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Yaghub Mohammadifar, Faramarz Mirzaei, Maryam Rahmati-E Turkashvand,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
The composition of music and poem has leaded both of them to poetical growth and deep thinking. Sasanid civilization had penetrated in to the pillars of the society in Abbasid period, and music found an important place as one of the symbols of Sasanid civilization. Poets in Abbasid period have created lovely images by musical instruments. In this way, Abu Nawas was a poet who showed his power in creating poetical images by musical instruments. He was able to mix music with human feeling. He knew music as a doleful tune and delightful melody which rises up of the soul of musician, it did not come from a strict string, or a lifeless wood (stick). In his poems, he mentioned some of the instruments; Lute and Flute and Harp, Tambourine and Tanbur and Mizmar were the most important among them.
Keywords: Iranian Music, Abu Nawas, Sasanian Period.
Music of Sassanid and Abbasid era: The history of musical performance in Sassanid Iran is, however, better documented than earlier periods. This is specially more evident in the context of Zoroastrian ritual. By the time of Xusro Parviz, the Sassanid royal court was the host of prominent musicians. In general, the period of Xosro Parviz reign is regarded as an “golden age of Iranian music” and himself is shown in a large relief at Taq-e Bostan among his musicians and himself holding bow and arrows and while standing in a boat amidst a group of harpists. The relief depicts two boats and the whole picture shows these boats at “two successive moments within the same panel”.
The musical instruments which appeared distinctly on the Sassanid sculptures were the harp, the horn, the Daf, the drum and the flute or pipe. The harp is triangular, and has seven strings; it is held in the lap, and played apparently by both hands. The drum is of small size. The horns and pipes are too crudely represented for their exact character to be apparent. Concerted pieces seem to have been sometimes played by harpers only, of whom as many as ten or twelve joined in the execution. Mixed bands were more numerous. In one instance the number of performers amounts to twenty−six, of whom seven play the harp, an equal number the flute or pipe, three the horn, one the drum, while eight are too slightly rendered for their instruments to be recognized. A portion of the musicians occupy an elevated orchestra, to which there is access by a flight of steps. Music is one of the most important factors in the Sassanian Persian civilization. Unfortunately, there is no note left from that period about their melodies. Thus, we are not able to become familiar with the theory of music in these periods.
Abu Nawas, an innovative poet: Innovative poets in the beginning of Abbasid era changed the contents of Arabic poetry. It is exclamatory that the leadership of this innovativeness belongs to Iranians. Bashaar, Abu Ataaie, Abu Nawas are the initiators of evolution in Abbasid poetry and they are called as the modernists of Abbasid Period.
Musical instruments in the poems of Abu Nawas: The names of musical instruments in Abu Nawas’ poets are mixed with his poetic emotions. For Abu Nawas, these instruments are not a set of strings or woods to be mentioned in the poem, rather he connects his emotions with these instruments. He vitalizes them. He perceives them their sound as human emotions as he blows in them or plays them weather in mood of euphoria or illness.
Lute and Flute: Lute is also called Barbat. It is an old instrument which is called Mezmer by Arabs and it is considered the best and the most joyful instrument. It is said that: they asked Lute, “is there any instrument better than you?” It answered “No”, while he bent his head to the back and stayed that way.
Harp and Daf: Literary, harp means paw and it is the name of a popular instrument or the name of anything which is bent. Harp is made by zinc. Hitting two of them together makes it sing. In Hindi they call it Jahanche. In Persian, Daf is the name of a popular instrument. In Arabic it is called Dof. Daf has a circular shape and it is made by wood, covered by animal skin. In some of its parts, rings are attached to it and this instrument is very precious for Dervishes.
Tanbur: Tanbur is a Persian musical instrument which has entered into Arabs culture. Originally this instrument was called Danbare in the beginning. Its bowl and surface was smaller than the bowl and surface of Shervanian Tanbur and it surface was flat and smooth.
Mizmar: It is said that Mizmar is a reed or it is lute and also it has been referred to as Barbat. It has been called Mezmar by concise which means Trachea. Mazaamir are burnt reeds. Paluarr form of Mizmar means Trachea and in Arabic, it means the puluarar form of singers’ instruments.
Last words: Abu Nawas, a modernist poet of Abbasid period, is an Arab poet (originally Persian) who has created new and beautiful concepts and images based on the culture and civilization of Sasani. This concepts and images include Iranian instruments and melodies of Sasanid period. Reed, Lute, Harp, Daf, Tanbur, Mizmar are mentioned in Abu Nawas’ poetry. Among this instruments, Reed and Lute are two mostly been mentioned together. An important point to mention about these instruments is their vitalization by the poet. These instrument are not only names to be used to describe the event or report the lifestyle of that period, they have been used as symbols to show us the joy of living, by imagination and vitalization of the instruments. Abu Nawas’ proficiency in Arabic language, his knowledge of Iranian culture and Sasanid music, enabled him to create new images and meanings and granted him a special place in Abbasid period.
Mehdi Karimi Mansoob, Yaghub Mohammadifar,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)
The two most prominent types of material cultures in eastern Zagros are Bronze Age black burnished pottery (3rd millennium BC) and grey Iron Age pottery (second and first millennium BC) that were dog out during archaeological expeditions are being investigated and reconstructed. The technique of firing these two types of pottery will be analyzed in the present study. The main objective of this research was to reconstruct the similar conditions and techniques of these two pottery class using experimental archaeological methods and practical reconstruction of traditional kilns. Along this route, the technical similarities and differences are discussed, relying on archaeological data and comparing it with reconstructed samples. In this regard, two samples of each of the Bronze Age and Iron Age potteries were reconstructed and samples were produced and refurbished by traditional kiln that utilize modern laboratory facilities and precise temperature-measuring devices and are heated in the firing process. The results of the try and error tests indicated that baking with chemical reduction and emergence of gray color is the most important common feature of difference of gray pottery with other pottery assemblages. The firing technique and the structure of the kilns are the most important factors in distinguishing the two types of bronze age and iron age pottery assemblages. What is certain is that with the evolution of the furnace structure, the heat generated from about 700 ° C in the gray Yanniq period of the Bronze Age has increased to about 1000 ° C in the Iron Age specimens, resulting in a higher firing quality as well as a complete and complete chemical reduction of the vessels. Practical comparison of the reconstructed samples showed complete conformity of their characteristics with the ancient specimens (Pisa Tepe, Tushmalan Tepe and Ahmadabad Tepe) and also revealed the secret of producing these two species of gray pottery.
Keywords: Eastern Zagros Central Regions, Bronze Age Pottery, Iron Age Gray Pottery, Experimental Archeology, Kiln, Firing and Reduction.
In modern archeology, the scientific question is not what we know, but how we know it. This point of view is one of the most important and at the same time the simplest modern archeological approach to past phenomena (Alizadeh, 2004: 91). Therefore, the idea of reconstructing the conditions and the environment in analogy with what was reported in the reports and data was presented. In response to such ambiguities, it can be said that using more modern methods in research such as “experimental archeology” will increase the accuracy of the premises. Early sections of this study have followed up on existing data and library studies of past sources and reports; therefore, in the next section, reconstructing the conditions and environment consistent with the information provided, has been the author’s main goal. In this section, the “kiln making” and the experience of firing the pottery in these kilns were practically achieved, leading to new information on the evolution of the gray pottery production; Proved the assumptions to be true, so that by producing products that were quite similar to ancient data, the key role of the resuscitation process in the firing process and the important role of kiln design and structure in the specific type of firing were demonstrated However, in some sources (Majidzadeh, 1370: 9-7), general references to the reasons for the pottery being grayed out as interfering with elements such as oxygen, iron, and carbon, and in other research, the reduction process was the main reason ( Kambakhshfard, 2010: 296). Finally, it can be added that according to the comparisons and studies of the samples, the firing of the Iron Age gray pottery somehow evolved into conscious firing methods during the first millennium BC. Although in the early Bronze Age achieved to somehow the technique of reduction firing, but only in Iron Age pottery assembladges, the correct pottery reduction firing can be clearly seen.
After the pottery kiln reconstruction operation and the success of the production of the specimens, only by a very simple comparison, the accuracy of the existing probabilities, which were the unknowns of the equation, can be easily ascertained; however, accurate and scientific recordings of the work confirmed these results. Based on these empirical findings for the Bronze Age gray pottery, although previous findings indicate that the potter accessed the firing process may be regenerated, it is due to the amount of carbon accumulated in the samples (carbonization) that is due to its proximity to heavy smoke and firewood. It can be said it was still not possible to control precisely the firing conditions by the potters.
According to existing reports and objective observations of the Bronze Age pottery assemblages, such pottery has much thicker bodies than the gray Iron Age pottery, and empirical indications indicate lower firing temperatures; There are some other features that have been ignored because of their relevance to the subject of this study, that is, firing techniques. As for its firing technique, most of the existing documents refer to the possibility of a ditched type kilns, which is not far-fetched from the evidence.
Reconstruction of the firing conditions of the Bronze Age pottery indicated that the kiln was probably a small-size oven shaped hole that provided a relatively primitive chamber for controlling fire and firing in the vicinity of heavy smoke from firewood and fuel. Reconstructed furnace firing sector were able to provide similar conditions for oven-kilns. In this oven shape kiln, pottery was quite similar to the Bronze Age specimens, especially the Yaniqe or Godin IV pottery, but due to physical limitations and initial quality and reduction facilities, they were never comparable to those found in the Iron Age.
In fact, despite efforts to create optimum conditions, these types of kilns are not capable of achieving a higher quality product such as gray ceramics of the Iron Age, even though due to the excessive energy loss of the maximum heat produced in the oven by about 700 Centigrade did not exceed that production of higher quality pottery in these conditions is almost unlikely.
As the kiln construction techniques expands and evolves, the reconstituted kiln will eventually move closer to the plan of the kilns in the Iron Age, and after a complete overhaul, the result also confirms this claim. In this kiln, reasons such as the separation of the firing chamber, the dominance of proper flame allocation to the vessels, the closure of the pipes and the non-collision of the pipes with the air, made it easier to obtain the appropriate chemical reduction conditions.
In fact, the gray color of the potteries reconstituted with the conditions of the Iron Age kilns are mostly due to the correct reduction and dependence of the carbon chemical interactions and the consumption and replacement of the oxygen present in the composite iron oxide in the ceramic body soil. The technical differences in these two species, which are mainly due to differences in the structure of the kiln structure, are evident in the firing quality of the bodies and the difference in the intensity of carbon accumulation and the color difference between the surface and the body depth.
After examining the documentation available in the time and location of interested research subject, it can be said that the gray pottery has two major variations, both of which have significant differences in terms of time of occurrence, originating culture, and specific production and reduction techniques. In terms of firing technique characteristics, it can be said that the only similarity between these two cultural products is the presence of a “different gray color” in the body of both types of pottery, which has brought them closer together because of the differences in the characteristics of the other species.
The characteristics of the Early Bronze Age gray pottery that distinguishes it from the Iron Age gray pottery lie in the presence of two main factors, namely the type of kilns and the pottery body features. According to the comparison and examination of samples, firing gray pottery assembladges of the Iron Age somehow evolves conscious firing methods and only in the examples of the Iron Age pottery can a complete and correct chemical reduction of a pottery be clearly seen.
In fact, both of these types of potteries are common in creating an atmosphere of chemical reduction in firing, both of which are interesting in their quality and type of performance, which can be attributed to the progressive evolution of the kiln structure and the facilities and knowledge necessary for its construction and observance for centuries.
Sharareh-Sadat Mirsafdari, Yaghub Mohammadifar,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
The development of interdisciplinary sciences and the need for researchers to review scientific topics have led to the issue of “reuse of data” in archeology. Before any discussion, it is necessary to examine the challenges and theoretical foundations in this field, because uninformed use and without considering the indigenous needs of the country’s archaeological knowledge in these discussions will lead to opposite results and create consumerism and orientation in producing scientific results. This research has been done by the descriptive-analytical method and in this field from documents and library resources as well as observing the results of invalid scientific databases in the field of archaeological data studies from Digital Science Direct database, and a review of Open Context and CdocRM databases. Also, the results have been published on the T-Dar website. After reviewing and studying effective methods to identify effective strategies for reusing information and using digital tools in this field, finally, three main areas in data re-reading have been identified including standardization, metadata design, and texture documentation by digital tools. These strategies can be effective by combining their capabilities in the process of data reuse and have an intrinsic value according to the standardization frameworks of the obtained information and do not depend on factors such as information provision tools or the foundation itself. For this purpose, in the stages of field studies, classification, laboratory studies, and storing information in databases, scientific principles in this field must be carefully applied so that the information can be reused; Therefore, two main questions are raised in this research. 1) What key issues should be considered in the discussion of data reuse? 2) How can digital tools be useful in meeting the challenge of data reuse? We explored key areas in the reuse of archaeologists’ data and the role of large institutions in this area and introduced digital capabilities to address these challenges.
Keywords: Digital Archeology, Standardization, Metadata, Texture, Digital Documentation.
One of the main purposes of designing and using databases in archeology is to reuse data. One of the essential fields in the standardization of topics in our country is the integration of words and terms. For example, in many sources, words such as coarse, rough pottery, as well as red and orange peas, etc. are used, and many researchers use different words instead of each other. Many other basic concepts such as laboratory studies, theoretical studies, and conclusions, etc. also need to use the relevant standard frameworks so that this information can be used and evaluated in other studies.
Proper management and study of digital methods that can be used in archeology is also an important and fundamental issue. There are different study methods and the information obtained from them are reusable provided that the implementation of the standards in different stages is obtained. The rules of regulatory bodies governing archeology are also changing, with many countries now banning the exchange of antiquities and other finds, even for research purposes. Therefore, the use of digital documentation for archaeological research will be important because not only the destroyed sites must be documented, but also the “archaeological data” in their remaining countries of origin should be analyzed accordingly.
The information obtained from theoretical and practical research will be monolingual by executive standards that can be understood by researchers at different times and places and can be reused and shared. CIADCC Aram (International Committee for the Conceptual Reference Model of Documentation) has presented the most famous and well-known model of the formal theoretical foundations of archeology. The CID DocC Aram conceptual reference model is a theoretical and practical tool for sharing information on cultural heritage. This model can help researchers, professionals, and the public to answer complex archaeological questions in a diverse and scattered data set. Also, some groups have created vocabulary, controlled, and revised vocabulary (readable by computers), complementing descriptive topics, and their properties are quietly defined by CIADCC. The terms reviewed and controlled have also recently been published by the British Museum as open information and facilitate large-scale access to information from archaeological data classification and typology systems.
The first question that arises for re-users of this information is the method of collecting archaeological data. In some cases, different methods in a particular research field based on the objectives of the research are understandable. The characteristics of a research field, such as the period of study or the nature of an area, affect the research design, data collection methods, and research strategies. Due to field activities in caves and urban areas, each requires a specific method of drilling, but in many cases, this change of method depends on the excavator, and this makes it difficult for researchers to re-read the data in museums or repositories. Objects, on the other hand, are meaningless on their own, regardless of the texture from which they are derived. The nature of archaeological studies is such that after collecting and studying the data, they lose the interpretation of their original meaning, either by returning to the site or keeping them in museums or reservoirs and they have no original value and cannot be “existent” alone. Without the context in which the archaeological data was located, it is impossible to analyze and study them, and they are only describable in terms of similarities and structure.
Another feature of databases is the inclusion of metadata next to the original information. Providing information that details the subject matter of an object or concept and helps to understand data, object or concept, metadata supports and explains the main information.
Archaeologists use the research data of others in different ways: 1) the method of sharing person to person 2) sharing through the museum archives and more recently 3) digital databases and it depends on factors such as the scientific ability of the person who obtained the information, the area from which the information was obtained, and whether the information was the result of scientific work or unauthorized excavations.
Digital archaeologists use different technologies in their work. These technologies fall into four main categories: 1) information databases and the Internet, which is known as the main platform for digital activities, and the results of other sections are uploaded to publish and reuse data. 2) Software, which plays an important role in analysis and archaeological information and their results are transmittable to databases. 3) Digital documents that provide researchers with the ability to store virtually and objectively transfer information. 4) Physical and chemical studies and analyzes. To share and reuse data, our most important tool will be the database. Also, to preserve the texture and insert appropriate metadata, we need digital documentation as well as software. Also, to insert appropriate metadata, we need to use chemical and physical analysis.
The application of new archaeological perspectives to previous studies or the reuse of data is a challenge that enable archaeologist to review and share information in the field of interdisciplinary studies. In this regard, the three main areas of standardization, metadata, and context should be considered and planned. Proper use of standards in the study, analysis, and uploading processes and compliance with contractual criteria, make the impact of the person, tools and other issues less. Be confident and valuable. To understand the relationship between the three tools introduced with the steps of the practical study process in archeology, Model 1 is presented. This model shows which steps the tools should be used. It should also be noted that each of these components is associated with other options (Model 2).
The need to use standardization as an executive framework in the field of metadata is part of the information integration process, and the documentation of its context is part of the metadata. Digital archeology and its tools can solve this challenge based on guidelines, criteria and standards, and theoretical foundations as a procedure in preparing metadata to solve the problem of backup information. Datasets with theoretical foundations based on local needs as well as vocabulary control should go through this path as well. Using three main contexts in re-reading information as complementary concepts can facilitate the study process. There is a practical example of this relationship in the approach of some large organizations in the field of data management. The British Archaeological Information Service (ADS) has launched major plans to develop theoretical foundations and standardize basic information such as dating and metadata (which includes contextual information) to provide free access to standardize information and metadata. Researchers can check the accuracy and validity of information in a database based on their knowledge. The free Orchid Database has been created to identify researchers, using the Orchid Web API to display biographical information and publish information about participants in data collection. The Free Database provides new data on the expertise and credibility of data-gathering archaeologists. This organization presents these metadata in the form of a specific standard framework. Another manifestation of the interaction of these fields in databases is due to their functional nature, include standardization and use of metadata.
Narges Alaei Bakhsh, Yaghoub Mohammadifar, Hossein Sarhaddi-Dadian,
year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022)
Troglodytic Architecture like other branches of architecture has strong relationship with the culture of the people and their daily lives, which, although at first glance, seems simple and primitive, but in fact were built by people who have used all their intelligence and ability to build them.In Troglodyte part of Ab-Ask village, the people of the past have tried to create various architectural elements in this place to meet their daily needs, each of which plays an important role in the architecture of this part in a specific shape and image. Some of these elements were created inside the Troglodyte (rooms) and some outside the rooms.Indicative environmental elements that affect the plasticity of the village are geography,security,immortality and religion,which geography has the most impact on the form of Troglodyte compared to other factors. However, the influence of other factors cannot be ignored. What has been the present research in order to answer the question of the elements related to the lifestyle of people in these Troglodyte? Using field and descriptive case study method, in Troglodyte section of Ab-Ask village, to introduce and analyze architectural elements and details in these Troglodyte including: porch, stone bench, door, window, ledge and niche, stove, manger, and etc. At the end of this study, it will show that the past people of this region with high skills in interacting with nature have been able to create more than 170 Troglodyte in this place, which were studied in 5 groups. The orientation of the facade in this complex has been done from the south to the northeast, which has been a calculated choice in relation to the winds of the region and the direction of the sun and the chronology of the collection, according to the pottery and historical texts, is probable to the historical-Islamic period.
Keywords: Troglodyte Architecture, Ab-e-Ask, Architectural Elements and Details, Immortality, Akhyeh.
This type of architecture has been created by hand, with the help of tools, in the heart of the soil or in the heart of rocks between dams and precipices. Residents in man-made cave architecture, like living in modern architecture, require the use of elements to meet their needs. They have created the elements of this architecture in the same way in the heart of the rocks and according to their needs, which is diverse. Certainly, the past residents of man-made cave architecture of Ab-Ask village, in order to meet their needs by creating and organizing the available space in the heart of the rock, have created elements and details along with the residential space; that knowing these elements, as indicators related to lifestyle, will lead to familiarity with the pattern and lifestyle of the inhabitants of this man-made cave village.
Man-made cave part of the village, which also has a significant area, has taken on new uses today due to new needs, and due to new uses, new elements have been added to the previous samples.
Objectives and necessity of research: Due to the evidence of many rock architecture in Larijan section of Amol city (due to geographical conditions) and the lack of sufficient research in relation to these works, therefore study of the rock formations of Ab-Ask Village can be used as a prelude to a better understanding of this type of architecture and also, the role of rock architecture in rural tourism planning in Larijan section is very important
Research questions and hypotheses: What were the elements related to the lifestyle of the people in these man-made caves? It seems that the wind direction of the region and the direction of sunlight have had a significant effect on the direction of the entrance of this man-made cave.
Areas of villages in Larijan district in Mazandaran province, among dams and precipices with a length of approximately 45 km, from the summer village of Plour to the village of Punjab, along the Haraz transportation road, have a variety of man-made cave architecture (Mohammadi Nashli and Rostamnejad Nashli , 2013: 2) which in this article we are researching man-made caves of Ab-e-Ask village.
Adjacent to the Haraz River, which has permanent water, at the foot of Damavand Mountain, next to numerous mineral springs and travertine makers, and near the coal mine, more than 170 units of man-made cavities inside hardened volcanic sediments (harder than soil and softer than stone) but dominated the plains and adjacent lands created by the peoples of the past.
These man-made caves are made on the walls of valleys with a height of 30 to 100 meters, all of which have a special door and hole due to the slope and climatic and perhaps religious reasons, which usually warm in winter and cool in summer in choosing the side. In these settlements, the number of openings is generally small and often only one entrance is enough, although in some, man-made caves, in addition to the opening, a hole is installed in the east direction.
Various elements have been used in man-made section of Ab-e-Ask village inside and outside the living space, and here we have tried to introduce and their possible function. Porch, parf, shelter or shelter of wind and cairn from external elements, hall, skylight window, niche, recess, jug, mortar, stove, manger and drinking fountain, room and stake including internal and at the entrance elements, stairs and platform are elements that are seen both outside and inside the space of these man-made caves, are mentioned in this article.
This collection includes more than 170 units of man-made cave that have been studied in five groups: residential structures, livestock-residential structures, guard structures, possibly ritual-burial structures and structures with unknown use. Chronology of the collection According to the evidence in the historical-Islamic period up to the present century, it is possible that during this period, this collection has also expanded. However, 90% of the units in this collection are still used in fodder ponds and warehouses. Pointing out that about 50% of the collection is related to the present century that people have naturally built existing structures to store fodder and keep their livestock and according to the type of rock.
7 units out of total 170 units identified in the collection were debris-removed that the different feature of these 7 units is the presence of a pounded floor with plaster, which has probably been seen in the side walls in addition to the floor. A number of units in this collection are associated with artificial architecture, which is clearly related to the surviving artificial architecture of the contemporary century and some recent years.
Existence of different architectural elements inside and outside the spaces has been a necessity in order to meet the daily needs of the residents, that in this article, a brief introduction to the elements and interior design, which were eventually created simply by working on stone and natural bedding, was obtained.
In this collection, the existing architectural elements as inextricably intertwined with other elements, such as walls, floors, ceilings are parts of the space. Each of these elements is embedded in different sizes and dimensions depending on the location and available space; due to this, we see a great variety in the architectural elements of this collection that the elements of each space are specific to that space. The presence of a natural substrate has made it possible to add new elements to the collection over time. These elements are created in the desired space due to the necessity of daily life, and that is why there is not much multiplicity about these elements.
Yaghob Mohammadifar, Hamid Reza Karami,
year 6, Issue 22 (2-2023)
Providing water for the inhabitants of the plateau of Iran, which is located in the arid and semi-arid region of the earth, has always been one of the most important challenges for the its people since the beginning of the formation of the first dynasties and establishing the first irrigation systems. Low rainfall climate has caused the Iranian people to innovate different techniques to provide water for agriculture activities permanently. Iranians are considered as the main creators of Kariz (subground aqueduct) as one of the most practical methods of exploiting underground water resources. Exploitation of running water resources by construction of dams on rivers and springs and the creation of canals is another method rooted in the history of the civilizations of the west Asia for supplying more sustainable water for the agricultural and industrial functions. In the specific and under investigation area of the Pulvar River, where the Achaemenid capital of Pasargadae is located, there are some of the ancient water structures including dams, artificial waterways, canals, extensive water reservoirs and springs. Of theses the dams are mostly built on the tributaries of the Pulvar River, and the water supplying canals are located below them. Such complex structures have been built in the plains and districts surrounding Pasargadae such as Didegan, Murghab, Sarpiran, Kamin and Arsanjan. The present investigation briefly introduces these water structures and the techniques they were made in the Achaemenid period in the cultural landscape of Pasargadae. The results of this research are based on the studying historical documents and field studies of the past decades by historians and archaeologists, as well as field surveys by the author during the recent years in an area of nearly 16,000 square kilometers. The results of this research are amazing and very impressive. These extensive water systems, with the tact and intelligence of Achaemenid managers and engineers, have supplied water to all the plains and mountain valleys of the Pasargadae region. Villages and public settlements, gardens, agricultural lands, government buildings and centers, and finally the Royal Paradise of Cyrus the Great used of the benefits of water supply structures. In the construction of the dams, clay materials and ashlar or carved stone masonries have been applied, and some of them also have architectural structures with cut stone blocks. Waterways are also created in several ways on the slopes of hills and rocks. Studies and researches show that the construction of water structures in the study area began during the reign of Cyrus the Great and expanded during the reign of Darius the Great and continued to develop until the end of the Achaemenid period. This method of exploiting surface of sub ground water resources continues to post-Achaemenid periods, especially in the Sassanid era and continues till modern times.
Keywords: Historical Dams, Achaemenid Architecture, Ancient Irrigation, Pasargadae, Achaemenid Empire.
It is for the first time that in this era, a tremendous transformation in Iranian architecture occurred by mixing the traditions of architecture and art with the traditions of other nations that came under the umbrella of the Achaemenid government. The builders of Pasargad, in order to establish a new capital that can have a correct concept of a powerful and magnificent government center and also bring the comfort of its residents, beyond the plain of Pasargad, investigated and assessed the feasibility of all the surrounding plains , and after That Pasargad was designed and built What can be concluded from these structures is that Pasargad was not limited to the complex of royal buildings whose remains remain in the center of the Pasargad plain, and it correctly had the concept of an official and advanced capital. A wide range of infrastructures that a government center like Pasargad needs has been identified in a wide area of Pasargad plain and the surrounding plains, which is a proof of how Pasargad was built and founded. An important part of the aforementioned infrastructures is the vast collection of water structures that were designed and built in the ancient territory of Pasargad. One of the most important plans of the Achaemenid government was to deal with the water issue, which the Shah and the administrative organization had taken over the management of (Brian, 1985: 1985). In the upcoming research, an attempt has been made to introduce the Achaemenid water structures of Pasargad region and its impact on the construction and development of Pasargad. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Pasargad World Heritage Site also conducted a field survey in the Pasargad Plain and the surrounding plains (Karami and Zarei 2015), and in this research, several dams and extensive water supply networks were identified (Map 1). In the fall of 2019, from the first season of the exploration of Didegan Dam (Bostan Khani) was done and parts of the architectural structure of the dam and its wall and foundation were explored and researched, which resulted in valuable results (Karami, 2019, unpublished).
Introduction of Water Structures and Their Function
The extent and variety of Achaemenid works and sites in the territory of the Achaemenid Empire shows the intelligence and management ability of the Achaemenid government in the administration of the country in all fields, looking at the capabilities of the territory and the environment and paying attention to the culture and social capital of the various regions of the empire, which can be seen in He searched for historical documents and remains of Achaemenid works and sites.
The Effort to Manage the Country is More Visible in the Important Achaemenid Centers
In Pasargad, which is our focus in this research, various aspects of art and culture, architecture, government infrastructure, engineering and public settlements have been revealed and can clarify some of the unknowns. Whenever the name of Pasargad is mentioned, the collection of royal buildings and especially the tomb of Cyrus, the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, is remembered in our thoughts. But the Achaemenid capital of Pasargad is much wider and beyond the current area What we see today is the result of the knowledge and efforts that the engineers and builders of Pasargad have applied in a wide area of this area and have created a set of structures and infrastructures that meet the needs of the ruling center of Pasargad. One of the most important remaining infrastructures is the set of water structures that were created in the ancient landscape of Pasargad in several plains centered on Pasargad. However, metal and building stone quarries, metal smelting workshops, road networks, bridges, security checkpoints and support centers are other parts of the infrastructure works in Pasargad (Karami & Zarei, 2015). The concept of the ancient landscape of Pasargad can be considered for all the hills and heights around Pasargad, where the Achaemenid works and sites are directly related to the government site of Pasargad. The extent of this ancient area can be considered to be nearly 16,000 square kilometers based on archaeological surveys and researches, which according to country divisions includes the cities of Euclid, Khorrambid, Bowanat, Sarchehan, Pasargad, Arsanjan and Maroodasht from north to south.Pelvar River is the only permanent river in this area, the formation of settlement patterns of the first settlements from the Middle Paleolithic period until now is dependent on this river (Map 2).
The historical water structures of Pasargad and Persepolis are among the most prominent and valuable works left over from the Achaemenid era, which are located in the Bakhtegan and Tashk watersheds. The two main catchment rivers, Pelvar and Kor, form one of the basins in which the water from the rains in the highlands and plains flows into them in the form of flowing water and under the surface. Due to the presence of two important Achaemenid centers of Pasargad and Persepolis in this basin and the need to provide water for them in the headwaters of these rivers, especially the Pelvar River, several reservoirs and diversion dams have been built with the aim of exploiting surface water resources And extensive waterways and water supply networks have also been established These structures include dams, waterways and water distribution networks, springs and reservoirs, and stone architectural structures for water distribution. The embankments are made of earth in the form of a hard clay core and a shell of stone debris and are mostly built on the heads of the branches, and the water roads are also on the slopes of Mahori hills and rocks and in the middle of the plains with two methods of accumulating soil and stone debris and excavating And the cutting of rocks has been created It seems that the Achaemenid engineers have selected the best and most efficient places for the construction of dams after investigating and studying the field of this basin. The mouth of mountain gorges through which seasonal rivers pass is the best place to build a dam Because the stone body of the valleys makes the dams stable and durable, and it has been easier and more reliable to contain and store the floods in the sub-branches. Due to the extent and shape of the catchment of this basin, the Pelvar river floods during rains and a large amount of water enters it, and it was not possible to control it for the Achaemenid engineers considering the facilities and technology of that era. Therefore, the best option for flood control is the construction of dams at the head of the branches and tributaries of Pelvar Also, it is easier to transfer the dams built at the head of the branches, which are located at a higher place than the plains and flat lands, and most of the downstream parts have benefited from the stored water. Apart from curbing seasonal floods, supplying water to settlements and residential areas, agricultural lands and gardens, providing water to Pasargad government grounds and especially Shahi Campus, as well as industrial uses and mills, are among the goals of building this vast complex of There have been water structures in this area The history of the construction of this set of water structures is related to the Achaemenid period, which, based on researches and archaeological documents, started from the beginning of the Achaemenid period and with the reign of Cyrus and expanded during the reign of Darius and was developed, maintained and exploited until the end of the Achaemenid period.