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Showing 3 results for Rezalou

Reza Rezalou, Yahya Ayramloo,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
This site is located 60 km southwest of Khalkhal, in Shahrood plane, in Khalkhal city and 180 km south of Ardabil city. In May 2006, during the implementation of the road construction project in Khanghah village, the remains of several graves were revealed. From this date onwards, four seasons of Archaeological studies were conducted on this site. The first season was carried out in the same year, and graves 12, 19 and 25 were explored, among them a grave to the Iron Age I and the other graves belonged to the Iron Age II. The trench B was also explored in order to identify of more tombs. Following the excavation, graves 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 24 were discovered in this trench. According to studies on these graves, 2 graves belonged to the middle Bronze Age, 1 grave to the Iron Age I, 9 graves to the Iron Age II, and 4 graves belonged to the Parthian period. The second season was explored in 2007. In this season, the trench C with dimensions 10 x 10 m on the west side of the trench A and trench D with dimensions of 5 × 5 m along the trench B was explored. As a result, in this season, the remains of the 5 ancient graves were obtained; one of them belonged to the Parthian period, 1 grave to the Middle Bronze Age and three other graves to the Iron Age I. Four scientific explorations have been conducted in which the results of the first season are fully published. In this study, the graves of the Iron Age of the second season of this site are discussed. The comparisons, such as the results of the grave studies of the first season of the cemetery, show a cultural connection with the mid and late bronze Age sites and the Iron Age I and II, indicating a cultural sequence from the Middle Bronze Age to the late Iron Age II, which contrasts with the theory of cultural dynamism. So, the main hypothesis of this study, it is: Theory of cultural dynamism in Iron Age I, in this area isn’t correct. 
Keywords: Northwest of Iran, Ardabil Province, Gilavan Cemetery, Iron Age Burials.

Introduction
Gilavan cemetery is located northwest of Khanghah village and adjoined to it. In terms of archaeological findings, this cemetery is one of the most prominent sites in the north-west of Iran, because of the burial of the three archaeological periods of the middle Ages, the Iron Age and the Parthian period. Four scientific explorations have been conducted in which the results of the first season are fully published. In this study, the graves of the Iron Age of the second season of this site are discussed. During this season, 5 ancient graves were explored, identified by numbers 26, 27, 28, 29 and 31. Grave No. 29 dated to the middle bronze age, graves 26, 28, and 31 dates to the Iron Age I and 27 to the Parthian period. The graves of this cemetery were in the form of a hole in which burials were carried out in single and double burials. In the present study, gravels of the Iron Age of second season were qualitatively, descriptively-analytic and comparative approach, and compared with the effects of other burial grounds of the north-west and neighboring areas. The comparisons, such as the results of the grave studies of the first season of the cemetery, show a cultural connection with the mid and late bronze Age sites and the Iron Age I and II, indicating a cultural sequence from the Middle Bronze Age to the late Iron Age II, which contrasts with the theory of cultural dynamism. The studies of Gilavan cemetery are important because in this area, in the burial findings of the graves, we witness a cultural sequence from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age II. Such results are of particular importance to the studies of the Iron Age, as well as the theory of cultural dynamism in the late period of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, which some researchers believe it to be.

The tombs of Gilavan cemetery in this study
Tomb No. 26: This tomb is located in trench D, and in the northeast it, in a depth of -107 cm from bench mark. This tomb is from type of grave pit that after the burial from the rock has been used to highlighting the grave. This tomb has been belongs to man25 to 30 years old.
Tomb No. 28: This tomb is located in northwest corner of trench C, and highest level this tomb from the ground -149 cm. This tomb is from type of grave pit, and single burial. Tomb No. 28 has been belongs to female 25 to 30 years old. 
Tomb No. 31: This tomb is located in the northern part of trench C, and to form of double burial. Tomb No. 31 is from type of grave pit. 

Conclusion
The study of the graves of the Iron Age of this site indicates that there are many similarities in the burial findings of the northern-western areas of Iran during the bronze and iron period. In other words, the findings of this cemetery can be compared with the burial objects of many sites of the middle bronze, the late bronze and Iron Age I and II, and this represents a cultural sequence during a period to a period Another is in the north-west of Iran and even neighboring areas. It seems that many of the developments in the Iron Age region of Iran are rooted in the earlier period. Many of the forms and techniques of constructing objects represent a kind of evolved designs, and the subject matter that implies the emergence or sudden appearance of them is not visible.

Reza Rezalou, Yahya Ayremlou, Pasha Pashazadeh, Shima Azizi,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
Migrant Scythian tribes were occupied many parts of the Eurasia following a move to the West in the first millennium B.C. The Scythian people were among the last Aryan tribes who, after the migration of other indo-European tribes, emerged from their mainland (Southern Russia) at the end of the Eighth century, and dispersed in Northern Central and Southern Siberia, the North of the Caspian Sea and its Western boundary, in the vast plains of the Caucasus Mountains. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence area and cultural interactions of these ethnic groups in sixteen geographical zones of the Eurasia, from east to West. The present study in a historical method, with a qualitative approach and based on archaeological reports have studied dispersion of the Scythian type artifacts in the West Mongolia, Tuva region, the Altai region, Central Asia, Iran, South Caucasus, North Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Crimea, southern Ukraine and South-East Europe, Egypt, Greece, West Mediterranean, Central and Western Europe. Because of the extent of the study area, in this research has been tried to be mentioned to the main of the Scythian areas in the each zone and its materials, so that be shown a detailed view of the extent of this culture in Eurasia. The present research has been carried out according to these main questions: How is the extent area of the Scythian culture? What is the type of their materials in each of these areas? The results point to the vastness of this culture in a wide area of geography. The culture has been able to influence many cultural and geographical areas and attract the cultures of many tribes, in the short time. In many of the areas studied, there are similar findings from this culture.
Keywords: Eurasia, Scythian Tribes, Scythian Cultural, Scythian Burial.

Intrudoction
When a tribe enter to an alien land as an immigrant or an invader, it develops its culture as an effective factor over time. Although immigrant or invading peoples may not pursue such a goal, undeniable impacts and cultural relations, as a factor in stimulating such processes, will accelerate. They seek to dominate human resources in the every part of the world, and change the cultural, political, and social equations of the conquered regions and, after consolidating their presence, propagate purposely their culture. In the meantime, due to cultural interactions, the art of these immigrant or invading generations also affects. This impact has been associated with war in most cases, and the outcome of such a struggle is the creation of a cohesive culture in a wide range. The more these wars continue and wider, the greater the culture of dominant folk; in this process, the power of the invading force is a major factor. The generators of homogeneity in this area act in the most common and similar cases. In other words, the cultural attributes of a people in two distant geographic districts show similar characteristics. The development of the culture of the Scychian peoples in a widespread zone, and in a short time, has almost followed such a mechanism. Scythian people at the beginning of the first millennium B.C in their movement were to the west, Central Asia, North and South Caucasus, the north of the Black Sea, East Europe, Northwest of Iran, East Anatolia, Mesopotamia and the vicinity of Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea and they left their cultural features in these areas. In these movement they, they left many traces such as unique burials, special techniques for decorating ornamental objects. The course of the movement and how they deal with the ruling powers in these regions, including Urartu, Med, Mana and Asshur, in historical sources have been described.

Discussion
Basically, what is attributed to the Scythian people, is specific cultural material that specific to them. In terms of burial data, the horse has been a special place in the sacred burial ground, so that this can be seen in most of the ancient Scythian sites. In terms of burial data, the existence of objects such as triangular and flat iron and bronze arrowheads (often with a reverse barb) interesting cheekpieces with three holes in the middle of them for passage of rope that in most cases they end up with animals such as horses, eagles and rams, iron and bronze bits for harness, special styles for decorating objects (that known as animal styles, stickers and Other war material specifically) are show the art and culture of the Scythian peoples in Eurasia. The materials of the Scythian tripes have been found in the west of Mongolia from Beiram Kurgan: In Tuva region from Aimyrlig, Arglykty and Shurmak-Tei Kurgans; in Altai zone from Pazirik, Ust-Kuyum, Kurtu II and Katanda Kurgans; in central Asia the Scythian material have been found from Tasmola, Chilikta valley, Irtysh, Alakul, Uigarak and Tagisken Kurgans. in Iran have been found from Khoram Abad cemetery, in the south of Caucasus from Kar Mirblur, Musa Yeri, Chitan Dagh, in the north of Caucasus from Kelermess, Kostromaskaya, Ulski, Voronezhskaya, Ust-Labinskaya and Elizavetovskaya, in Mesopotamia from Assur, Musel, Karkmish and Al Mina. Also, the materials of the Scythian tripes have been in Asia Minor from Alaja Huyuk, Kernes dagh, Pazarli, Yazili Kaya, Gurdion and Hesarlik, in Krimeh from Temir-Gora, Perekop Isthmus, Talayevskii, Bosporus, Zolotoi, in the south of Ukrain and southeast of Europ from Elizavetinskaya, Chertomlyk, Solokha, Melitopol and Gaimanova mogila Kurgans, in Egypt from Tel Defaneh, Nakratis, Elfantin, Teps, in Greece from Aten, Atika, Delfi and Missen, in central Europ from Zwolaki, Zakrzow, Chelm, Morawy, Miyniec and Villach sites, in the west of Mediterranean from Megara Hibela, Katania and Motye sites and in the west of Europ from Brussels and France.

Conclosion
The remarkable expansion of the culture of the Scythian peoples over a wide geographical range during the few hundred years has made it one of the rarest ancient cultures. These nomadic peoples (wherever they could) have been left their cultural influence. In the areas where they entered, the most important work of their ancestors, the magnificent burials, is reminiscent, and in other areas, under their influence, the Scythian culture in the artistic objects of manifestation has been transported from the land to another country. So, the extent of damage to the their culture have been in east area Mongolia, in west with France in Europe, in north with Russia, and the southernmost part in Shush and Marvdasht.

Afrasiab Garavand, Reza Rezalou,
year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
The audience of every work of art is willing to receive its meaning, and the exact recognition of an image or image for its meaning and content requires reading and even interpretation, and iconography is essentially trying to express the meaning of the image.  In visual arts, a symbol is an image, a plant, an animal, or a sign that has a deeper meaning than what is seen. It is often not easy for us to get the meaning and interpretation of the symbols of the past centuries. Occasionally, symbols refer to an event or story, and a group of symbols replaces personalities and individuals. In this regard, the monastery of the Ghareh Kelisa is one of the most important Armenian churches in Iran, located in the northeastern part of Chaldoran. Throughout the northern and southern walls of the church, as well as the bell tower, it has unique and unique carvings. Sculptures This monument can be divided into five categories, including: human designs, animal motifs, plant designs, geometric patterns and mythological motifs. The designs are beautifully crafted, crafted, and beautifully crafted by experienced and experienced craftsmen, and the artist’s creative, abstract, decorative look is best illustrated in all designs and each role is a special symbol and symbol. Among the paintings of the Ghareh Kelisa, the role of animals is more than other motifs, both due to the variety of animal species in the surroundings and the symmetry of many animals such as milk, ram, cow, horse, etc. These motifs have no merely decorative aspect and offer higher meanings and concepts, and are one of the most diverse symbolism for symbolic aspects. In this article, it has been attempted to introduce and interpret the animal designs of this monument.
Keywords: Chaldoran, Ghareh Kelisa, Animal Figures, Symbols.

Introduction
Some ancient works bear the institutional values and messages that are embodied in the form of artwork and in the form of their roles based on the beliefs and beliefs of the ancient human body, and to understand the meaning of these ancient designs, one needs to know the symbolic components. That once, because the verbal language had a certain meaning in ancient cultures and somehow represented a mythical belief (Rafi Farr and Malek, 2014: 7). The motifs used in Iranian art from late to present, have always included symbolic meanings in addition to its decorative and aesthetic aspects (Sabagh pour and Shayestefar, 2010: 31).
The role of the elements in the art of Iran has been bearing the concepts and themes of interest of the people of different ages, and the continuation of their design reveals the visual changes of each period. One of the most important paintings that has always been considered in Iran and even continued with the change of religion is artifacts arranged in various arts (Mortezaei and Sedaghatzadeh, 2013: 47). 
In this regard, the construction of the Ghareh Kelisa is one of the most important and most representative Armenian churches in Iran, located in the northeast of Chaldoran. Throughout the northern and southern walls of the church, as well as the bell tower, it has unique and unique carvings. Sculptures This monument can be divided into five categories, including: human designs, animal motifs, plant designs, geometric patterns and mythical motifs. These designs are carved by artist and experience mastermanship with elegance, flair and beauty, and each role is a symbol and symbol.
 the Ghareh Kelisa sculptures actually reflect the culture and the arts, beliefs, cultural and social relations of ancient societies and have a special place in various studies and researches, especially archeology and anthropology. In this essay, it attempts to introduce and interpret the animal designs of this monument.

Ghareh Kelisa Animal Characters and Their Symbolism
Animal statues are one of the oldest paintings man has made in his works. These motifs in Iranian art (like other designs) were not merely decorative, but sometimes expressing hope, fear, or resort to a force to fight the dangers of nature and life, and sometimes express religious beliefs and myths. The same values and special expressions sometimes transformed motifs into symbolic and symbolic symbols that used them as a message transmission during the course of history (Khazaee and Samavaki, 2003: 8). Animal designs, including roles that have been dominant and frequent in many ancient civilizations, including Iran. Cassirer believes that in the course of the worship of primitive human beings, we see that a human beast has become and worships animals, such as worshiping a variety of phenomena and things encountered in its surroundings, and Kasier is referred to as gods It commemorates a moment and, through this worship, leads to functional gods (based on their interests and their function in life) (Kasier, 2012: 75-76).
In this regard, the structure of the Ghareh Kelisa, consisting of two parts of the eastern (black) and western (white), the eastern or black part, which is the oldest part of the building, does not have much role and only in the part of the side Northeastern and southern skylights are cross-linked and surrounded by chainsaws. But the western part (white) of the Ghareh Kelisa is divided into 5 rows by stripes of simple profile, which can be categorized into five groups: human designs, animal drawings, plant designs, geometric patterns and mythological motifs.
Most of the sculptures in the third row have been carved into the third row. These motifs are the ones directly hunted by humans or in some way related to the subject of predation and daily routine of hunters, or rooted in past religions, and most of the beliefs are that these images are abundantly and the numbers can be distinguished in the following order.
 

Conclusion
In the meantime, the archeology of Iran’s religious architecture, and in particular the  Ghareh Kelisa of God, is a rich treasure of motifs that, in addition to values and beauties, expresses the secret and need for cultural and religious secrets in themselves. This role of the motifs due to the deep roots in Iranian culture expresses the noble concepts that have remained in popular belief in the form of visual arts in simple and prolonged forms. 
Among the paintings of the Ghareh Kelisa, the role of animals is more than other motifs, both due to the variety of animal species in the surroundings and the symmetry of many animals such as milk, ram, cow, horse, etc. These motifs are associated with the continuation of some ancient Iranian art traditions and is one of the most important interconnected circles of Iranian art before and after Islam. Drawing Animals in a Dynamic Mode, Variety in the Size of Animals; Small, Large in Nature; Attention to Exposure; Increasing Naturalism; Variety in the Design of the Foot, Eye, Horn, Head and Neck, Wings and Body; Characteristics of Animal Drawings The Ghareh Kelisa is the artist’s most abstract, creative, decorative look, best illustrated in all designs, and each role is a special symbol and symbol.


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