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Showing 2 results for Sarlak

Alireza Khosrowzadeh, Siamak Sarlak,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)

Due to few is excavated Sasanian sites in southwestern Iran and Persian Gulf, the region still lacks a securely dated pottery assemblage from this period, which renders identification of the Sassanid sites there extremely difficult. Therefore, a reliably dated ceramic collection is essential for better understanding of the Sassanid period. The present paper addresses this issue and sets to introduce one of the typical type of Sassanid pottery of southeast Iran based on material recorded during surveys and excavations at Southeast of Iran and northern and southern coast of Persian Gulf. This type which is famous to fine orange painted ware or “Namord” Widely distributed in the Northern and Southern coasts of the Persian Gulf and Southeast of Iran. This type was only obtained from excavated sites at Kush, Mleiha and ed-Dur in United Arabian Emirate, Tape Yahya in Kerman and Tame Maroun in Minab. Also many of these types have been found in survey of these areas. There are two type of Namord ware; one type is belonging to late Parthian period and another one dated back to early and middle Sassanid period. Due to the wide distribution of the Namord ware in southeast of Iran and northern and southern beaches of the Persian Gulf, probably, this type of pottery in the Persian Gulf has been used as a kind of commercial goods. The absence Namord ware in Kuwait, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia is representing close relationships between eastern parts of the Persian Gulf (Emirates and Oman) and south and southeast beaches of Iran. Also, the existence of Namord ware in Gana of Yemen, is represents expanding the trade of this pottery to the east beaches of the Indian Ocean.
Keywords: Namord Ware, Sassanid, Southeast, Persian Gulf.

As we know, pottery in the Sassanid period like the Parthian period has been local style, and each region of Iran in this period have been a special style of pottery. One of the areas, that Sassanid pottery in it little known, is southeast of Iran and the Persian Gulf beaches. A very large part of southeastern Iran (Kerman, Hormozgan, Sistan and Baluchestan provinces) in terms of archeology is less recognize than other parts of Iran. Unfortunately, due to the lack of archaeological excavations in this area of Iran, we can’t present correct theory about Sassanid pottery this area. One of the most important sites in the south east (that has the Sassanid period) is Tape Yahya in the southeast of Baft county near of Soghan. The Tame Maroun is another important Sassanid site. Sarlak based on the pottery obtained from different layers of this site, five cultural periods have been identified on this site (Sarlak, 2011: 374). Emirates and Oman (that have done more excavations in them) are located in the cultural area of the southern of Persian Gulf. The Sohar excavations in Oman, and excavations of Addor, Koush, and Meliha in Emirates are most important excavations in this area. Koush is important of site in southern beaches of the Persian Gulf that has a fairly accurate chronology. Based on excavations done in this site, period 1 is the oldest settelement in Koush, includes two steps of brick building that can be related to 6th and 7th century AD (Kennet, 2005). From this period (6th and 7th century AD) has been obtained large number of pottery related to Namord. In addition to excavation, a lot of surveys have also been conducted in this cultural area. These surveys have been done by Descartes, Potts, and … In these surveys have been obtained large number of pottery related to Namord.
Pottery dispersion of Namord in southeast of Iran and northern beaches of Persian Gulf
In 1983 Seyyed Mansour Seyyed Sajjadi with an archaeological team was surveyed Rodbar valley in southern Kerman. Seyyed Sajjadi was obtained Namord ware from the four sites of Ghaleh Kharg, Dogari, Tamb Namord, and Sitamb. Also, this pottery has been obtained from the layer 1 of Tape Yahya. Furthermore, Namord ware has been obtained from the third period of the Tame Maroun. Namord ware in third period of the Tame Maroun has red and orange paste. This type of pottery in Bushehr has orange color and with gravel temper. Also, Namord ware is obtained in surveys conducted in Damb Koh and Qeshm Island.

Pottery dispersion of Namord in the southeast of Saudi Arabia and the south beaches of Persian Gulf
The Namord ware is obtained in Alganam Island, Addor, Koush, Meliha, and Tal Abrak. From the Meliha fort has been obtained a few glasses of delicate and painted from the type of Namord. The paste of this pottery in Meliha is so stiff and has orange color. In surveys of northern Oman in the peninsula of Mosandam has been obtained samples similar to painted pottery of Namord.

Due to Widespread of Namord ware in southeastern Iran and northern and southern beaches of the Persian Gulf, probably, this pottery as a commodity has been exchanged between the north and south of the Persian Gulf. Trade this pottery have probably been for the quality this type of pottery. Namord ware has been obtained most from areas the eastern of the Persian Gulf, especially from Alganam Island, Addor, Koush, Meliha, and Tal Abrak. It seems, this type of pottery has been produced in one or two small areas (probably in Minab plain and Halil Roud), and has been exported to other places as a valuable commodity.

Siamak Sarlak,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)

According to the common chronology of the Bronze Age and Iron Age of Iran, the period (2000) 1900 to 1500 BC is known as the introduction of the new Bronze Age and about 1500 BC is known as the beginning of the Iron Age. Archaeological evidence does not provide a clear picture of the chronological and cultural sequence in most of the sites of this period in the northern half of Iran. This limitation is mostly due to the nature of the materials and documents of this period, which are often the result of excavations in cemeteries, and the information available about the exact sequence of stratigraphy in the settlements of this period is scarce. At the same time, the available evidence shows that most of the main centers of this period, especially in the eastern half of the Iranian plateau, southern Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan to the Indus and Punjab valleys, between 1700 to 1500 BC. They are abandoned and there is an obvious cultural and chronological rupture in the settlement sequence of these areas. Hypotheses have been made regarding the causes of the abandonment of the sites of this period and the rupture created in the middle of the second millennium BC. Most of these hypotheses, with an archaeological approach to cultural materials, especially the study of changes in pottery traditions, have justified the causes of the rupture and factors such as migration and invasions of new peoples and cultures, environmental changes, and suggested a change in the way of subsistence economics as the reasons for the rupture. In this article, based on the results of linguistic studies of religious texts attributed to Vedic-Gahani Indo Iranian, a hypothesis has been proposed that the changes resulting from the religious reforms of Zoroaster in the period from about 1700 (1800) to 1500 BC. In the east of the Iranian plateau, alone or in combination with other factors can be the main driver or factor influencing and accelerating the process of abandonment of centers and areas of the end of the Bronze Age of the eastern half of the Iranian plateau and one of the main factors in the transition Communities from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age.
Keywords: Bronze Age, Iron Age, Transition, Northern Half of Iran, Northeast and East of Iran.

One of the archaeological questions of the second millennium BC in the northern half of the Iranian plateau is how (and causes) societies transitioned from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age (Mousavi, 2008: 105). In this regard, some hypotheses have been proposed (Mousavi, 2001: 15). These hypotheses generally justify and interpret the trend of cultural developments at the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age in the northern half of the Iranian plateau, and the nature and reasons for the phenomenon in the societies of this period have not been addressed.
The invasion hypothesis is one of these hypotheses that was based on changes in pottery traditions and other cultural materials between the Gian II (Bronze Age) and Gian I (Iron Age) periods (Contenau and Ghirshman, 1939: 76, Mousavi, 2001: 15). These studies led to the assumption that migratory cultures from the second half of the second millennium to the beginning of the first millennium BC entered the Iranian plateau from the northwestern regions (Caucasus crossing) and settled in the Kashan plain (Mousavi, 2005; 94, Ghirshman, 1939: 62). In general, the hypotheses based on displacement, invasion and cultural substitution are based on the results of “Indo-European linguistics” studies (Bahar, 1996: 135, Sankalia, 1963: 312, Weidengren, 1998: 10, Muscarella, 1966: 121).
Another hypothesis presented in this regard is the hypothesis of “gradual evolution” (Medvedeskaya, 1982: 96), which is based on the results of the excavations of Yaniq Tappeh (Burney, 1994: 50, Dyson, 1969: 15,). Based on this hypothesis, a special type of gray, black, and black pottery indicates the presence of new (Iranian) tribes from the beginning of the third millennium BC. In the northwestern regions of Iran and its gradual expansion through the Caucasus Pass (Burney and Lang, 1972: 116) or the northeastern routes into the Iranian plateau (Burney, 1994: 47 and Derakhshani, 1998: 33, Schmidt, 1937: 112).
The hypothesis of “cultural movement and substitution” is another hypothesis in this regard (Young, 1965: 59, Mousavi, 2001: 17). This hypothesis formed the basis of the theory of “cultural dynamism at the beginning of the Iron Age” (Young, 1967: 34, Dyson, 1989: 125). Based on this hypothesis, some researchers have suggested routes for ethnic and cultural migration at the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age (Deshayes, 1969: 16, Muscarella, 1974: 140).
Hypotheses have also been made regarding the causes of chronological rupture at the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age of the northern half of Iran. The theory of “urban crisis” is one of these hypotheses. According to this hypothesis, the imbalance between population growth and environmental capacities and increased utilization of natural resources led to population displacement and the resulting cultural disintegration (Young, 1985: 372).
Another hypothesis, emphasizing “change in the Method of economic production”, considers the extinction of Bronze Age cultures in northeastern Iran as a result of changes in the livelihood system of these cultures (Mousavi, 2005; 94 Ghirshman, 1977: 25 Ghirshman, 1939: 104). 
Zoroastrian Religious Reforms and Its effect on the Abandonment of the Bronze Age Areas of Northeast and East of the Iranian Plateau
According to the theory of linguistics, the religious reforms of Zoroaster took place in the eastern regions of Iran between the 18th and 15th centuries BC. In line with this hypothesis, the time and Locality of the emergence of Zoroaster and the social conditions of this period are examined as the basis for the formation of developments.
In relation to the time and Locality of Zoroaster, there are a total of three theories (Christiansan, 1997: 17) including the traditional theory of Zoroastrians, the theory of ancient Greek philosophers and sages, and the theory of linguistics and history (Ashtiani, 1987: 78).
In traditional theory, the time of Zarathustra is mentioned around the 6th century BC (late Median, early Achaemenid) and its Locality is in western Iran (Aria, 1997: 87, Khodadadian, 2000: 63, Vermazen, 1993: 21). According to the theory of ancient Greek philosophers and sages, the time of Zoroaster is mentioned 6000 years before Xerxes’s invasion of Greece (480 BC) (Razi, 1993: 3, Rajaei, 1993: 69). Linguistic and historical theory is also based on comparative studies of the remaining religious texts attributed to the Aryan tribes. The oldest of these texts is the Indian Rig Veda which most scholars believe belongs to the Vedic era (Khodadadian, 2000: 43, Abazari et al, 1993: 155, Aria, 1997: 86, Boyce, 1998: 43, Shaygan, 1966: 4, Ashtiani, 1987: 87). On the other hand, the Gathas are the oldest part of the Iranian Avesta (Celns, 2007: 12), which is attributed to the poems of Zoroaster himself (Dushan Gimen, 1984: 42, Pourdavoud, 2006: 63, Christiansan, 1997: 20, Binas, 1993: 450). From the point of view of comparative linguistic studies, the lexical connection and common linguistic roots between the Rig Vedas and the Gatas are very close (Widengeren, 1998: 95, Jalali Naeini, 1993: 4, Boyce, 1998: 93, Ashtiani, 1987: 83). However, Gataha and Rig Veda are almost simultaneous in terms of linguistic features and belong to the Vedic era, ie between 1700 and 1500 BC, and consequently the time of Zarathustra also belongs to the Vedic era. At the same time, linguists believe that the language of the Gataha is not Western Iranians, but Eastern Iranians (Moule, 1998: 112, Christiansan, 1997: 21, Vermazen, 1993: 16; Weidengren, 1998: 95) and consequently Zoroaster. He has lived and appeared in eastern Iran.
The social context of Zoroaster’s message, based on the ancient texts of the Avesta (especially the poems of the Gatha) shows that his teachings and message, especially in the beginning, were strongly opposed by important sections of society, especially the nomadic warrior tribes, affluent classes and followers of the clergy. The ancient Indo-Iranian religion (Kavis-Usigs and Karpans) was the result of civil wars and conflicts and social disintegration (Weidengeren, 1998: 99 and 102).

According to the Collection of documents presented, if we accept Zarathustra and his religious reforms belong to the Gataha or Vedic era (ie between 1800 and 1500 BC) and consequently accept the environment and social context in which Zarathustra appeared and religion It is the eastern regions of Iran. According to the image presented in the Avesta religious texts regarding the social, political and religious situation of this period, it is possible that Zoroastrian society in the Gataha era is a reflection of a society in transition. Imagined Basically, the emergence of social reformers is the product and result of a society whose stability and social system has lost its effectiveness and requires a new plan to create new social stability and get out of the current stalemate. According to religious texts, Zarathustra’s message inevitably went beyond social reform and approached a fundamental reform of the social, economic, and religious structure of society. However, it can be said that the society of the time of Zoroaster is really a society that has been at the peak of tension and has reached a dead end, and such a society evokes the characteristics of a society in transition in social, political and economic. A society that has lost its primary stability (Vedic-Gahan system) and is transitioning to secondary stability (Mazd-e Yasna system). Such a situation (willingly or unwillingly) puts society on a path called the “transition path.” The end of this path is either the achievement of re-stabilization (secondary stability) or chaos and collapse. From an archeological point of view, it may be possible to find an important part of the materials and documents of cemeteries such as Qeytariyeh, Khorvin, Sialk (period V), Sarm, etc. They have the Bronze Age of the Northeast, the product of such developments, and as cultures in transition in the period from about 1700 to 1500 BC. Cultures that are changing by keeping in touch with the previous period. Changes that develop over the next century or two (beginning of the Iron Age) as characteristics of a stable culture in large parts of the northern half of Iran. The culture that in the process of its evolution in the first half of the first millennium BC, was consolidated, stabilized, gained strength and finally was able to change the socio-political equations of the ancient East by presenting a new plan, after about a millennium of Semitic culture.

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