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Showing 7 results for Zarei

Mohammad Ebrahim Zarei,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)

In Bijar County and in a relatively near route of Hasanabad Yasokand city are located of three tomb towers, in villages of Yengi Arakh, Och Gonbad Khan, and Alishah. Although, these towers haven’t been made at a time, but two samples of them are remarkably similar. These three buildings of shaped tower Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, and Yengi Arakh are located in north of  Bijar County. These towers, in terms of geographical location, are located in caravan route of regional. Although these buildings with name of the tower are known, but the main problem is that, how can these towers placed in tomb monument? And, have these buildings been for resting of passengers? In this regard, there are two hypotheses; these buildings have been minaret of guide and sometimes from them used for resting passengers of Bijar, Soltanih, Zanjan, and Maragheh. Also, evidences of little available shows that these buildings in the late sixth century to eighth century  A.H. and by local authorities have been made for themselves or elders of their family. The result of this research shows that made these types of buildings have been due to the proximity of Soltanih Zanjan in Ilkhanids age and influenced by events in the region. Local rulers have made these types of buildings in realm of government themselves for themselves or religious and mystical elders of the region. For do this research, has been used from field – library method. In information of field section, author, buildings this study from has nearly been survey and photography them. Furthermore, from library sources for preparing images and review of historical texts for purposes of this study has been used.
Keywords: Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, Yengi Arakh, Tomb Tower, Bijar.

The tombs in Iranian architecture in Islamic period in terms of form and function have special place. Meanwhile, tomb tower are important in terms of shape and form. Although many these types of buildings in terms of form, architectural decorations, and function have been studied, but there are still monumental architecture of such buildings haven’t been studied because of the distance from the main roads. Unfortunately, due to neglect of these types of buildings, they have been destroyed. Including these traces are three tomb towers in villages of Hasanabad Yasokand city in Kurdistan Province. These buildings in terms of location, form, function, and use of local materials are deserving of separate study. In this regard, there are some questions: First; how can these buildings considered of tomb towers? Second; can be inferred these towers function of buildings of between roads for travelers rest? Third; these towers were related to the period and who were their builders? In relation to questions of above, can be raised these hypotheses: First; these towers are including of tomb towers and from these buildings have likely been used for funeral. Second; these towers have likely been guide minaret for guide and shelter of travelers in route of cities of Bijar in Kurdistan province and Soltanieh, Zanjan, and Maragheh in Azerbaijan. Of course, this theory haven’t been found until other documents, is accepted. The research method this study is historical-analytical that according to field surveys, providing picture, and study of historical texts and library documents has been done. So far, in relation to the topic of this research haven’t been done comprehensive studies. The only information available from these buildings is related to reports of 1970.

Location, introducing, and describing the towers
Ashghon Baba tower: The brick-work tower of Ashghon Baba is located in Siah Mansor district in near to village Alishah in Hasanabad Yasokand city, and in Bijar County. This tower due to lack of protection and restore, and also destruction by smugglers has been destroyed. The plan of this building has been octagon that up to 60 cm from the floor it has been built stonework and then up to dome valet built with bricks of special of Seljuk. The type of the outer dome it (that previously, has been made on it) has most been likely of type from frank dome of poly crack. 
Tower of Och Gonbad Khan: This tower of rocky is located in distance of 75 km northwest of Bijar city and in village of Och Gonbad Khan. Tower building has a plane of circular shape. Tower of Och Gonbad Khan has been made of stone and mortar. The current status of the building is show, ceiling has been made with a dome of stone. The internal dimensions of the tower are 4/30 meters and entrance 1/30 meters high. The width of stone walls of tower is 90 centimeters and the height is 6 meters. It seams, this tower with tomb towers of Seljuk and Ilkhanid periods as Round Tower and Tower Joy (Brand, 1997: 620) is comparable in terms of appearance and plane.
Yengi Arakh tower: This tower is located in vicinity of village with this name and 63 kilometers north of Bijar city and in route of Qom Choghay river. Yengi Arakh tower has circular plane. The internal diameter of the building is 5/20 meters, and width of the wall is 1/55 meters, and outer diameter is 8/30 meters. In this tower most of the materials are made of stone and plaster. This building is comparable in terms of type of plane, materials, and form with tower of Och Gonbad Khan.

The Idea building of tomb buildings, in form of tomb towers with the function of minaret or tomb in distant places, during past periods has spread. It seams, tomb towers that in this research were study, have been built with this thought. These tomb towers alongside of cities in periods of Seljuk and Ilkhanid, have been cause of increased traffic. Furthermore, these buildings have also been effective in terms of promotion traditional architecture. In alongside this communication creation of buildings in the form of tomb towers with various functions as Emamzadeh Aghil in Hasanabad Yasokand city, and three tomb towers in this study, have been created.

Fereshteh Azar Khordad, Hasan Hashemi Zarjabad, Ali Zarei,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)

The architect of Timurid have four systems or sets of proportions that could have combined them, but in general, a system had a major role. These systems can easily be equated to musical steps that although they are run by geometric progression, they are repeated. Each system is set based on an integer, but it is balanced by the root of that integer, according to geometric principles. Integers 2, 3, and 5 are each associated with geometric shapes determining the other elements of the scale. It was indeed Farabi who could discover the kinship of architecture with music, and then it was discussed by Bolatov. The nature of this system is well illustrated according to Farabi stating that the side of square and sector of circle in architecture is used as measuring instruments, and is similar to the theorem in logic and refrain in poetry, as well as poetry rhythms. It is precisely because of such an issue that Bolatov’s view can be accepted. Accordingly, the geometry of the design is not comparable with Western imaginations of proportion, which deals with the repetition of similar or related forms. In addition to its practical value, as an implementation procedure, the Islamic system provided the coordination and harmony for all parts, thereby the entire parts were associated with a single nature, like the relation of the parts of squares, triangles and pentagons with each other. 
Keywords: Applied Geometry, Buildings Abubakr Taybadi, Goharshad Mosque, School of Ghiasieh Khargerd.

A feature of the Timurid architecture is the use of geometry, which is manifested in the magnificence and verticality of the Timurid buildings. Also, during this period, exact sciences and geometry significantly developed. These sciences were practically applied in architecture and used as a pattern in the construction of buildings. The application of geometric formulas had a major role in coordinating proportions, balancing and overall balance and its elements, which are the features of the Timurid architecture. After preparing the design, the architect has been entered the practical research stage. Therefore, the following questions are raised in this study: What is the pattern and geometrical ratio used in the design of these buildings? The architect of the Timurid Period which geometrical principles have used in the design of these buildings?

Research Findings
Timurids architects applied all of the geometric systems used since the tenth century, including: 
Rule 1: Square and its derivatives, the most important of which are the diameter of √2 of half and its double, and the side of an octagon (√ 2-1).
Rules 2 and 3: Equilateral triangle and its derivatives, i.e. sides and height (√3/2). Such triangles play a role in dodecagonal figures (the sides are equal,) (2-√3). Sometimes, the geometry of square and equilateral triangle were combined, as it is seen in (√ 2: √3) rectangles whose height is half the generatrix square. Bearer (√3) was often used. The size of this dimension can be drawn by encircling a pentagon and extending its radii.
Rules 6, 5, 4, and 7: A half-square is usually formed by dividing the square of a room into halves, so that by drawing diameters of two half-squares, a square in the center is obtained whose side is 1/ √5. The diameter itself (√5/2) plays a major role especially in determining the heights. Another method to get a rectangle with the same proportions yields a triangle with a ratio of 2:3√5. A common form associated with the half-square was a triangle made of diameters and two sides that could be used to separate the proportional parts of the line 1√5 and (√5-1) 1√5. This was done in a way that an arc was separated along the chord, the radius which was a triangle height, was then entered through this point to the base. These proportions were sometimes used for designs of façades. 
Rules 8 and 9: The √5 of a rectangle or the √5 of orthogonal: using a half-square, the base could be divided in another way, previously known to the Greeks as “moderate limit” which is involved in the construction of the “golden section”. This is done in such a way that an arc with the length of the height along the chord is separated like the previous state, then a secondary arc whose center is smaller in the angle is drawn at the point on the chord. In the point where this arc intercepts the triangle the line is divided into two parts that one is larger {(√5-1)/2} represented by M, and another one is smaller {3-√5/2}} represented by m. The multiples of this section are usually used in the design of interior and exterior façades and many other spaces. A number of decreasing triangles were applied in the same way as used for the diameter of the minarets {2 / (√5 3-7); 4 / √53-7) ...}. 
Rule 10: A decagon encircled in a circle with a radius of 2 has a side equal to √5-1. The golden rectangular was made by adding unit 1 to the larger part M {1: 2 / (√5+1)}. Using the half-square as a base, a rectangle can be easily drawn.
Abubakr Taybadi’s Tomb: The use of the rules 2 and 3, i.e. the equilateral triangle and its derivatives, like in the height of the triangle. The use of rule 5 of half-square, i.e. √5 and its derivatives and the rule 9, namely, √5 of the rectangle. The use of rule 4, i.e. half-square. Dividing the square of a room which is divided into halves. The ratio was used in this rule.
Goharshad Mosque: The combined is use of the rule 5 of half-square, namely √5 and its derivatives, and the rule 9, i.e. √5 of rectangle.   
School of Ghiasieh Khargerd: The use of the rule 1, namely √2 and its derivatives such as By analyzing such patterns and the system of proportions used in the construction of Ghiasieh Khargerd School, Goharshad Mosque and Zayn al-Din monument, the present study describes the role of mathematicians and the application of geometry knowledge by architects such as Qavameddin Shirazi in the development process of architecture during the Timurid period.

Mohammad Ebrahim Zarei, Fatemeh Baba-Alipour,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)

Of the common types of late architecture in Iran various mastery buildings some examples of which were made during the Qajar period, that some examples these types are considered by the rulers of the cities and villages of this period. The Varkaneh village is located in the Eastern Alvand district and in the central part of Hamedan in the mountains area, and with Arzanfood-Varkaneh valley 15 km is away. The village has been governed in the Qajar and Pahlavi periods by Naqikhan and Mehri-Khanoom. From the presence of Qaragozlou’s family in the village of Varkaneh are two monuments of the “mastery house” and “stables of breeding horse” with distance of 100 and 500 meters outside the village respectively. Among the buildings of state as selected patterns two different types of local court architecture and comparable to the master’s buildings collection (Qaravol Khaneh) Aghovlar in Talesh will be investigated and analyzed. The main purpose of this paper is to recognize the patterns and transformations created in traditional roral architecture Based on ideas and methods of transformation in two different types of mastery buildings of the Qajar period and beyond. Accordingly, in the present study in addition introduces a descriptive - analytical method, has done analysis and classification of elements of rural architecture and fluently social transformations in the formation mastery architecture of the Qajar period in the Varkaneh village. Questions of this study: What factors have led to placement of these buildings outside context of the village? These buildings under study, how much have been effective of the area architecture? The result of this research is show that the architectural features of these two buildings, a part from the Varkaneh village texture with the effect mastery architecture and European architecture on the Qajar period they were made with indigenous materials.
Keywords: Qajar Architecture, Varkaneh, Mastery House, Stables of Breeding Horse.

From examples of architecture courtesy in Qajar period is mastery architecture of Qaragozlou tribe in Varkaneh village of Hamedan. These buildings in terms of construction and materials are the most unique architectural works of this period. “Naghi Khan Qaragozlou” has been “Khan” in the village of Varkaneh that after him his daughter becomes ruler. From the Qaragozlou tribe are two buildings of “mastery house” and “stables of breeding horse” left in the village. The “mastery house” is related to the Qajar period and “stables of breeding horse” related to the early Pahlavi period. Therefore, in this study raised the following questions: What factors have led to placement of these buildings outside context of the village? These buildings under study, how much have been effective of the area architecture? The result of this research is show that the architectural features of these two buildings, a part from the Varkaneh village texture with the effect mastery architecture and European architecture on the Qajar period they were made with indigenous materials.

The Mastery House of Varkaneh
The mastery house of Varkaneh is located about 100 meters south of the village. It building related to the Qajar period. It is a two story building and has a crucifixion map.

The Stables of Breeding Horse of Varkaneh
Mehri Khanom Qaragozlou after becoming the ruler of the village, with help of the royal society, she made a stables in the south of the village. This stables for was taking care horses in spring and summer. This stables is to form of separate building, but it is part of the Varkaneh village. The building has a length of 22×72 meters and a total area of 1584 square meters. The result of this research is show that the architectural features of these two buildings, a part from the Varkaneh village texture with the effect mastery architecture and European architecture on the Qajar period they were made with indigenous materials.

Protecting and maintaining buildings, especially monuments is one of the most important steps that can be taken in relation to the valuable work of past ancestors. Where cannot be keep well or continue to use it, it definitely disrupts the life cycle of the building and causes irreparable damage to it. In these situations, natural and human factors always effect the building and damage it. Since the damage caused by the building gives it an unpleasant appearance, it is also difficult to operate and maintain it. Today are monuments that life cycle has been destroyed due to negligence. The collection of historical works in Varkaneh, is one of the most valuable remains of the Qajar period, because of neglect exposed to distraction. This collection can be moong the effects of the master rural area. Which has been driven by the central government, feudalists, and the productivity of the agricultural and natural an ability to meet the needs of the court. The Varkaneh master collection in fact has been one of the buildings local governor’s seat. These boilding have been governed by the family of Qaragozlou and used for nomadic residence in the spring and summer. The Varkaneh master house has been made white rocky material and cruciate map of unique works. That with method the extrovert architecture and interior spaces are enclosed between walnut and poplar tree. The stone building master’s house shows the innovative use of local and native capabilities so as to resist the cold weather of the mountain. Horse stables have been made white and this kind of approach, property and clever thinking of choosing a place, built in a stalemate valley due to the lack of written evidence, it is not possible to accurately determine the date of construction of both buildings. The result of this research is show that the architectural features of these two buildings, a part from the Varkaneh village texture with the effect mastery architecture and European architecture on the Qajar period they were made with indigenous materials. These both buildings related to the Qajar period these buildings are comparable with Aqhovlar building in Talesh.

Karim Zarei, Gholamreza Shamlo, Taghi Hamidimanesh,
year 2, Issue 5 (12-2018)

The coffeehouse painting, a school of oil color narrative painting, was formed in the late Qajar government during the constitution movement by untrained artists in coffeehouses with martial, artistic and religious themes. With the suppression of people’s liberty by such tyrannical government, the constitution revolution led to people’s movement in coffee houses where was made as one of the most important societies in the Qajar era playing a major role in shaping this movement. In the following article, it has been attempted to establish the coffee house as an institution with social and cultural functions in order to strengthen the national and religious spirit of the individuals. The research methodology includes library and field study based on the research of coffeehouse painting, the constitution revolution, and the study of Qajar coffeehouse atmospheres. After having analyzed and adapted the data, the following results are presented: the process of coffeehouse painting in coffee houses during the constitution Revolution was an anti-authoritarian and a critical movement against the Qajar government. Also, the content of the discourse in coffeehouses during the noted regime affected the themes of the paintings with a significant influence on the constitution revolution.
Keywords: Coffee House Painting, Coffee House, Qajar Autocracy, Constitution.   

Due to the need and demand of people and the respect for their beliefs, coffeehouse painting is a kind of oil color narrative painting that was emerged by untrained artists with martial, religious, and artistic themes during the constitution movement, based on the traditions of folk and religious art. Although the basis for this painting was an ancient tradition of storytelling and sorrow expressing in Iran, conditions for the growth of this popular art in coffee houses were provided during the Qajar era, and some painters in this school came up with a procedure that was beyond the domain of that time art (Saif, 2011). During this period (Nasser al-Din Shah’s long reign from 1848 to 1896 B.C, 1264-1313 A.H), with the emergence of foreign wars and the internal problems, the internal legitimacy crisis appeared by which influential religious and social heavals were created. This circumstance expresses the transformation of social forces and anti-authoritarian movements against the government of the time and the constitution revolution, which was the foundation of these radical changes, created profound and great social transformations that remarkably affected the strengthening of public institutions. Therefore, the coffeehouse, which was more important and long-lasting than the other institutions, became a place for attending these communities and as a strong and active social institution, played a very significant role in appearing public movement and had an undeniable effect on coffeehouse painting. With the assumption that the coffeehouses were the main factor of shaping the coffeehouse painting during the constitutional period regarding the social governing conditions, the influence of this public institution in its era on coffeehouse painting is reviewed, considering the atmosphere of coffeehouses during the constitution revolution and the Qajar dynasty.
The Influence of Constitution on Art and Culture Changes
Coffeehouse painting is a style of Iranian painting that reached its peak in the late Qajar era simultaneous with the constitution movement (Saif, 2011).
In the trend of the formation of constitution movement and the general awakening of the people and their awareness of the condition in the country, all the urban classes participated in the revolution, and there was not even one social class entered the scene against the revolution. Accordingly, a coalition of different groups of cities and various classes participated in the movement of constitution, and such a revolution was a public, democratic, mass and urban movement, instead of a bourgeoisie one (Yazdkhasti & Esmaili, 2008: 108). 
In the field of culture and art, new conditions came to the fore. The Iranian people were involved in a new world-wide view by observing the new situation and suppressing the liberationist movements while facing their state and religious leaders who were involved into the battle. The Persians were witnessing new colonial intrigues on the one hand and the pressures of domestic tyranny every day on the other hand. Those who were not hopeful for the improvement and the destruction of seven-headed colonial and tyrannical dragons by observing the chaos and hypocrites in their real life were subconsciously attracted to the mythical and historical heroes and revived them (Saif, 2011). The constitution revolution, if not the turning point, was a breakthrough in Iran’s social transformation. It deeply changed Iran’s social and intellectual history. In this regard, two important issues should be mentioned:
1. In such a movement, people dared to present their social rights for the first time. It is very important for the people to have the right to think and to comment rightfully.
2. The society of Iran at that time focused on the main obstacle of the community improvement, and that was the terrible domination of despotism. In the view of Constitutionalists, the autocracy dried out sapling of thought and human growth, disclosed the liberation of the thought and the act of humans. This was the center of attention of the warriors and intellectuals (Nazari, 2007: 33).

In the definitions given to the coffee house, it was a place where attention was paid to the political, social and cultural considerations of the Qajar dynasties, and the presence of painters in this space, due to its simultaneity with the constitution movement, is a reason for their reconciliation with the atmosphere of the coffeehouse against the tyranny of the government. Just as the political revolutions originate from the lower and middle classes of the society and are based on the structure of the people’s organization, such as the workers and religious revolutions that rise against the autocracy and insurrection, the coffeehouse painting is formed from the lower layers of the society, and painters, who generally had a career other than painting, have shown a kind of intellectual awakening in their work, without being trained in a particular school.

Mohamad Ebrahim Zarei, Mahnaz Sharifi,
year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019)

Amir Sharlogh located in Hossein Abbad in northeastern of the Semnan province. Amir Sharlogh area at an altitude of 1379 meters above sea level located in the North eastern part of Miami and 210 kilometers distance from the Shahroud. This area is restricted Golestan forest from the north, Jajarm area in Khorasan province from the east, Minoodasht town in Golestan province from the west and eastern Kalate part of the Miami from the south. Big east Khorasan road that would connect the east world to west is located on this highway. evidence from several ancient hills indicated that this area was on the part of business and economic way road to Gorgan and Khorasan and connected 3 provinces of Semnan, Golestan and Khorasan together. There are several ancient hills in region, one of which is Tepe Amir Sharlogh was being explored. In addition of salvage excavation project was defined for instruction of dam Kalpoush, the importance of the hill is related to being a suitable reign for detection and study of the cultural status. Compared to the other regions, Northeast of Iran has not received as much attention in the history of Archeological studies despite, decent Geographical condition and critical geopolitical location, it has been a home to huge human settlements from the prehistoric period up till now.
Keywords: Northeast Area, Amir Sharlogh, Shahroud, Saljughid Period.

In order to identify zone settlement and cultural sequences the Archaeological excavation take starts after primary studying, survey and approving boundaries. Field works contains 7 trenches which is covered 700m² area. At -450m virgin land level was reached. The find evidence such as Archaeological remains and different layers’ shells (up to dawn) and also the signs at surface section refer to Islamic period which is involved one period and two short phases. Archaeological diffusion and no fluency status show the migrating usage of the site at related time. Large amount of kitchen pottery, various fireplaces and ovens all show that the place was an immigration one.
According to similar historical data in all I to VII trenches at -450m depth and documentation of tangible and intangible finds, the excavation was stopped at this location and we change do the excavation at north and north west of upper trace which was called Amir Shalegh and covered nine 5×5 norths-south trenches. It results to discover a historical cemetery with 20 grave that was related to Saljughid and Ilkhanid era.
The Archaeological excavation of Kalpoush dam site contains wide information of cultural status, life and Economical situation at this area. It’s also importance in view of its serious role of formation and developing of immigration. At this paper the several find and results of Archaeological excavation will be discussed. 

The environment and the geography of the region: Being 515,985 km2 in size, Semnan province is located on the way of Silk Way – one the ancient Iranian heritages. Being surrounded by Alborz Mountains on the north and Kavir Namak which was once a home to a rich civilization, it has a special geographical position and several climate conditions. Semnan province is located on the south (central - east) slopes of Alborz highlands and the north side of big Kavir and therefore, from a geological point of view, belongs to two ground structures of (central) Alborz and central Iran. In the north of Semnan, “Semnan fault” is known as the border between Alborz and central Iran. The northern stripe of Semnan province (the road connecting Garmsar- Semnan-Damqan-Shahroud) is part of the southern slope of Alborz having a high and coarse morphology and is usually referred to as the central-eastern Alborz. In general, Neishabour plain is a road heading towards west, from Afghanistan to Shahroud, and is a part of The Great Khorasan. The evdince found on the way in the ancient regions such as azure, alabaster, and turquoise show that the east-west road from Khorasan to Damghan was always paid considerable attention to since 4000 AD to the Parthian and the Sasanid and then to the Islamic era (Hiebert & Dyson, 2002: 116). The eastern Iran is made up of mountain borders and barricades, misshaped valleys and huge spaces of deserts (Fisher 1986). Khorasan region is surrounded by Gorgan and the Atrak River on the northwest, and by Kopet Dagh mountains I the north and northeast. The northern border of Khorasan and the Iranian plateau is surrounded by mountains and is formed by the Atrak River and Mashhad plain, Hezar Masjid Mountain, the border of Kopet Dagh and the south chain including Binaloud and Shah Jahan mountains. The valleys located between the two mountains and the southern parts of Kopet Dagh are 1000 meters higher than the regions in the north of Kopet Dagh (Hiebert & Dyson, 2002: 115; Eduljee, 2007: 9).

Mohammad Ebrahim Zarei, Mohammad Shabani,
year 3, Issue 8 (9-2019)

The existence of route such as the Khorassan highway and the Shah’s subway in the Hamadan have made the region known as an important station throughout the historical periods. In the Islamic era, these trade routes have led to the emergence of various types of pottery cultures in the region. Due to the influence of the pottery cultures of Hamadan from the large areas of Islamic pottery production, this research has tried to address the issues such as: the era of Islamic pottery of Hamadan region? Which types of Hamadan region have local cultures? With the aim of identifying various kinds of clay of the Islamic period of the region, which is carried out through the study of archaeological data, a variety of pottery styles of the Islamic Ages are identified and introduced. During this research, more than 12 pottery styles were identified. All these types of pottery date back to the early centuries, the Middle Ages, and the later centuries. In the first centuries a variety of Unglazed pottery’s, Flower-shaped species and Sgraffiato were obtained. In the medieval pottery the types of pottery can be mentioned: Monochrome, Unglazed pottery with marble and mosaic designs, Ghalam Meshki, Silhouette, Lakaby, pottery of Sultanabad, Zarinfam and the Blue and White of the Middle Ages. The last group of Islamic pottery of Hamadan is related to the late centuries. During this period, the production of species such as Blue and White Safavid era and engraved pottery on ghosts with abnormal designs are prevalent.
Keywords: Hamadan Region, Pottery Styles, Islamic Era.

Hamadan is one of the areas that has had a strategic position throughout history. This area allowed the Central and Eastern Plateau to connect with the West and Mesopotamia. The existence of major routes such as the Great “Khorasan Road” and the “Royal Road” route has affected the region’s transformations in the various cultures of human societies. For example, during the survey and archaeological excavations in this region the influence of the Yanik culture from the northwest and the Black on Buff  Ware (BOB) from the southwest on this region has been determined. One of these developments is the creation of various styles of pottery of the Islamic era. Surface surveys on the Islamic period of the Hamadan region indicate that in this region various types of pottery styles have been used in different parts of Iran. However, except for the alternate and two underground crumbling basins, the Samen (It’s a underground archaeological site in the southwest of Hamadan province) is still not one of the sites of the era Islamic, with the approach of identifying and introducing various types of pottery of Islamic era, has not been explored. Based on the data obtained from the archaeological excavations carried out in Hamadan (like Hegmatana, Arzanfood underground archaeological site, Samen underground archaeological site, Islamic city of  Darjazin and Zinoabad ) it seems that apart from the few centuries that, in the absence of exploration of the temporal exploration of the pottery cultures of this region, it is still unclear to our knowledge of the next century pottery, which is generally from archaeological surveys Gets more accessible. In this study, by studying these data, a variety of ornamental species commonly associated with the Middle Ages are known, such as simple mosaic-free glazed ceramics, graphite pottery, pencils, zarrinfam, aquatic blueberries of the Middle Ages, and others in Hamadan region.

Decorative Styles of Pottery of the Islamic Era in Hamadan
After reviewing all the archaeological sources of the area, 12 styles of decorative decoration of Islamic pottery were identified for the period of the early centuries to the late Safavid era. Decorative styles include: plain clay and glazes, all kinds of pottery with monochrome glazes, clay pottery with glazed pottery and stamping, scratching, lacquering pottery, all kinds of underbrush glazes, silhouette, types of painting on the glaze of type Zarrinfam, Sultan-Abad style pottery, famous blue and white pottery and various styles, generally related to the later period, the Qajar period.

The result of the study of Islamic clay data obtained from the archaeological explorations of Hamadan region is the identification of 12 species of clay. These types of pottery were each produced with different decorative features in different Islamic periods in this region. In general, Islamic pottery can be divided into three periods of the early centuries, the Middle Ages, and the later centuries. In the first centuries of the Islamic era, due to limited studies, the conditions of the cultures of the Hamadan region are not clearly known, but based on this limited information, a variety of simple ceramics without glazes, clay dipped and pottery clay. The next period is related to the medieval pottery. The pottery of this period has been identified in many Islamic sites of Hamadan. Among the types of pottery of this period are: monochrome pottery, unmolded pottery with decorated motifs, black pottery, silhouette, lakaby, pottery of Sultan Abad, pottery of Zarrinfam and blue and white species of the Middle Ages. The last group of Islamic pottery of Hamadan is related to the late century’s pottery. However, during this period, some species of pottery of the previous periods, with changes in the type of dough and motifs used, were still used, but the production of species such as blue and white Safavid era and engraved pottery on the glaze with austerity motifs from this era became popular. From late centuries later, in the area of Hamadan, pottery products have found local flavors and a variety of cultures have been created. The peak of this process is seen during the Qajar period and with the advent of Laljin. The city is still known as the largest pottery center in Iran, the center of which exports its own clay styles to different regions.

Fereshteh Sharifi, - Mohmmad-Ebrahim Zarei,
year 5, Issue 15 (6-2021)

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