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Sobhan Ghasemi, Morteza Hessari, Hassan Akbari,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)

The Varamin plain is located on the way to the Great Khorasan and the point of intersection between East and West of Iran in the North of Iran’s Plateau. The plain is fertile in the south of the Alborz Mountains and the deposits of alluvial soils flowed from the Alborz to the central desert, and are the gathering place of human societies with evidence from the Middle Paleolithic so far. This plain, with an average up rainfall, but due to the arrival of current waters, in the past, nowadays, with the construction of two dams on the way to the streets of Varamin, a small amount of this river water reaches Varamin, there is a thriving agricultural and livestock farming, which are still visible signs Is. The Zahistor area is also one of the foundations located on the periphery of the river, which is likely to be permanent, which is currently no longer visible. The site is one of the few settlements where its initiation pottery was obtained in the plain of Varamin, and the key area is located in the East of the plain of Ray and North of Qom. The purpose of this research is to introduce and describe the area as a whole, and to identify and characterize the clay evidence of the site, and its comparative study on the Susa, bang, and primitive culture of the culture. The questions raised in this study are generally about the changes in the pottery of this site, and what interactions have they with the nearby sites? The basis of analyzes relies more on information and internal findings, and field data, and the results also include the full typology of its upcoming pottery and the documentation of another settlement establishment of the urbanization period (its initiation) based on the evidence of the pottery of this period.
Keywords: Zavarehvar, Varamin Plain, Protoliterate, Pottery.

This site is located in the archaeological study of Varamin plain, and was identified in Jawadabad District in 2012 (Hessari et al., 2014). The Zahavar is currently a small part of a brick factory that was excavated to expand the plant to cultural works that had before been seen in the plain of Varamin. It is worth noting, that if the plan was not a factory development, then, perhaps, in years of years, nobody realized these works and remained unknown. Having found cultural materials from this site, the question of the scarcity of the study centers in the Varamin plain was cleared in the studies of the Varamin plain establishments in Varamin plain, but other questions were based on the works of the Safavid horizons of Sialk III and IV, how the clay changes to this site and that what has been interacting with nearby centers. These findings adapted to the Shush 2 cultural horizons in Khuzestan, Fars, Varamin plains, Erisman and Sialk (Hessari et al., 1396; Hessari, 2011; Alden, 1982; Malkeshmirzadi, 2006; Ghirshman, 1934). In the evaluation of clay indicators, the basis of analyzes is more based on information and internal findings and field data. The main objective of this research is to document the archaeological evidence of Late Protoliterate and Early Bronze Age periods in this area, which can serve as an indicator area in the North of the Iranian plateau, depicts the routes to the South through the Chemarshahr to Qaq Qom, Qalidroish and Silak Kashan. The most important approach to this study is to answer the question of how are the findings gathered from this hill can interpret the culture of the cohesion of Silk III to the culture of Silk IV? This is avilible the hypothesis that there was probably a native culture specific to the plain of Varamin, which has been serious interactions with the south and north of the plain.

The Types of Pottery Studied
The zeal was collected from the clay and classified in the field study and then in comparative study in the following species (Ghasemi, 1392).
Type one: The clobug, which is hereinafter called CLEBUG, is made of wheat, and has a mildew paste.
Type two: The pomegranate, called FIGTEG, is a man-made with brown-black or black-colored gray tasting, often with simple (non-engraved) pottery with relatively thin bodies.
Type three: The abbreviation is FIGOP. This kind of crop with orange-brown flavors and a creamy lining is the largest known species in this collection.
Type four: This type includes mostly simple pottery and rarely pomegranate, which has a small amount of herbs in it.
Type five: This type is so rough with a pepper-colored, or curly-colored, cream-molded pottery that is used in it to be large vegetation with high purity of gravel.
Type Six: Such hand-made pottery with a vivid color and desire to have a simple and small bowl known as the Banchi Tray or the Uruk (Hessari et al., 1396: 40) seems to have been made of simple pottery without any decoration and role.
In this resaerch, other types of pottery such as types 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 have been studied.

The appearance of the bevelled rim bowles on this site should indicate some specific and intermittent activities. It is possible to examine and determine some of the administrative-supervisory documents through different sizes of containers. It seems, that the time findings of this site has before been the beginning of the period or the horizon of Susa 2. These examples are proposed in the comparative chronicle of the middle Susa cultural period. The low proportion of applied pottery in this site such as cooked bowls, is may prove non-industrial and non-productive.

Mohsen Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Saeedi Harsini, Ahmad Chaichi Amirkhiz,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)

The Fars province is one of the most important areas in Iran in term of pre-history archeological studies. This region has good natural talent due to its diverse environmental infrastructures. During the Samnard’s archaeological exploration in the year of 1972 AD, according to the identification of polished red plain pottery in several sites of the Marvdasht plain and excavation of the Tel Bakun in layer 5A, an important period was identified in the Fars chronological sequence which called the Lapui period. Over the past few decades, due to limited recognition of the material-cultural characteristics of the Lapui period and the short duration of cultural continuity (3900-3400 BC), uncertainties such as the precise beginning and end of this period, livelihoods, socio-cultural mechanisms, specialized production and economic remains. The variety of cultural materials obtained has consisted of several layers of settlement, architectural structures, pottery, handicrafts and stone utensils, animal figurines, materials related to administrative and administrative techniques, ornamental and miscellaneous objects that have been studied and evaluated. The present study is related to the study of cultural and settlement materials obtained from the excavation of Lapui mound and its conclusion is a confirmation of the cultural-settling continuation of the 4th millennium BC and the Lapui period in Marvdasht plain which in this research has been addressed.
Keywords: Fars Province, Marvdasht Plain, Lapui Period, Excavation of Lapui Mound.

The Kor and Syvand rivers are the important rivers in the Marvdasht plain that have been effective in establishment of settlements and sustaining of them. There are numerous mid- mountain plains along the course of these permanent rivers, the most important of which is the Bayza and Marvdasht plains. The beginning of archaeological activities and sequence identification of the Fars chronology is based more on the sounds of the Louis Vandenberg (Vandenberg, 1952: 54-75). The Lapui period is one of the most important phases of the pre-history chronology of this region and south of the Iranian plateau. This period was named by the characteristic pottery of layer A5 of Tal Bakun and derives from the name of the Lapui Village in the Zarghan area and was recorded in the Fars chronology. The cultural horizon of this period dates from about 3900 to 3400 BC and fills the gap between the cultures of the Bakun and Bansh.
Necessity and Purposes of Research: The importance and necessity of excavation of the Lapui Mound is actually the accumulation of cultural data within the archaeological deposits that have led to an understanding of objective relationship of the material and layers with each other, and so far this has not happened in the excavations of this cultural period in the Marvdasht plain. The main objectives of this study are to clear up the ambiguities mentioned above in the Lapui Period and to determine its cultural sequence in chronology of the South Zagros and Fars cultures in Marvdasht plain.
Research Question and Hypothesis: The most important question in this research is to study and analyze the cultural and settlement data which obtained from excavation of mound, in order to explain the 4th millennium BC of the Fars. To explain such a journey, the hypothesis of the achievements of excavation of this site can be stated that the diversity of cultural materials found in the various sections of architecture and the various cultural materials is categorical and noteworthy in some respects, identical and close to other similar cultural sites and some are unique.
Research Methodology: In this study, we tried to utilize the results of field research of Lapui Mound and comparative library studies. The most important method of data analysis in this research is based on statistical methods with comparison and analysis. By excavation of the site, significant quantities of cultural material have been obtained. Therefore, the identification of Lapui period and cultural features of this period on the Lapui Mound in the 4th millennium BC, based on the study and analysis of cultural data through field studies, documentary and interdisciplinary studies begin and has been dealt with.

Geographical Location of Lapui Mound
The Lapui Mound is located 3 kilometers south of the Kor River. Its height is about 2 meters, 140 meters’ length and 130 meters wide which cover an area of about 1.2 hectares. The mound is located 1573 meters above sea level (Abdi, 2016).

The excavated trenches in the Lapui Mound
The excavation focused on two trenches, T-1 in the middle of the mound toward to southwestern part of the mound and T.2 in the central part of the mound.

Material and Cultural Data from Excavation of Lapui Mound
During the excavation of Lapui Mound, a total of 6249 pieces of pottery with a total weight of 80.497 kg were obtained. According to the studies, the stone as raw material obtained in the excavation of Lapui Mound with a variety of heated stones, small stone decorative containers, artifacts and stone tools are mentioned.
Findings and evidence of politico-administrative and economic documents such as seals, seal impress, counting tokens, seal the container door and pieces of baked mud have been found in the settlement layers of the Lapui mound.
In all from excavation of the Lapui Monud from Trench 1 in layers 04, 05 and 06, five pieces of intact shale in type of bivalve and fragments of average length 6.5 cm (largest) and 3 cm (smallest), width 4.2 cm (largest) and 1.7 cm (smallest) obtained.

The most important achievement of excavation of the Lapui mound is the identification of archaeological deposits in the site that have been identified and classified into 20 layers and the settlement phases associated with that have been identified in the trenches and stratigraphic sound up to virgin soil. Cultural - material remains obtained from the excavated layers of the Lapui mound along with coherent architecture and variety of identified functions, including workshop, kitchen, residential, and uninterrupted settlement sequences identified in stratigraphy, as an integral part of studies Lapui mound has been great importance in the cultural explanation of the 4th millennium BC and the Lapui period of Fars. The variety of types of structures in the layers reflects the type of temporary settlement with a permanent architectural style, with a coherent and intensive architecture in the site. According to the studies, all the layers and cultural materials belonged to the Lapui period, which dates back to the 4th millennium BC. The results of study and analysis of the little cultural material obtained of Lapui mound indicate the presence of inhabitants of this site during the 4th millennium BC and coincide with the late Bakun period (new Bakun) and the beginning of the Lapui period until the middle of this period clearly and possibly later.

Hossein Sedighian, Meisam Nikzad, Amir Oshnoei Noshabadi, Elham Ghasemi,
year 4, Issue 14 (2-2021)

Khosf county with a hot-dry climate is located in South Khorasan province in eastern Iran and on the eastern edge of the Lut desert. Despite the existence of historical monuments in this region of Iran, little is known about them to archaeologists, urban planners, architects, and art historians. Special attention was paid to the historical urban fabric and residential houses which are mainly related to the late Qajar and early Pahlavi eras, in the archeological survey conducted by the authors in the Khosf region in 2014. Three relatively intact and well-established historical urban fabric in the city of Khosf and the villages of Khor and Noghab were studied during this study and 45 historical houses in these areas and other historical villages of Khosf were examined. The studied historical/traditional fabrics are mostly active and today with some changes in the body of the building, they are still used by the local people of the region. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and the way of collecting data is also based on archaeological studies in the region to document and collect information about traditional houses of Khosf, and Then based on library studies. This research seeks to answer three main questions: 1- How much has the climate affected the type of structures and architectural components of traditional Khosf houses? 2- Do these conditions prevent the influence of the changes and developments of the common architecture of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods or not? 3- And what have been the common decorative techniques in the architecture of Khosf houses? Based on the research questions, the main objectives of the present study are to investigate the impact of the climatic conditions of the region on traditional houses Khosf and developments in Iranian architecture, as well as the study of different structures and architectural components of these buildings and their related decorations. Despite the general resemblance to traditional architectural patterns in hot and dry regions of Iran, the results show that it is strongly influenced by the climate of the region and in terms of architectural structure and related decorations is slightly affected by Qajar to Pahlavi period architectural developments..
Keywords: Khosf, Residential House, Qajar, Pahlavi.

Man has always had many buildings from distance past, many of which have been destroyed over time. Among these, residential houses are the most important and abundant architectural structures that have always been built or reconstructed by humans. But these buildings are generally destroyed over time and turned into a pile of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to study and document the remaining traditional and historical buildings of the country and study their construction and decoration methods and topics such as the impact of climate on them. In Iran, due to the richness of the country’s historical antiquity, many relics of traditional houses and urban fabrics have been left. At present, most of the ancient houses in Iran mainly belong to the Qajar to the first Pahlavi period. Many studies have been done on the architecture of traditional houses in different parts of Iran, which are mainly based on the historic and magnificent houses of Yazd and Kashan, but less attention has been paid to the study of simpler houses in small towns and suburbs. One of such areas where a large number of traditional/historical houses and to some extent some of its traditional fabrics have survived is the city of Khosf in South Khorasan Province, where no independent research has been done on the urban fabric and historical houses. Accordingly, the present study is the first step in studying and analyzing these architectural spaces. in this study, 45 historical houses located in three historical contexts of Khosf city and Noghab and Khor villages and surveyed by the authors in 2014 are considered as the statistical community. Considering that traditional houses, in addition to using the knowledge of their predecessors, have also been affected by climatic conditions and changes in Iranian architecture, it is necessary to know the extent of these effects in different regions. The main objectives of the present study, based on research questions, include the study of the decorations, structure, and various architectural components of traditional Khosf houses and recognizing their impact on climatic conditions and architectural developments in Iran.
Research Questions: The present study seeks to answer three main questions: 1- How much has the weather condition affected the type of structures and architectural components of urban fabrics and traditional houses of Khosf? 2- Do these conditions prevent being affected by the changes and developments of the common architecture of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods or not? And 3- What are the common decorative methods in the architecture of Khosf houses and how have they been?
Research Method: The method of this article is a descriptive-analytical one and the method of collecting data is also based on archaeological studies in the region to document and collect information about traditional houses in Khosf and then Based on library studies.

Article Text
With a hot and dry climate, Khosf is one of the southwestern counties of South Khorasan province, which is located in the eastern margin of the Lut desert. In most parts of the year, most of this area sees wind that has direct and indirect effects on the type of architectural structure of the region. Archaeological study of Khosf county has resulted in the identification of 45 residential buildings that date back to the Qajar to the early Pahlavi period. These buildings were identified in different parts of the county, from mountainous and foothill areas such as Ark and Bein Abad to desert areas such as Khosf, Khor, and Noghab. According to the objectives of the present study, Khosf traditional houses are studied based on the principles of traditional Iranian architecture such as urban form, introversion, direction, scale, spatial hierarchy, and architectural components of houses such as the entrance, courtyard, building materials, plan, colors and decorations and the effect of climatic conditions of the region and Iranian architectural developments on these works were investigated. For example, in terms of direction, most of the traditional houses of Khosf have been built in the northeast-southwest direction, and climatic issues such as the direction of the sunshine and the direction of the wind have had a direct impact on this choice. On the other hand, the studied buildings have a compact plan as much as possible and try to keep the external surface of the building smaller than its volume. This density and compactness of the house plan minimize the amount of heat exchange through the outer walls of the building in both summer and winter, thus preventing the penetration of heat into the building in summer and its loss in winter. Also, many of the studied buildings had one-way wind deflectors that brought cool air into the house in summer. Other features of the traditional Khosf houses include: having a central courtyard and rooms around it, having two porches on either side of the courtyard, having one or more windbreak rooms, having a room fireplace for winter, use of local and traditional materials, have very little decoration such as plastering or brickwork. 

Khosf is one of the hot and dry cities on the eastern edge of the Lut Desert that is directly affected by this climate. From the past until now, this county has largely preserved its traditional identity in the construction of various architectural works, due to its distance from very large cities. One of these works is the traditional houses of this county, which currently have a large number of them in areas such as Khosf, Khor, etc. Given that these houses have not yet been studied and surveyed, and at the same time have largely retained their traditional texture, it was necessary to address them in an independent study. Accordingly, the present study was conducted with the general purpose of studying traditional and old houses in Khosf city and with other purposes such as investigating the role of climatic and traditional factors in the formation of various spaces of these buildings. According to these studies, it can be concluded that the traditional houses of Khosf show their great influence on the climate and geographical conditions of the region. This issue can be observed in various factors such as the direction of the construction of alleys and their dimensions, direction of the construction of buildings, location of rooms in a building, type and number and direction of the windbreak, number and structure of porches, dimensions of rooms, little use of opening spaces such as windows, etc. Of course, with some factors such as the isolation of the Khosf region, its distance from the main route of commercial and communication highways, and its lack of proximity to major cities, this city will benefit less from the architectural and urban developments of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods. This issue is seen in the introverted architectural structure of buildings as well as related decorations. Accordingly, the traditional architectural model of this region can be introduced as a traditional, indigenous, and unique model, and it is necessary to take more measures for the continuation and further prosperity of this model. 

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