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Morteza Hessari, Hassan Akbari, Alireza Sardari-E Zarchi,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)

In this paper, research was performed on cultural materials from Bard Panir, which morphologically is located on southern Central Zagros at mountainsides of Lorestan, close to the Khuzestan Plain and is geopolitically a part of Khuzestan Province. However, this region is similar to Lorestan Province with regard to its average rainfall, its mild temperature is neither similar to freezing winters of Lorestan, nor like torrid summers of Khuzestan. In addition, this region had traditionally been fertile because of being near Bala Roud, Dez and Karkhe (Hole, 1994). Regarding Cultural-Historical parameters, this region seems to be at least contemptuous with cultural materials from cultural periods such as Shoush II or Uruk in Mesopotamia. Shoush II Period in Khuzestan is known based on what is found in Acropolis I, especially layers 17-22. Moreover, materials from Apadana are analogous to those from Acropolis1, layers 19-22 (Dittmann, 1986: 76). Therefore, this time horizon seems to be related to a network of societies that connect Central Zagros to Khuzestan, and from there to Mesopotamia, within which is especially located the key deployment called Uruk, which is divided into three periods: Early Uruk, Mid Uruk, and Late Uruk. Hence, based on cultural materials excavated by authors and some samples from this site which were kept in Andimeshk Cultural Heritage, the morphology and location of this Tappeh, as a special physiographical region, were determined.
Keywords: Bard Panir, Shoush II, Uruk, Beveled Rim Bowl, Baneshi Tray.

Location and Description of Bard Panir
This site is located near the banks of Bala Roud Dam, Bala Roud, close to Hosseinieh
Town, northern Andimeshk City, Khuzestan Province. It is at 32 40 13.4 northern latitude; at 048 15 49.4 eastern longitude; and at a height of 343 m Altitude the sea level. Although, Bard Panir is geopolitically mapped within Khuzestan Province, it must geographically be located at southern Central Zagros. Bard Panir is about 10 m high; its area is 3.5 Ha; and distribution of pottery in it extends to around 30 Ha. This site is within a plain, at 100 meters from the banks of Bala Roud. Moreover, the site is about 40 m above the level of this river, and all surrounding area can be observed. It is circular. Within it, there are observed pieces of architectural evidence such as steeples and walls. Fortunately, because of being surrounded by the dam, it is not damaged by illegal excavations, buildings, farming, and traffickings by domestic and humans; so that it is easy to find large pieces of pottery and other data on the surface of this site.

Surface Data
Different cultural materials were collected from Bard Panir such as:

Pottery, Coarse Ware
1. Beveled Rim Bowl (Tab 1, Fig 3): This type of bowl is buff or cream-pink in colour. It is categorized among simply designed potteries. It is made of Chaff. There is observed some impurities because of using sands. Its surface is coarse because of the methods of they are produced. On the interior side of this kind of pottery is observed the deep trails of potter’s fingers. The rim of the container had been bevelled by a thing such as a piece of pottery or bone or fingers. Temper such as large (about 1.5 cm) chaff had been used. Moreover, average and tiny (0.5mm-5mm) sands had intentionally been added to the pottery material, so that the surface of the pottery is coarse. The mouth of all excavated pieces were approximately identical, ranging from 15 cm to 16.7 cm. All potteries are firmly made and almost all samples are baked completely. Data with regard to four of these containers are as follows: Container no. 1: 980ML; Container no.2: 965ML; Container no.3: 940ML; Container no. 4: 928ML
2. Baneshi Tray: Baneshi tray, which is known by its Uruki name, is a simple and shallow container. This had been made in circular and oval shapes in pinkish or buff colour. These potteries are hand-made and are made without any kinds of decorations or motifs. The temper used is of herbal kind which includes large (1.5 cm long) chaffs; however, some tiny (rarely larger than 2 mm) soft sands had intentionally added to the soil. It seems that they had been haggled; then they had been sprayed like a bread; and lastly the rims of the container had been leaned inwards; while, the surface of the container is levelled by hands and fingertips. The coarse exterior surface is the outcome the method of manufacturing them.
Fine Buff Ware Plain and painted (Tab 2, Fig 4): This type of Buff pottery includes often simple and rarely painted Motives. They had been designed mostly in brown and red colours. Their body is relatively thin.The Temper which are used mostly belong to the category of minerals. In the body of these pieces are observed coarse and homogeneous sands (0.20-2mm), being graded with a quality ranging from good to very good. According to the temper used in these types of potteries, the soil used by the potters had been relatively clean. There were not observed any impurities except for rare cases. The mould used by potters had acceptably been knead; however, the large amount of temper had resulted in its firm structure.
Fine Red Ware (Tab 3): This kind of pottery with orangey-red mould, includes often plain and rarely painted potteries. The Temper that had been used in these kinds of potteries are tiny minerals and are similar to small knobs on the interior and exterior surfaces of all pieces. Furthermore, in some cases the additive Chaff is observed, and this is one of the most important characteristics. In all these types of potteries except for one, the interior surface of the open-mouth pottery which is covered similar to the exterior surface is simple and untouched; so that the trails of parallel lines made by pot-wheel are observed clearly on the interior surface of the pottery. The soil used in manufacturing these potteries are observable with naked eye, although the herbal additives are chipped very small in size, and lots of heterogeneous and numerous sands in all sizes. The mould had acceptably been knead and potteries are made of a constant and firm structure.

Hassan Akbari,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)

Despite of studies about acceramic Neolithic period in west of Asia (especially Levant area), little has been done archaeological activities related to this period in Central Zagros. The Central Zagros is one of the important areas of west Asia that in this area has been done sedentary, domestication animals, and cultivation for first time. In Central Zagros, Seimare River is the largest river. The Seimare archeology project was done based on surveys and excavations archaeology in dam basin of Seimare. The Dangjoun from sites was excavated in related to Seimare archeology project in year of 2010. In total, 70 square meters was excavated from this site that led to discovery three phase of settlement. In Dangjoun wasn’t achieved of terra cotta ware, but architectural remains were achieved from all trenches with different quality. The architecture this site has been affected from Central Zagros environment. The materials used in this site are taken from the surrounding environment. This study was done with a fundamental purpose, and method of data amassment in this research is library – field method. In this research, in addition to the introduction and description architecture of Dangjoun, the complete descriptive has been done about architecture of A and B periods of acceramic Neolithic. In this regard have been explained specific architectural features of each period in Anatolia, Syria and Northern Zagros (in Iraq). Main questions of research: Due to the architectural condition of this site as right corner architecture, and …, this site belongs to, which period of acceramic Neolithic period? Due to the permanent architecture in Kapargah (that including of homes four corners, and built of homes on the ground), it seems, this site is belong to period B of acceramic Neolithic period and can’t be attributed it to earlier periods.
Keywords: Acceramic Neolithic Period, Seimare, Central Zagros, Architecture.

In the history of human culture, the Neolithic period is of particular importance. The Neolithic period is including from 11000 to 7000 BC. The human societies has been experienced many changes in this period. Some of the most important changes in this period as: Starting and developing agriculture and animal husbandry, permanent establishment, population increase, long distance commerce as obsidian, skill in the production of stone tools, beginning of metallurgy, production of pottery, use of fire in the industry, indication of personal ownership of objects, accumulation of wealth and beginning of social inequalities, construction of public and religious buildings (Hole, 2000: 192; Byrd, 1994). However, the most significant consequence of Neolithic revolution was emergence of a compound economy with emphasis on domestic plants and animals (Hole, 1984). On the other hand, production of pottery in this period is led to cleave Neolithic period into two periods: Acceramic and ceramic Neolithic. According to the hints top, the main concept of Neolithic period is with food production, appearance of village, and architecture. The Central Zagros is one of the important areas of west Asia that in this area has been done sedentary, domestication animals, and cultivation for first time (Zeder, 1999). The Central Zagros because of the strategic position and placing in between areas like Mesopotamia, Khuzestan, Azerbaijan and central parts of Iran, and also Due to the appropriate environmental facilities in this area as: fertile fields, good agricultural lands, abundance of water resources, … has always been a concern for human societies for a long time. Main questions of research: Due to the architectural condition of this site as right corner architecture, and…, this site belongs to, which period of acceramic Neolithic period?

Research findings
The Kapargah is located in Lorestan and part of Kuhdasht County and Konani region. The nearest city to this site is Badreh city in Ilam Province. The Kapargah is located in Cham Ghoileh valley and for difficult transit this valley, in this area is living of wild animals. In terms of size, the Kapargah is small size and about 2000 square meters. Around this site rarely is obtained stone tools. This site is to form of rectangle and has 70 meters long and 30 meters wide. The Kapargah isn’t located on the floor of the plain, and with the passage of time have been created sediments about 6 meters on the site. The distance of this site to the river is about 50 meters, and surrounding lands are very prone to farming and animal husbandry. It seems, primary village because of located in between mountainous plains has been built on a gentle slope. The architecture this site has been affected from Central Zagros environment. The materials used in this site are taken from the surrounding environment. Workshop 1 was created with 5 m long and wide, and relative to workshop 2 had less architecture. All the walls have been made with rubble from mountain and river and sticking together with mortar. In this site was discovered three phases of architecture that hasn’t been seen structural difference between phases. Workshop 2 first was created with 3 m long and wide and then developed, and extent it was reached to 54 square meters. In this workshop too, discovered three phases of architecture that all the walls have been made with rubble from mountain and river and sticking together with mortar.

Due to the permanent architecture in Kapargah (that including of homes four corners, and built of homes on the ground), it seems, this site is belong to period B of acceramic Neolithic period and can’t be attributed it to earlier periods. The difference in architecture in two trenches this site probably because it is workshop 1 has been created in around of the village and this area has been temporary residential homes. Two warehouses in this workshop show each home has its own warehouse. The climate situation of this area has been influenced the construction of houses. Because of the air temperature above zero in this area, the walls aren’t thickened.

Sobhan Ghasemi, Morteza Hessari, Hassan Akbari,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)

The Varamin plain is located on the way to the Great Khorasan and the point of intersection between East and West of Iran in the North of Iran’s Plateau. The plain is fertile in the south of the Alborz Mountains and the deposits of alluvial soils flowed from the Alborz to the central desert, and are the gathering place of human societies with evidence from the Middle Paleolithic so far. This plain, with an average up rainfall, but due to the arrival of current waters, in the past, nowadays, with the construction of two dams on the way to the streets of Varamin, a small amount of this river water reaches Varamin, there is a thriving agricultural and livestock farming, which are still visible signs Is. The Zahistor area is also one of the foundations located on the periphery of the river, which is likely to be permanent, which is currently no longer visible. The site is one of the few settlements where its initiation pottery was obtained in the plain of Varamin, and the key area is located in the East of the plain of Ray and North of Qom. The purpose of this research is to introduce and describe the area as a whole, and to identify and characterize the clay evidence of the site, and its comparative study on the Susa, bang, and primitive culture of the culture. The questions raised in this study are generally about the changes in the pottery of this site, and what interactions have they with the nearby sites? The basis of analyzes relies more on information and internal findings, and field data, and the results also include the full typology of its upcoming pottery and the documentation of another settlement establishment of the urbanization period (its initiation) based on the evidence of the pottery of this period.
Keywords: Zavarehvar, Varamin Plain, Protoliterate, Pottery.

This site is located in the archaeological study of Varamin plain, and was identified in Jawadabad District in 2012 (Hessari et al., 2014). The Zahavar is currently a small part of a brick factory that was excavated to expand the plant to cultural works that had before been seen in the plain of Varamin. It is worth noting, that if the plan was not a factory development, then, perhaps, in years of years, nobody realized these works and remained unknown. Having found cultural materials from this site, the question of the scarcity of the study centers in the Varamin plain was cleared in the studies of the Varamin plain establishments in Varamin plain, but other questions were based on the works of the Safavid horizons of Sialk III and IV, how the clay changes to this site and that what has been interacting with nearby centers. These findings adapted to the Shush 2 cultural horizons in Khuzestan, Fars, Varamin plains, Erisman and Sialk (Hessari et al., 1396; Hessari, 2011; Alden, 1982; Malkeshmirzadi, 2006; Ghirshman, 1934). In the evaluation of clay indicators, the basis of analyzes is more based on information and internal findings and field data. The main objective of this research is to document the archaeological evidence of Late Protoliterate and Early Bronze Age periods in this area, which can serve as an indicator area in the North of the Iranian plateau, depicts the routes to the South through the Chemarshahr to Qaq Qom, Qalidroish and Silak Kashan. The most important approach to this study is to answer the question of how are the findings gathered from this hill can interpret the culture of the cohesion of Silk III to the culture of Silk IV? This is avilible the hypothesis that there was probably a native culture specific to the plain of Varamin, which has been serious interactions with the south and north of the plain.

The Types of Pottery Studied
The zeal was collected from the clay and classified in the field study and then in comparative study in the following species (Ghasemi, 1392).
Type one: The clobug, which is hereinafter called CLEBUG, is made of wheat, and has a mildew paste.
Type two: The pomegranate, called FIGTEG, is a man-made with brown-black or black-colored gray tasting, often with simple (non-engraved) pottery with relatively thin bodies.
Type three: The abbreviation is FIGOP. This kind of crop with orange-brown flavors and a creamy lining is the largest known species in this collection.
Type four: This type includes mostly simple pottery and rarely pomegranate, which has a small amount of herbs in it.
Type five: This type is so rough with a pepper-colored, or curly-colored, cream-molded pottery that is used in it to be large vegetation with high purity of gravel.
Type Six: Such hand-made pottery with a vivid color and desire to have a simple and small bowl known as the Banchi Tray or the Uruk (Hessari et al., 1396: 40) seems to have been made of simple pottery without any decoration and role.
In this resaerch, other types of pottery such as types 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 have been studied.

The appearance of the bevelled rim bowles on this site should indicate some specific and intermittent activities. It is possible to examine and determine some of the administrative-supervisory documents through different sizes of containers. It seems, that the time findings of this site has before been the beginning of the period or the horizon of Susa 2. These examples are proposed in the comparative chronicle of the middle Susa cultural period. The low proportion of applied pottery in this site such as cooked bowls, is may prove non-industrial and non-productive.

Hassan Akbari, Mohammad Hossein Bahroloulomi, Mohammad Sharif Moradsoltan,
year 3, Issue 8 (9-2019)

he results of experiments on the materials of this building revealed that most of the material was composed of very small amounts of rock, lime, sand and gypsum, the brick baking temperature is below 800 c and some gypsum is used inside the bricks. The bricks used in Semnan game Mosque are different in terms of construction and baking technology in many parts of the building we are witnessing the wear and tear of the brick layers, that have been imbalanced either in terms of increased vulnerability or aesthetically impaired. Some of the 200- meter- high bricks on the side of the city entrance were used by Russian occupation forces to build a swimming pool in the midst of world war II. With the current state of the building, we needed to put them in our context for a complete understanding of the data and to achieve a reasonable result by adapting to the context. All the data in this building were partial and incomplete parts that we had to put together in order to build a unit, understanding them will help us achieve the best possible results. The lack of historical documents about the building, the construction in the words of the local people    about the building and the belief that the Mosque was destroyed in the flood of 1346 AH, (some past floods have been blamed for the devastation). While there were no traces of belongings except this porch and the two hogreh, and the lack of architectural work around the building reinforced this hypothesis, from the beginning there was no trace of the building or residential area that was destroyed and before that, gardens and farmlands surrounded the building needless to say, small finds were scattered around the building in a small area and as we move away from this set, the number of findings is also greatly diminished.
Keywords: Safavid Era, Gate, Jomeh Mosque, Zavaghan.

Many efforts have been made to introduce and identify Irans multi- thousand- year- old architecture many researchers have in recent decades erased dust from the face of historical monuments and reappeared them, in the meantime, a number of buildings remain unknown and even a number of them that have been in traduced are in doubt, also keep in mind that some popular buildings have different uses. The building dedicated to the mosque of Zavaghan in similar to this, this building is in the middle of the narrow gardens of Zavaghan region and when we reach it we face the high door, inside this alley, the gardens look unexpected. Because it is not visible around the building except for garden and fields and some water engine, of this building, only the entrance and the two surrounding Hojreh are left, and only a few remnants have suffered natural and human damage in the past decade. The people of Zavaghan call Zavaghan Jame Mosque and they believe that Imam Reza door prayed in the mosque while heading to Marv, but besides the above the mentioned there is no other work to deter mine the use of this mansion. According to archaeological findings and data, what period does this building belong to? What is the use of this building based on the appearance and evidence found? 
The main purpose of the authors was to describe this particular monument in general, archaeological findings conclude that it probably belongs to the Timurid period, which was abandoned in the late Safavid period. The building belonging to the Zavaghan Jame Mosque is located in the north of Zavaghan and Imam Hossein street and among the green gardens on the western edge of Semnan, Zavaghan region is one of the old areas of Semnan and it is common that in Zavaghan area some of the innocents are buried that the burial of some of them is unclear. 
No traces of inscriptions were found around the building, which heightens our suspicions that the mosque was not. The surrounding land is all agricultural and horticultural, and there is no new about the old texture of the Zavaghan Alleyways of gardens and water ways pass all around the texture.

Findings Gone Bacheh
This type of pottery is found in this area with delicate, white and porous paste that is usually clean and free of additives. Green glaze and dark green, brown and black paint under the transparent glaze adorn the dishes. Containers are small and medium sized bowls and bowls with a short concave base. The motifs include the role of geometrical and plant motifs and are difficult to identify because of the small number of other diagnostic parts. The oldest of these pottery is attributed to the late 9 th century and is known as Mashhad, Neyshabur, Ray, Varamin and Alamut Castle.
Blue and white type: This kind of clay is cooked with every delicate and pure white paste without good additives made with solid, firm paste, the thin wall and translucent white glaze make it easily distinguishable from other types.
Blue and white ornamented pottery was produced in the early centuries of Islamic urbanization in major Islamic urban centers and probably the earliest method of making this type of pottery started in China in the eighth century B.C.E, but the type found in this area was later. The earliest date of its construction in Neyshabur goes back to 6 AH. This type of pottery was manufactured in several production centers in Iran until the year 6 AH. Because of their fracture potteries are not detectable by the finer parts of the dishes, but only by the shape of bowl.

Conclusions about the building are now early and more studies are needed on the building. Undoubtedly extensive archaeological research and finding authentic historical documents can open many unknown angles. However, due to the impact of environmental and climatic factors and human intervention many of the impacts have been lost perhaps having a tall verandah will create the remains of a mosque, but merely placing it in the alley of the garden and not having the inscription will cast another vote.

Mohammad Hossein Azizi Kharanaghi, Sepideh Jamshidi Yeganeh, Masashi Abe, Afshin Akbari,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)

During the fourth millennium BCE similar wares used to produce and use in the extended area in Near East which is so-called Beveled rim bowls. Its importance is for high quantity and similarity in production techniques. Different studies on dating, function, and the main reason for the spread of this pottery style have been done. Although beveled rim bowls were found in many sites in west, south, south-eastern, and central plateau, hereby new finding from Kale Kub seems that this pottery style was spread in the more extended area than what we expect. Kale Kub is located in the eastern part of Iran, Southern Khorasan, and Sarayan county. In 2018, two trenches were opened in order to identify the stratigraphy of the high amount of beveled rim bowls in addition to other pottery styles belong to fourth millennium BCE which are already known in southwestern Iran. The current study would be clarifying the importance of the Kale Kub site for identifying the dispersal zone of Beveled rim bowl pottery style by an endeavor firstly foe the classification and typology of the potteries and then a comparison between the pottery style in this site with other sites related to this period. Also, we attempt to trace the possible routes for this pottery style to the East and the interaction between east and west of Iran. Pottery collection from the excavation in Kale Kub includes a high amount of beveled rim bowls, Banesh tray, and some other pottery styles which are well-known from fourth millennium BCE such as nose handle and spouted wares. Beveled rim bowls are over 15 percent of the pottery collection and other styles have a few quantities in the collection. In term of production techniques and style, Kale Kub finds are similar to those from southwest of Iran.
Keywords: Eastern Iran, Kaleh Kub II, Beveled Rim Bowls, Forth Millennium BCE.

The first season of excavation at Kale Kub aimed to identify the stratigraphy sequence of this site, which has revealed the chronological sequence from fifth to late fourth millennium BCE. Cultivation and human activities in recent years resulted in disturbance in most parts of the site. Beveled rim bowls, Banesh tray, and other diagnostic pottery styles of fourth millennium BCE are the most important finds in this site. In addition to beveled rim bowls and Banesh tray, other diagnostic styles such as nose handle, spouted wares were found in Kale Kub that shows all styles belong to this millennium would have seen in the eastern part of the Iranian plateau. In modern Iran, these pottery styles are reported from the southwest, central Zagros, central plateau, and southeast, but from east and northeast just reported from Farhad Gerd which scholars believe that the reported pottery is not beveled rim bowl. Excavation in Kale Kub shows the extension of this culture to the east part of Iran. This site is located far from the well-known sites from this period in the west part of Iran and there are two deserts, Dasht-e Kavir and Lut desert, between this site and other known sites with similar pottery style increase the importance of finding the answer for this question that how this culture found its way to the east.

Inter-regional interactions had a significant effect on the movement of raw material and production in the extended area. Because of the geographical situation of Kale Kub at the east of Iran and the existence of metal mine in the region, this site possibly appeared as a supplier place in the interaction networks for the southwest of Iran during the fourth millennium BCE. The pottery culture which is prevalent in the southwest in this site shows clearly these interactions. To answer the question of how they were connected, we need more excavations and more information. The nearest sites with similar cultural features to the Kale Kub are Tepe Sofalin in Pishva, Varamin in central plateau; and in the southeast of Iran, Mahtout Abad in Jiroft, that both have about thousand kilometers are away from Kale Kub. This distance shows that there are highly probable some other sites between Sofalin and Kale Kub and also Mahtout Abad and Kale Kub that have not been identified yet. These two-direction routes (first, the southern boundary of Alborz mountain and north of Dasht-e Kavir; second, the southern part of Lut desert to the Sistan region and eastern parts of Iran), are the possible routes that connect the east to the fourth millennium BCE cultures of southwest in purpose of achieving the raw material. In the highlands around Kale Kub, copper mining evidence showing that these mines were used till late Islamic periods in the region as well. Also, this region has various types of opal. Kale Kub location between Afghanistan and inner part of Iranian plateau suggests that this site was formed on the way of lapis-lazuli movement routs from Afghanistan; also, the mines of turquoise at the Neishabur is near to the site. Although, finding the role of this site in the networks of fourth millennium BCE needs more information that will be revealed by more excavations but current evidence shows that this site had an exchange and production function in the trade in this period. It suggests that beveled rim bowls and other material culture from fourth millennium BCE (about 3600-3500 BCE) extended to the east from the central plateau and southern part of Alborz Mountain as well as northern side of Dasht-e Kavir.

Soudabeh Maamouri, Marzieh Mansoorizadeh, Hassan Akbari,
year 6, Issue 19 (5-2022)

The customs buildings complex at the Persian Gulf in Bushehr Province was built at the end of the Qajar era and the beginning of the Pahlavi era. These buildings are very similar. All these buildings are architecturally built in the same way. All these buildings have two floors and match each other. The architecture of these buildings is derived from the architectural style of the second half of the 18th century and 19th century of the West. This style entered Iran’s architecture as a symbol of modernity and strongly influenced Iranian architecture. It has to be mentioned that this influence was much greater in the last years of the Qajar era compared to its first years. By using the historical research method and library studies, it is tried to collect the necessary data about the research subject and obtain adequate understanding of the customs and telegraph offices in Bushehr Province. 
Keywords: Telegraph Offices, Customs, Bushehr Province, Qajar Era.

Bushehr was considered one of the important commercial and cultural centers since ancient times, which would connect the Elamites with the Mesopotamia on one hand and the Melos in present-day India with Oman and the Mesopotamia on the other hand, and this is emphasized in linguistic sources apart from archaeological data. (Hesari et al., 2011; 247) There are some ruins of an Elamite port that are found in a place called Reyshahr, near Bushehr, where an inscription of Šutruk-Nahhunte was discovered and read. This city is probably Liyan Elamite, and it seems that until the 15th century BC, it was under the control of the Elamites and it was a city dependent on Anshan, rather than Khuzestan. Even its name has an Elamite root, and the word NIM is placed in front of the name of this city. Based on the texts of Ur III, Steinkeller has dated Liyan to Bushehr of the late 3rd and 2nd millennium BC and has suggested that Anshan had a direct route to Mesopotamia through this port (Steinkeller, 1982: 252). The new history of trades in Bushehr began with the kingdom of Nader Shah Afshar, which has played a special role in the last two centuries of Iran. By the order of Nader Shah, the main boundary of Bushehr was built by Sheykh Naser Abu Mehiri. (Hamidi, 2010: 50), but the overall structure of Bushehr today was formed in the Qajar era (Ranjabr et al., 2010: 24). In the 18th century, Bushehr was considered as the most important commercial port of Iran in open waters. (Dashti, 2001: 117). The presence of customs in Bushehr Province during the Qajar era caused most of the major countries of the world, including England, Russia, Germany, France, etc., to have a political representative office in this city. This city became the southern gate of Iran for the exchange of political ideas and cultural relations. During the Qajar era, the English telegraph line extended from London to India. This line in Bushehr Province extended to Fars Province, and the line was transmitted from different countries, including Iran, either on land or sea cables. 

Research Introduction 
The main objective of this research is to study the reason for the exitance of customs in Bushehr and the telegraph houses and studying their architecture. The research question is: why are there several customs and telegraph houses in Bushehr? And what are their architectural characteristics? 

Bushehr Custom Building 
The first modern custom building of Bushehr Province, known as Chehar Borj (Four-Tower) is in Bushehr City. This custom was built and established during Naser al-Din Shah Qajar era, by Mo’in-O-Tojjar-e Bushehri at his expense with the plans of the Belgians. This mansion was known as Four-Tower at the time of its building and it was the center of the governance of Persian Gulf ports and islands during the Qajar era. Whenever the governer of Bushehr would come to Bushehr City for the governance of the city from Tehran or Shiraz, they would settle in this place. This building was designed by Joseph Naus, known as Belgian Monsieur Naus. (Fig. 1-8)

Bulkheyr Custom 
This building is a two-floor building facing the sea. The eastern and western façades of the building are similar. The two floors match each other and share the same façade. There are three rooms on each floor and all three rooms are connected to each other. There is a small room on the north side which might have been a pantry. There are stairwells on the northern and southern sides of the building. (Fig. 9-14)

Dayer Custom 
This building is a two-floor building facing the sea. The eastern and western façades of the building are similar. The two floors match each other and share the same façade. There are three rooms on each floor and all three rooms are connected to each other. There is a small room on the north side which might have been a pantry. There are stairwells on the northern and southern sides of the building. (Fig. 15-19)
Kangan Custom 
This building has two stories and both stories are similar and they both match each other. The balcony with its beautiful round columns has led to prominence of the building. There has been a stair well in the south part of the building that would connect the second floor to the roof. There is an office, a lobby and a kitchen on each floor. There are squares on the top of each door that were used for lighting. (Fig. 20)

Mohammad ‘Ameri Custom
The unique feature of this building is its shape and design, which was built uniformly on the entire coast of the Persian Gulf. This building is one of the buildings of the Qajar customs whose remains are left, and it was used in the early Pahlavi era. (Fig. 21) 

Lavar-e Saheli Custom 
This building is built in two floors and has an entrance that opens to the west. The two floors are built in the same shape and match each other. There has been a staircase in the south of the building that connected the upper floor and the roof. (Fig. 22) 

Bushehr Telegraph Office 
The telegraph office was initially in Jabri neighborhood and then it is moved to Haft Bangleh in Bahmani neighborhood. The marine transmission cable line extended from Haft Bangle to Karachi in India. The last telegraph and post office in that time was located in Kuti neighborhood near British Consulate behind Shahdokht school, that is ruined now. During Naser al-Din Shah era, telegraph offices were only established by the British and they were managed by British presidents and Iranian employees. 

Undeniably, architecture changes during any era according to the lifestyle of people in any country. From the middle of the Qajar era, with the change of intellectual resources and thoughts ruling the society, as well as the awareness of the progress, different needs were felt compared to the past. They saw meeting these needs and the solutions in following the Western methods. The establishment of Dār ul-Funun, sending students to Europe, hiring foreign teachers and publishing newspapers, triggered a change in social and political attitudes during the Qajar era. The atmosphere ruling the architecture of Qajar era also followed the same attitude. From the middle of Naser al-Din Shah era, the confrontation between tradition and modernity gradually led to the victory of modernity, and architecture lost its old forms and found on a western form. It seems that the frequent trips of the Qajar kings to Europe left a significant impact in the field of architecture. The kings and princes wanted to implement the western architectural design in their land. Western examples also quickly became popular among the people and all over Iran. This architecture is characterized by the protruding and columned main entrance and grand ceremonial stairs, and the rooms are built in two wings on the first and second floors. The customs buildings in Bushehr Province were built at the end of the Qajar era and the beginning of the Pahlavi era, and they were among the first buildings in Bushehr Province that appeared with a different architecture, and their design is not derived from the architecture of that period, but it is influenced by the architecture of the West, and due to extensive connections of Bushehr with other countries, the role of foreign architects has been prominent in this province. Care should be taken in order to preserve valuable buildings such as these customs building which were studied in this article, so that they are not destructed.

Zeinab Akbari, Javad Neyestani, Alireza Hejebri Nobari, Mohammad Reza Nasiri,
year 7, Issue 23 (5-2023)

Bulbous domes are among discontinuous double-shell domes and were built in Iran in the early nineth century A.H. Previous domes were shaped pointed and there was no bulge coming out beyond their base diameters. But in the Timurid period, dome profile was changed so that it began a return below the base of the arch, producing thereby a slight bulge. The main question is that what are the reasons for the changes in the appearance and structural elements between two shells after the initial formation of these domes in Central Asia and then their evolution in Iran. This research is written with the aim of finding the hidden aspects in the development of bulbous domes based on both historical documents, and architectural remains, and also examines the reasons of the changes created in these kinds of domes during four centuries in the context of cultural Iran. This study has a descriptive-analytical approach for exploring case studies, which are selected based on primary and secondary sources and also field research. The appearance changes of bulbous domes include removing flutes from the outer shell, adjusting the height of the drum and creating more bulge at the place where the outer shell joins the drum. In this article, the structural changes to improve the strength of the domes, the change in the number and proportions of the stiffeners to prevent the damage of the dome, as well as the shape and arrangement of the wooden struts to increase domes flexibility against seismic shocks, have been examined.
Keywords: Bulbous dome, narrow ribs, stiffeners, wooden struts, Timurid-Safavid architecture.

Since the most obvious feature of Timurid architecture is its splendor, the architects of this period paid special attention to the dome than other architectural elements. In this era, domes were raised on high drums, and in order to achieve desired height on the exterior, architects usually built another shell on the top of the internal one. In such a way the dome profile is changed, so that it began a return below the base of the arch, producing thereby a slight bulge. Therefore, the bulbous dome is one of the innovations of the Central Asian architects during the Timurid period. The first cases of the bulbous domes in Central Asia have flutes on the outer shell; in addition, they have an oval-shaped structure. Construction of this domes continued with a few changes during the reign of Timur’s successors in Great Khorasan and within the current borders of Iran. To put it more clearly, after the Timurid period and during the rule of Safavids in Iran, construction of these domes continued with few changes. This study is dedicated to the analysis of the process of changes and also reasons for these changes in the appearance and structural elements of the bulbous domes according to the case studied in Central Asia and Iran during the Timurid and Safavid eras. The main question is, what changes have occurred in the appearance as well as structural elements, and as a result, the stability of these domes in the Timurid and Safavid periods in Central Asia and Iran, and what were the reasons for them.
Theoretical method of this research is based on the cultural history approach. Therefore, each case is viewed as a culture. Concerning this, three domes were selected from different regions of Central Asia (Turkestan, Samarkand, and Herat) and seven cases from Iran (Khorasan and Isfahan). Three main criteria for selecting the case studies can be listed: 1. Geographical and historical context; 2. Similarities of the cases during the Timurid period in Central Asia and the Safavid period in Iran, and; 3. Authenticity of the domes.  

All the studied domes in Central Asia have a lofty cylindrical drum. The height of the drums was adjusted in Iran during the Timurid era, in Khorasan and also in the central regions of Iran. It is worth to mention that, construction of high drums in Central Asia, during the reign of Timur, and in Iran, during the reign of Shah Abbas I, can be seen as an expression of the visual effects of architecture as a manifestation of the power and reflection of the perfectionist personality of those Kings. 
The most important exterior characteristic of the studied domes is in the external shell (Avgon), where the drum and the external shell connected to each other. Therefore, in the bulbous domes, part of the weight load of the outer shell at the junction of the dome and drum is directed inward and less pressure is applied to the base of the monument.
Flutes move from their common place at the top of the external shell to the bottom, and transfer forces and lateral loads to the inside, and enhance the resistance of the dome against the thrust forces.
In Central Asia’s domes, we couldn’t find narrow ribs on the surface of internal shell. This is despite the fact that in most of the studied cases from the Safavid period, narrow ribs were used to transfer the weight of the stiffeners to the lower parts and base of the monument. It seems that, utilize of the narrow ribs in the Safavid domes was the invention of the Iranian elite architects to give cohesion to the double-shell domes, especially bulbous ones.
From the earliest bulbous domes, we can see stiffeners between two shells. These elements have different shapes. Establishing stiffeners, especially in the Avgon part, greatly reduce the destruction of the dome during earthquakes and shows the architects’ awareness of stiffener’s structural role and function.
The wooden struts are arranged somewhat circularly to help connect the stiffeners to increase flexibility against earthquake shocks.

Changing process of bulbous domes in Iran includes removing the flutes from the external shell, adjusting the height of the drum and creating an avgon with more bulge at the junction of the external shell and drum. Domes with flutes in the Central Asia were a main characteristic of monuments. It seems that use of flutes, in addition to structural reasons, also had an aesthetic aspect; because, vertical and parallel concave and convex lines on the external shell make the domes look higher and add to the glory of the whole monument. Moreover, flutes help in transferring the thrust forces entered into the building and have a function like an avgon at the place of joining the dome’s drum. It seems that removing the flutes from domes in Iranian architecture of Timurid period should be considered as a result of the lack of a single political power in different regions of the country. Among other fundamental changes, we can notice domes with more bulge. During the Safavid period, architects learned and experienced the basic stages of bulbous domes and gained sufficient skill with regard to the morphological elements of dome and its strength. In this way, for aesthetic purposes, structural solutions such as creating narrow ribs on the internal shell of the dome and deepening the stiffeners in the avgon part have been used to maintain the integrity of the external shell. One of the reasons for the construction of narrow ribs is to transfer the compressive force of the stiffeners to the lower parts and bases of the dome and to strengthen their stability. In some cases, ribs were not used to connect stiffeners to the internal shell due to small diameter of the dome span. The changes made in the stiffeners from the Timurid period to the end of the Safavid period should be considered more related to their number, shape and proportions, which can be attributed not only to the creativity of local architects, but also to the architects’ complete awareness of the role and function of the stiffeners. These structural elements prevent the destruction of domes due to thrust forces (wind and earthquake). Wooden struts also make it possible to create a better connection between the stiffeners and external shell, as well as the connection between the components of the dome.

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