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Showing 3 results for Hozhabri

Mohammad Amin Mirghaderi, Ali Hozhabri,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)

Central Zagros as one of the significant Iranian archeological perspectives has attracted the attention of many archeologists during the recent century and especially from the 1950s. It seems that the rugged lands of this near east region have been the cradle of many cultural evolutions during the history and the prehistoric periods. Although central Zagros due to its adjacency to the central Iranian plateau, Mesopotamian and southwest of Iran lowlands, and also the northwest mountains of Iran has been of concern mostly for the cultural remnants of the prehistoric societies, yet it has been a strategic and important region during the historical and even Islamic period. Among them we can mention the complex of Taq-e Bostan on the north of Kermanshah located on the ancient path of “The great Khorasan road”. This complex is on the hillsides of Parkuh and surrounded by thickets and a lake which cause it a particular situation throughout the history. This complex owes its fame to the Sassanid rock relief which has been visited by Abeh Pushan in 1792 for the first time. However, Herzfeld studies are the first scientific investigations on the historical complex of Taq-e Bostan. On the other hand, the
conducted excavations by Mr.Kambakhshfard in 1969 led by the accidental discovery of some pithos graves by municipality workers, resulted in achieving the evidences of a Parthian cemetery with more than 50 pithos graves and also remains of a village related to Parthian period. According the archeological investigations and studies on the ancient paths of the western Iran, or the surveys have been done in the region and ninety years background of archeological studies about this area, no report regarding the prehistoric existence of this complex has been presented. Morad Hasel site is the closest prehistoric site to this complex which has been identified and surveyed by Mr. Hassan Rezvani and it is related to the chalcolithic and Bronze Age. During the surveys and visits of Ali Hozhabri in the summer of 2013, some evidences of a chalcolithic site have been identified in the western park of Taq-e Bostan complex. This site was surveyed and its surface findings were transferred to the C.H.H.T organization for filing and documenting. Regarding the nature of the findings which were collected during the field survey, the aim of the present study is to introduce this significant site and to present a relative
history for the site’s artifacts. In the following, the overall image of cultural structure of this site is recon structed with an analytical view and with regard to the chronology and the location of this site.
Keywords: Central Zagros, The Western Park of Taq-e Bostan, Chalcolithic Age, Kermanshah.

This site is located on the north of the current city of Kermanshah, Taq-e Bostan historical complex; with northern longitude of ″16 ′23 °34 and eastern latitude of 47″54.7′7°. Altitude of this site from the sea level is 1395 m and is one-kilometer length and 300 meters width. This site is located on the west of Taq-e Bostan, in the western Park of the complex and on the hillside, surrounded by pine trees and close to a basin with a boiling fountain. This basin known as Taq-e Bostan Sarab is one hundred meters far from the east of the site. The site is one kilometer far from the north of Qarasu River. On the rather steep slope of the mountain and some deep clefts have been made on its both sides by heavy equipment. The Parthian cemetery of Taq-e Bostan is formed on the Taq-e Bostan western park site’s remnants. Fortunately, the pine jungle around this site has prevented the urban construction and the field is preserved. However, since the Parks and green spaces organization of Kermanshah is beside the site, and in 2005 Kermanshah municipality decided to build a parking in this area and started to excavate in two parts of the site. The result of this earthworks were discovery of some Parthian pithoi graves which were unfortunately destroyed; although C.H.H.T stopped their progress but those clefts are still obvious and gradually they turned in to a dumping ground for city wastes and building debris. Later the municipality started to expand the west Park area of Taq-e Bostan with some changes. Except the known sites and caves around Taq-e Bostan which are far from the historical monuments, up to now Taq-e Bostan complex has been known and studied for its Parthian, Sassanid and Qajarian cultural remnants. Discovering a prehistoric site in this complex can emphasize its importance, not only for the historical and Islamic period but also the prehistoric (Chalcolithic) period. The Godin excavations can be considered as the base for western Iran chronology of central Zagros, but it seems that contrary to Kangavar plain, and in compare to eastern plains of Zagros, Mesopotamian ceramic culture was more widespread in the western plains of central Zagros such as Mahidasht during the fourth millennium B.C. accordingly, the chalcolithic chronology in Kermanshah and Mahidasht plains can be studied based on the excavations conducted in Siyahbid and Chogha Maran. Based on the chronology of the neo-chalcolithic period of this site which its evidences have been obtained on the workshop no. 3, handmade red ware and black ware ceramics with black decorative patterns have been found related to this period. The proposed date for the neo-chalcolithic of Mahidasht is 3000 – 3600 B.C; comparison of the discovered ceramics indicates  the concurrency of this site with GodinVI: 1 and neo-chalcolithic layers in Siyahbid and Chogha Maran. Clearly, ceramics are the most important and significant cultural material of the near east. Due to the degradation and destruction, the surface cultural material of this site is just shreds. The neo-chalcolithic ceramics of the western Park of Taq-e Bostan complex are buff ware with vegetal temper and light red coating color. These ceramics are handmade, properly baked and medium quality. Among the surface ceramics of this site, no patterned shred was found but regarding the appearance of these ceramics, they can be related to neo-chalcolithic, specially the common rolled Rim bowls have been seen among the collected samples of the surface. Considering the clefts in this site made by the blades of the road construction equipment, the cultural material accumulation can be seen in this site. Ceramics are this site is comparable with the ceramics of GodinTepe in Kangavar plain and Siyahbid in Kermanshah plain.

Hesamoddin Javidnia, Ali Hozhabri,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)

Western Iran during the first millennium had been fraught with significant incidents in the Assyrian and the Urartian era. In this historical period, the Mannaean local government had been frequently invaded by the Assyrian and the Urartian. Therefore, these invasions and the need to defend the country and its national structures had obliged the Mannaean government to construct strongholds so as to prevent plunder and destruction. Apparently it is the time a structure is built on Ziviyeh hill which is known to be a castle by researchers. In the present study, according to the major structure of the building and the tombs around this site, Ziviyeh is suggested to be an important temple. Paying careful attention to this structure and the excavated areas around the Ziviyeh hill, it is claimed that at that time, besides constructing castles, Mannaean government used to build some buildings for undertaking specific rituals. This must be noted that religious rituals had always been of considerable importance for the governments. The major question is: lf the structure discovered in Ziviyeh is not a castle, what had been used for? Explaining this, the authors have tried to hypothesize that the probable use of the Ziviyeh structure had been religious and ritualistic circa 7th to 9th century B.C. in the Western Iran. This study having an analytical-historical approach, using field studies and library data, tries to introduce the structure and study data and their co-relations.
Keywords: First Millennium, Mannaean, Castle, Worship, Ziviyeh.

In 7th to 9th centuries B.C the Mannaean, an independent Iranian government, was located in the West of Iran. It was on the way of bordering governments of the Assyrian and Urartian and therefore it was invaded frequently. These invasions caused the Mannaeans, similar to other governments, to start constructing castles and strongholds in order to survive these attacks, as well as other constructions such as temples. Due to their locations on the way of invading governments they constructed these temples on highlands to prevent plunder age. One of these temples is located in Ziviyeh on high hills. So far, this structure has been considered to be a castle by researchers. Based on new researches, considering the structure of the enclosure, its location on the hilltop and the variety of cemeteries surrounding it, this study is an attempt to suggest that the structure is a temple.

Problem Statement
 The ancient hill of Ziviyeh has been introduced as a castle for seven decades. The important point is the believability of this structure functioning as a castle. Researchers may have considered it to be a castle because it was located on the way of invading bordering governments or because it was on the hilltop. This study tries to suggest another probability; regarding the centrality of the Ziviyeh structure and close studying of the surrounding sites within a particular radius of 10 kilometers with due regard to the excavated cemeteries surrounding the hill, the structure is probably a religious temple. 
Goals and Objectives
The Mannaeans were frequently invaded by neighboring governments which like other governments it resulted in construction of strongholds. Constructing other structures such as temples alongside governmental castles was a governmental obligation. Regarding the remaining of its structures and various golden artifacts found there, Ziviyeh hill’s structure has more characteristics of a temple than those of a castle. If we could prove that Ziviyeh’s structure was a temple, we might be able to change the attitudes and the approaches of Iranian archeological investigations on religious beliefs of those people.
Historical descriptive-analytical approach has been used for this study; and by using field and library studies the structure and its function are introduced and the data has been analyzed and its relations to the structure has been discussed.  

The Ziviyeh structure is built on an uneven area which its natural slope rocks helped its architects. The remains consist of a stone stairway entrance surrounded by pillars, chambers, warehouses, a pillared hall, stone benches, and a paved yard. The achieved divisions can be categorically compared with those of Nush-i jan. With due regard to lack of any battlements being found, primarily we may deduce that it has only an adoptive structural likeness of a castle. It has to be mentioned that one of the most important characteristics of a castle is the existence of battlements, which is absent in Ziviyeh structure.   
In case of considering Ziviyeh a temple, regarding where it is located on highlands, it should have been an important temple in Mannaean era. The entrance stairway has three pillars which are redundant in a military castle because they have decorative purpose. Moreover, the existence of numerous chambers used to store grains and provisions, also could have been places to store gifts presented to the temple by people. The existence of a pillared hall is another redundant element in a castle because a castle is a military structure which is invaded frequently and may sustain huge damage.  Based on my hypothesis the hall was used as a place for congregations.        
The variety and quantity of graves including familial, individual, shared, and in some case buried collected bones and skulls (similar to Changbar graves) indicate the respectability of this structure circa mid-9th century to mid-7th century B.C.
Ziviyeh was on the way of frequent invasions of the Assyrian and Urartian and as it could be considered a castle to defend, it also could be considered a temple for performing religious rituals, being placed on hilltop to prevent plunder age. This hypothesis is worthy of attention due to the found artistic and decorative artifacts, probably offered to the honored resident of the structure. It may be deduced that Ziviyeh structure was a sacred temple, where people offered gifts to in order to worship their God(s) and honor the resident person. They buried their loved ones near this sacred place. Changbar and Malamacha cemeteries are of these types of cemeteries which the variety of burial methods indicate ritualistic burials. 

Ali Hozhabri,
year 6, Issue 19 (5-2022)

A large part of Iran is located in dry areas, for this reason, various measures have been taken for water management, especially surface water. Dry weather, lack of rainfall, seasonality of river water and gradual drying of rivers, created the idea of water storage in the form of dams, aqueducts and cisterns in the human mind. The cisterns have different designs depending on the climatic and social conditions of each region. Also, the architecture of such buildings in different regions has been influenced by local architecture. Optimum management of low rainfall in a few days of the year in an area that due to the geological texture of the underground water table is insignificant and salty was a sign of the genius of the inhabitants of the Iranian plateau for water storage. With the progress of this tradition, especially during Islamic periods, the number of settlements in the region increased. One of the water storage structures is the cisterns, which were built along the flood path so that the surface water is directed to them after the rain and used for various purposes.  The question is, considering the scarcity of water in the region, is it possible to restore this structure in a modern way by reviving the past techniques? Due to the low but heavy rainfall in the south of the country, the ponds, in addition to providing an important part of the residents’ water, also act as floodgates, and with one rain at the end of the summer season and a few rains in the winter season, all the thousands of ponds in the south of the country are filled. But with the dependence of these areas on the water of the dams, in addition to the pressure on the country’s water resources, this historical tradition is gradually being forgotten. However, from the results of this research, based on the statistics, it seems that the restoration of the ponds -with government support and with a modern design based on historical patterns- will provide the possibility of water supply for the residents of the region.
Keywords: Barka, Ab-Anbar, Islamic Period, Fars, Hormozgan.

The relationship between water and the world of existence can be defined from two perspectives: one is quantitative and experimental sciences and the other is spiritual issues of life and knowledge. Iran is considered one of the dry tropical regions of the world due to its special geographical position and very scattered unevenness’s and the influence of other factors. With this description, being located in the dry and water-scarce regions of the world, water has always had a high value and dignity in Iran, and for this reason, many advances and innovations have emerged in the field of water extraction and transportation. Among the most important of these developments, we can mention aqueducts, reservoirs, dams and weirs, as well as other types of structures and management operations that have been used. Therefore, the creative solutions of human connection with water have played a remarkable role in alleviating harsh natural conditions and in the meantime, the construction of water reservoirs has become popular in the extremes of Iran and water reservoirs have been built in many cities. Reservoirs with their interesting architecture are usually built in arid, desert and semi-arid areas to store rainwater more than in other places.
Iran’s governments in Islamic eras, with emphasis on issues related to hygiene and purity, built water reservoirs as an essential element in the lives of Muslims in or near mosques. And they became more common near them, with the evolution, development of agriculture and trade in this era, the construction of water reservoirs in villages led to the development of village, and as a result, the increase in population along the caravan roads led to the expansion of roads. It became commercial and accordingly it became commercial. At the same time with the development of Islam in different countries and the expansion of cultural exchanges, thanks to the blessing of the religion and the unified central government, construction techniques developed a lot. Construction of cylindrical-shaped tanks became common in Iran during this period due to the relatively low cost of construction and the greater resistance of its body against water pressure. Perhaps the method of making spherical or conical domes appeared in Iranian architecture from this period and for this reason. During this period, with the emergence of new cities and neighborhoods, reservoirs were placed next to mosques, schools, markets and government palaces like centralizing elements, and therefore it seems that reservoirs were a place for various social interactions. One of the prominent features of the city in Islamic era was the facilities such as mosques, bazaars, reservoirs, aqueducts, etc. The reservoir in the center of the neighborhood or city, in addition to providing water, is an excellent sign of There was a need for urban social life, for this reason, these buildings were sometimes built as a complex, such as a caravanserai complex, a reservoir, a guard house, a watchtower, and a refrigerator. The main passages or alleys sometimes branch off and lead to one or more houses. In addition to the possibility of reaching the neighborhood centers and the city center, the crossings also provide the possibility of quick and easy access to water reservoirs.

The lifestyle of Iranians, especially with the end of the Qajar period, became different from the past, one of which is fresh water piping. At the same time, the management of water resources in local ways caused the economic prosperity of the country based on the existing surface resources and underground water tables and the lack of pressure on them. Water cisterns have been a historical investment from the distant past, which, in addition to drinking, have also been used for industrial and agricultural purposes. Considering that currently one of the management problems is still the supply of drinking water in different regions of the country, it is suggested to provide part of the water problems of arid and semi-arid areas by restoring water reservoirs and creating examples of them in larger dimensions. Since the biggest management problem of water is its production, the past taught us that even in places where the underground water table is salty and there is no permanent river on the surface of the earth, fresh and pleasant water can be produced with some measures, and these methods will bring prosperity to the population and Roads have been expanded and the population has increased. Today, the experiences and techniques of the past should be used with today’s science to develop country and prevent consequences of dehydration and drought. Therefore, this article is a proposal in which the Ministry of Energy;  Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts; Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of Roads and City Planning; Iran Water and Power Resources Development Company; Country Water and Wastewater Engineering Company; Iran Water Resources Management Company;  Organization of forests, pastures and watershed management of country; And, of course, local communities play a significant role in maintaining and building water reservoirs as water storage tanks.

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