functional functions of the physical body of the king in various spatial and temporal positions have been used as an intangible tool of power in order to show different effects of the king’s distinction and legitimacy. In essence, the constant propaganda of power and knowledge to prove the legitimacy of government and the repetition of coherent propositions in a series of historical narratives and narratives has made the discourse of the body, with its particular formulations, a self-evident truth.

Reza Reazlou, Esmaeil Marofi-Aghdam, Karim Hajizadeh, Behrooz Afkhami, Leyla Khani, Leyla Sarhadi,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
The present descriptive-analytical study and its findings are based on field and document studies, and examines and analyzes the tombstones of the Qajar period of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in Shiraz, and tries to study and understand the designs of the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz, their symbolic themes, and their traces of mythical and religious beliefs of each historical or cultural period. Studies on tombstones related to the Qajar era of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in Shiraz prove that these tombstones contain various designs of human, animal, plant, geometric, and inscriptions. In general, most of these motifs, while having special meanings and symbols, are influenced by the culture of the region, beliefs, and their temporal and spatial place. On the other hand, due to the predominance of nationalist thought in the Qajar period, the images of these tombstones show a continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid eras, which were created with a relatively different form and content. On the other hand, due to the predominance of nationalist thought in the Qajar period, the images of these tombstones show a continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid eras, which were created with a relatively different form and content.
Keywords: Shiraz, Daral-Salam Cemetery, Tombstone, Nationalism, Achaemenid, Sassanian.

Introduction
Fars province, like other regions of the Iranian plateau, has been inhabited by various groups and ethnic groups since ancient times, and in this regard, several cemeteries have been established to bury their dead. Dar al-Salam Shiraz is one of the seven old cemeteries in Shiraz that Moinuddin Abolghasem Junaid Shirazi mentioned in his book. There are tombstones from the early Islamic centuries to recent times, which indicate the importance of this cemetery. There are several designs on the tombstones of Dar al-Salam cemetery. Including human motifs, animal motifs, plant motifs, geometric motifs, calligraphy, and inscriptions. In general, discovering the meaning and concept of the designs created on tombstones and their symbolic nature can unify many of the forgotten secrets and points of regional and national history, art, and culture with more unity and meaning. In this regard, the present study examines and analyzes the tombstone motifs of Shiraz Dar al-Salam Cemetery, especially the tombstones of the Qajar period, and by examining them, in addition to identifying the created motifs and their symbolism, seeks to trace the motifs through periods and among the mythical beliefs and religions of past periods.
Research & Hypotheses Questions: 1- What are the designs of the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz and what are their symbolic themes? 2- The designs created on the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz shows which traces of mythical and religious beliefs of the historical or cultural period of Iran?
1. These tombstones contain various designs of human, animal, plant, geometric, and inscription images. In general, most of these motifs, while having special meanings and symbols, are influenced by the culture of the region, beliefs, and their temporal and spatial place. 2. Considering the predominance of nationalist thought in the Qajar period, the images of these tombstones show the continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid periods, which was created with a relatively different form and content.

Classification of Tombstones of the Qajar Period of Dar al-Salam Shiraz
In general, the images engraved on the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz, except lines and inscriptions, can be divided into a general category into the following groups: 1- Plant motifs, 2- Human motifs, 3- Animals and birds Motif, 4- Patterns of objects and geometric and abstract shapes

Conclusion
The study of the tombstones of the Qajar period of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in Shiraz proves that these tombstones have various designs, including anthropogenic images, animal, plant, geometric, calligraphy, and inscription. Studying the motifs of this group of works and examining the social, political, and religious situation of the Qajar era, shows that most of these motifs are symbolic and rooted in the history and culture of Iran and are influenced by the region’s culture, beliefs, and temporal and spatial position. Also, the images of these tombstones are a kind of continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid periods, which have been created with a relatively different form and content. The motifs of cypress trees and lotus flowers are among the main paintings of Persepolis and the human images with lotus flowers in his hands, in a way reminiscent of the role of the Achaemenid kings in Persepolis and palace paintings. Sassanid monuments such as Bishapour Palace, which are among the first examples of images in Iran with a flower in hand. Horsemen and hunting scenes of animals such as lions, which are often seen on the tombstones of the Qajar period Dar al-Salam Dar al-Salam Shiraz; It has its roots in the history and culture of Iran, especially in the Persian region; Such patterns can be seen on Achaemenid seals found in Persepolis and other places, as well as on Sassanid gold and silver vessels. Finally, it should be acknowledged that among the reasons for creating these common themes between the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz and the remnants of ancient civilizations of Iran such as the Achaemenids and Sassanians, in addition to the rule of nationalist thought in the Qajar period and the influence of the Persian climate (from The cypress tree, which is one of the special trees and vegetation of the region and is found in abundance in the region (especially Shiraz), is the location of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in a place that was once the center of the rule of the Achaemenid and Sassanid states, which itself is the main The most influential factors on the thoughts of the people of the Qajar period and the continuity of the designs of the past.


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