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Showing 2 results for Sarhadi

Khalil-Ollah Beik-Mohammadi, Saeid Marhjani, Zeinab Ahmad-Yosefi-Sarhadi,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
Spindle Whorls are among the main cultural materials and needs of animal husbandry and semi-”frozen” societies and are among the works that are directly related to the pattern of livelihood and production in the clothing family and fibers of early societies. to be. Which are interpreted in the analysis of the findings of ancient sites. The area behind Malayer Plain Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe is no exception to this feature, and the number of 123 Spindle Whorls found among its archaeological excavation findings has a significant presence in terms of type and f. The main stones of this area can be divided into two groups: convex and conical, each of which is divided into two sub-branches: painted and simple, and in terms of quality of construction, they can be divided into two groups: medium and Roughly divided. All Spindle Whorls are made of baked clay with a mixture of herbs and in different sizes. The purpose of this research is in the first stage, typology and study of saddles and in the second stage, analysis of livelihood model related to the production of textiles in the hills posht forodgah. A significant number of Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe and its application in the production of yarn by analyzing it on the produced fibers and how to organize this production can help a lot. The method of the present research, based on comparative studies and with a descriptive-analytical approach, seeks to answer these questions: What kind and forms of hymns discovered Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe and what threads are used in its production? Given the Semi-Unilateral of the Tepe communities Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe and the abundance of Sardok, the production of textiles in this area has been for local and domestic use and trans-regional trade? Considering the Semi-Unilateral and nomadic settlement and the method of economic production based on animal husbandry in the early communities of the Central Zagros and the hills Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, it seems that based on the variety of mounds in type of material, quality of species, shape and size, these wool fibers They are mainly used for local use and trade outside the region to meet basic needs.
Keywords: Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, Typology, Spindle Whorl.

Introduction
Spindle Whorl is a cultural object and cultural material that is mainly made of stone, bone, wood, etc., which provides the first manifestations and old evidence from different stages of fabric production.
Analysis and typology of Spindle Whorls provide good information on how ancient tissues rotate, but it is necessary to establish a methodological typology of this type of ancient cultural finds. Type and packaging in type, shape and size provide an effective way to determine how yarns work. The shape, type and appearance of each yarn is directly related to the type of production, spinning. Therefore, the appearance and functional typologies of saddles are other ways of knowing the type of spinning and other stages of textile production. For example, the typology, shape and function of a highly effective method of the characteristics of the fibers produced and used and the final product produced from yarn or fibers (such as: wool, silk, fabric, etc.) are presented through rotation in the production of clothing. Gives. Among these, the “weight” of Spindle Whorls is considered as one of the most important factors determining the properties of production fibers. Among these, the “weight” of Spindle Whorls is considered as one of the most important factors determining the properties of production fibers. Finally, sawdust should be placed in significant categories that determine spinning and textile production, and these categories are based on the characteristics that determine the use of sawdust. Spindle Whorls discovered from the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe The most abundant cultural finds in the hills behind the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe after pottery are all kinds of Spindle Whorls. These chestnuts come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from circular and semi-circular to conical, all made of fine-grained clay and then heated. The Spindle Whorls of the hills behind the polished Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, in terms of simple appearance, is less decorated and less decorated. Alone and on some of them, a linear and crescent-shaped dimple (or a kind of sign and symbol) can be seen, which is apparently created with nails. The Spindle Whorl have a hole in the middle for the passage and the wooden handle to rotate. The central hole of the Spindle Whorl is usually made in such a way that it is narrower at one end to prevent the movement of the wooden rod that was placed in this hole. And the thread was twisted around it; However, some cases of Spindle Whorls have been obtained from this area that did not have holes. It seems that the process of making these Spindle Whorls is incomplete and due to the similarity of Spindle Whorls, they can not be classified as Token or counting objects. It should be noted that no stones were found on the slopes of the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe From all the new Neolithic stages to the Old Copper Age and the Stone Age of the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe, three main types of oval, pyramidal and conical shapes have been obtained. These Spindle Whorls do not have the desired construction quality in the lower layers (new Neolithic of phase c). Because it is deformed and rough in appearance, and in terms of cooking, it gets a little hot and a kind of raw hand can be seen in making them. With the development of higher stages and the age of copper and old stone, Spindle Whorls have advanced in terms of variety and quality in terms of construction and have gained high resistance.
These heads vary in weight. The lightest Spindle Whorls weigh about 5 grams and the heaviest Spindle Whorls discovered from this hill weigh about 160 grams. From this point of view, it can be said that the production of yarn and the use of fibers in this region also have a diameter. Produced from the thinnest yarn to the thickest. As mentioned, the weight and diameter of the saddle circle is the most important determining factor in the process of spinning and yarn production, which is one of the important features among Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe saddles. What can be said about the diameter and size of Spindle Whorls in this area? In order to increase the diameter of the rotating shaft with the light weight of the saddle, the hollow feature of the saddle has been used so that the weight of the saddle does not increase. This feature (in the emptiness of the saddles) is one of the examples of the ridges of Qalangap hill (Abdollahi and Sardari Zarchi Figure 14, 130: 1392) and Chaghamish... and Tal Bakun (Alizadeh 1382: 349, (Figure 9) is also considered and large and hollow Spindle Whorls are produced to produce the weight of thin fibers with high flexibility and elasticity.
Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe headboards are made in the simplest possible way in terms of decoration, and the least amount of decoration is seen in terms of design compared to other areas, and only a few examples of designs are created compactly (Figure 7). The simple-edged conical saddle, which is also one of the most common types of saddles, is similar to the conical specimens of the Tel Bakun, which in some cases have compact linear or circular shapes (Alizadeh 2004: 146 and 349)

Conclusion
Using a comprehensive comparative method, 123 Spindle Whorls obtained from a season of excavation at the Malayer Plain Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe were discussed in response to questions:
In response to the first question, in addition to a coherent typology, this type of cultural findings (based on compatibility with Spindle Whorl of Charo, Chaghamish, Tal Bakun and Qalagap regions) were identified in 6 species.
The heads of this region are divided into two main groups: convex (oval and two-sided pyramid) and conical (one-sided and cylindrical pyramid).
Each group is divided into two subgroups, carved and simple, and in terms of construction quality, they are in two groups, medium and rough.
All chests are made of clay with vegetable chamotte and in different sizes (2 to 5 cm and weighing 5 to 160 grams). Some heads have pressure patterns created by a sharp tool. Depending on the type of semi-resident settlement and the method of economic production based on herding (sheep and goats) in the early communities of Central Zagros and also the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe area due to the high volume of goat bones (due to jaws and horns) based on the variety of Spindle Whorls in this area In terms of shape, size and weight of the species, these Spindle Whorls are mostly used in fleece fibers.
Accordingly, heavy and long Spindle Whorls with high rotation axis are used to twist thick and long fibers (goat hair) and small short Spindle Whorls with low rotation axis are used to twist thin and short fibers (fleece) with different thicknesses. In this study, Spindle Whorls weight was considered as test variables on yarn diameter, yarn rupture and elasticity and yarn warp.
In response to the second question, considering the semi-monolithic location of the Poshteh-Forodgah Tepe based on various ash deposits to a depth of about 160 cm and the vertical migration approach of the communities present in it, it seems that most textile products are for endogenous use and sometimes for trade. It has been trans-regional in meeting basic needs.

Reza Reazlou, Esmaeil Marofi-Aghdam, Karim Hajizadeh, Behrooz Afkhami, Leyla Khani, Leyla Sarhadi,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
The present descriptive-analytical study and its findings are based on field and document studies, and examines and analyzes the tombstones of the Qajar period of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in Shiraz, and tries to study and understand the designs of the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz, their symbolic themes, and their traces of mythical and religious beliefs of each historical or cultural period. Studies on tombstones related to the Qajar era of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in Shiraz prove that these tombstones contain various designs of human, animal, plant, geometric, and inscriptions. In general, most of these motifs, while having special meanings and symbols, are influenced by the culture of the region, beliefs, and their temporal and spatial place. On the other hand, due to the predominance of nationalist thought in the Qajar period, the images of these tombstones show a continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid eras, which were created with a relatively different form and content. On the other hand, due to the predominance of nationalist thought in the Qajar period, the images of these tombstones show a continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid eras, which were created with a relatively different form and content.
Keywords: Shiraz, Daral-Salam Cemetery, Tombstone, Nationalism, Achaemenid, Sassanian.

Introduction
Fars province, like other regions of the Iranian plateau, has been inhabited by various groups and ethnic groups since ancient times, and in this regard, several cemeteries have been established to bury their dead. Dar al-Salam Shiraz is one of the seven old cemeteries in Shiraz that Moinuddin Abolghasem Junaid Shirazi mentioned in his book. There are tombstones from the early Islamic centuries to recent times, which indicate the importance of this cemetery. There are several designs on the tombstones of Dar al-Salam cemetery. Including human motifs, animal motifs, plant motifs, geometric motifs, calligraphy, and inscriptions. In general, discovering the meaning and concept of the designs created on tombstones and their symbolic nature can unify many of the forgotten secrets and points of regional and national history, art, and culture with more unity and meaning. In this regard, the present study examines and analyzes the tombstone motifs of Shiraz Dar al-Salam Cemetery, especially the tombstones of the Qajar period, and by examining them, in addition to identifying the created motifs and their symbolism, seeks to trace the motifs through periods and among the mythical beliefs and religions of past periods.
Research & Hypotheses Questions: 1- What are the designs of the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz and what are their symbolic themes? 2- The designs created on the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz shows which traces of mythical and religious beliefs of the historical or cultural period of Iran?
1. These tombstones contain various designs of human, animal, plant, geometric, and inscription images. In general, most of these motifs, while having special meanings and symbols, are influenced by the culture of the region, beliefs, and their temporal and spatial place. 2. Considering the predominance of nationalist thought in the Qajar period, the images of these tombstones show the continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid periods, which was created with a relatively different form and content.

Classification of Tombstones of the Qajar Period of Dar al-Salam Shiraz
In general, the images engraved on the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz, except lines and inscriptions, can be divided into a general category into the following groups: 1- Plant motifs, 2- Human motifs, 3- Animals and birds Motif, 4- Patterns of objects and geometric and abstract shapes

Conclusion
The study of the tombstones of the Qajar period of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in Shiraz proves that these tombstones have various designs, including anthropogenic images, animal, plant, geometric, calligraphy, and inscription. Studying the motifs of this group of works and examining the social, political, and religious situation of the Qajar era, shows that most of these motifs are symbolic and rooted in the history and culture of Iran and are influenced by the region’s culture, beliefs, and temporal and spatial position. Also, the images of these tombstones are a kind of continuation of the motifs of the Sassanid and Achaemenid periods, which have been created with a relatively different form and content. The motifs of cypress trees and lotus flowers are among the main paintings of Persepolis and the human images with lotus flowers in his hands, in a way reminiscent of the role of the Achaemenid kings in Persepolis and palace paintings. Sassanid monuments such as Bishapour Palace, which are among the first examples of images in Iran with a flower in hand. Horsemen and hunting scenes of animals such as lions, which are often seen on the tombstones of the Qajar period Dar al-Salam Dar al-Salam Shiraz; It has its roots in the history and culture of Iran, especially in the Persian region; Such patterns can be seen on Achaemenid seals found in Persepolis and other places, as well as on Sassanid gold and silver vessels. Finally, it should be acknowledged that among the reasons for creating these common themes between the tombstones of Dar al-Salam Shiraz and the remnants of ancient civilizations of Iran such as the Achaemenids and Sassanians, in addition to the rule of nationalist thought in the Qajar period and the influence of the Persian climate (from The cypress tree, which is one of the special trees and vegetation of the region and is found in abundance in the region (especially Shiraz), is the location of Dar al-Salam Cemetery in a place that was once the center of the rule of the Achaemenid and Sassanid states, which itself is the main The most influential factors on the thoughts of the people of the Qajar period and the continuity of the designs of the past.


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