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Showing 3 results for Khamseh

Zahra Pourshabanian, Mohammad Mortezaei, Hayedeh Khamseh,
year 2, Issue 5 (12-2018)

Hamadan great mosque, the oldest mosque in the old urban context, is located between the city market and the central square. This prominent mosque belongs to the early Islamic centuries, which has been rebuilt during various periods, especially the Safavid and Qajar periods, but isn’t remains of the ancient structure of the mosque, and the current structure belongs to the Qajar period. Despite the general features of this work, the shape of the mosque building has a great impact on bringing the building in line with the climate. Now the question arises to what extent has the region’s climate been able to influence the process of mosque formation?  And to what extent does climate modeling ensure the durability of the mosque’s structure? Based on the above questions, the purpose of the present study is to introduce and analyze architecture of great mosque by using descriptive-analytical method and relying on study resources and field studies to provide answers to the questions raised. The result of such a study can be seen in influencing the architectural features of the mosque from the region’s climate; this work, in addition to its religious function, the location of the mosque and its location along the main market of the city, has led the mosque to play an important role. According to the architectural structure of the mosque, the major developments in the building are related to the Qajar and contemporary periods; the structure of the columns of the nave of the mosque, It has a dome, minaret and sangab, and is the only example of a dome mosque of historical value in the urban context of Hamadan.
Keyword: Hamedan, Great Mosque, Architecture, Climate.

Hamadan great mosque has always been one of the most important historical, architectural and archeological studies in Hamadan. About change, development and restoration carried out in the Mosque of historical, geographical and social remained critical of the Islamic period. Which can sometimes be compared with evidence in the current structure of the mosque, and sometimes little archaeological evidence suggests that parts of the building existed in the past. As it comes from historical sources, the core of the structure of the Hamadan mosque dates back to the Early Islamic period, which has been repaired and added to over the course of the following centuries (Hojbari, 2006). In addition to the religious function, the location of the mosque and its location along the main market of the city have led the great to play an important role in shaping the design and layout of the city (Mehriar et al., 1999: 54). Due to the architectural structure of the mosque, the major developments in the building are related to the Qajar and contemporary periods. The structure of the mosque is subordinate to the pillar-shaped hall, has a dome, a goldsmith and a Sangab, and is the only example of a dome mosque in the urban context of Hamadan. Structural features and climatic principles governing the structure of the mosque led the author to fully describe the architectural structure of the mosque of Hamedan in a descriptive-analytical way.  Undoubtedly, this method of analysis can greatly eliminate the gaps in the study of structural, decorative, and climate change in the structure of the mosque. Based on the aforementioned approach and based on geographical, historical and architectural texts, a comprehensive and complete analysis of the mosque’s location and its architectural and structural analysis is obtained. Therefore, in this study raised the following questions: What extent the climate of the region has been able to influence the process of mosque formation? And to what extent does climate modeling ensure the durability of the mosque’s structure? 
Great Mosque
The square-rectangular square-plan mosque is incomplete, with a rectangular courtyard spanning three porches in the South, East and North, several bedrooms, a brick-covered dome, a dome, six minarets and several chambers.  The building under consideration from the perspective of construction and architecture from several different and interrelated parts such: Entrance, Vestibule, Courtyard, Ivan, Chambers, and the hall is formed around. The main entrance of the mosque has been West and market in the past, but with the creation of new buildings and a new entrance on the North side of “Ekbatan Street” the main entrance has been moved to this direction. The old mosque entrance to the market can be accessed through a vestibule to various parts of the mosque. Another entrance to the mosque is on the Southeast side of the market through a corridor. The courtyard of the mosque has a large pond in the middle, porches, chambers and halls around, the courtyard is about 2 meters below the adjacent alleys. The South porch of the courtyard has two shallow arches that have two short and thick minarets on top of this porch. Behind the porch is the dome space of the mosque, which, along with the porch, forms the core of the old mosque, with an altar built on the South side. The dome is of two-shell type and is of architectural suitability; the dome leads to the columned bed sheets through the side porches; on the West side of the dome is a mosque with proportional stone columns that access the courtyard and dome through the entrances. On the West side of the courtyard and adjacent to the aforementioned nightclub is another columned hall, opposite the South porch and on the other side of the porch aisle and bed sheets in a new way with flat cover built on top of the middle porch of the two minarets, which is an extension of the recent period, the porch overlooking the new mosque on Ekbatan Street also has two minarets (Molazadeh and Mohammadi, 2000: 243-244).  

Designers of Hamedan great Mosque have applied techniques to adapt to the climatic conditions of the cold foothills, a major problem in these areas is winter cold. Therefore preventing heat dissipation in different parts of the building is a top priority for designers (Tahebaz and Jalilian, 2011: 63). The plan of the mosque is a square-rectangular mosque that is integrated with the surrounding area and the mosque building is adjacent to the adjacent buildings, which also helps maintain the heat inside the mosque as well as the adjacent buildings (Pourshabanian, 1397: 67). The mosque has a central courtyard with a low infrastructure compared to the entire mosque. Part of the body of the mosque is submerged in the ground due to the lower level of its adjacent street texture, leading to greater vulnerability of various parts of the building to moisture(Ibid: 47-48). And besides the beauty of the building materials, it is also damaged (Ibrahimzadeh, 2015, 2: 796).  

Atefeh Rasouli, Alireza Hejebri-Nobari, Haeideh Khamseh,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)

In explaining Iron Age archeology, the study of metal artifacts is of particular importance because of the hidden technical values. The study of metalworking methods enhances our understanding of the industrial centers of metallurgy, stylistics, and available mines. The purpose of this study is to identify the methods of construction and elemental analysis of “ornaments” discovered from “Iron Age” sites in northwestern Iran, using metallographic experiments and an SEM-EDS elemental analysis device. In the Iron Age, the making of metal objects, especially those with many ornaments, flourished. Therefore, knowing the manufacturing methods and the type of alloy used in them is one of the essentials of this research. This research responds to the question, what methods used to make the discovered ornaments from the Iron Age sites in the northwest? Or what were the most used elements in the construction of these objects? In these areas, the current research hypothesis is that most of the “ornaments” made by hot hammering and casting methods and have a large amount of tin in their structure, which uses for greater strength and flexibility of copper and tin (bronze) alloys. In this study, several samples of ornaments discovered from Iron Age sites in northwestern Iran, which were geographically very close to each other, were tested by metallography and elemental analysis. In this experiment, using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an SEM-EDS element analyzer, making these metal objects and their constituent elements were determined. This study shows that the main methods of making these metal objects have been hot hammering, but those objects that had a large volume made using the casting method. Also, the most used element to increase the strength and flexibility of objects is the element of tin. 
Keywords: Iron Age, Northwest of Iran, Bronze Objects, Metallography, SEM-EDS.

In the Iron Age areas of the northwest, metalworking was done at an advanced level. The expansion of the tradition of metalworking in the northwest can be seen in other Iron Age areas of Iran. (Talaei, 2001:77-83) One of the reasons for the development of metalworking in the Iron Age areas of northwestern Iran has been the abundance of copper and iron ore mines in this region. During the excavations of the Hasanlu area in the south of Lake Urmia, founded a large number of iron and bronze objects. The large volume of metal objects discovered in the Hasanlu area indicates the prevalence of metalwork in this region of the Iranian plateau. (Pigott, 1989: 67-79) According to the studies, the residents of Hasanlu have supplied their required copper ore and iron ore from the mines that probably existed around this area. The development of metalworking art in this region, in addition to the existence of metal mines and fuel reserves, has been the development of furnaces and metal smelting molds, which in some Iron Age sites such as Hasanlu, obtained a large number of these metal smelting molds. The main reasons for the development of technology and style of metal products in northwestern Iran in the Iron Age could have been powerful governments such as Urartians and Manas. (Aliun and Sadraei, 2011) They were skilled metalworkers in the vicinity of Iron Age sites. One of the signs of this effect is discovering a bronze bracelet discovered in the Toul Talesh cemetery in northern Iran, which shows the expansion of Urartian territory in this region. There is a Urartian cuneiform inscription on it. This inscription shows that Argishti II, King of Urartu, gave this bracelet to Khaledi God. This person could have been a prince or a military person. (Tahmasebi and Masoudi Nia, 2015) The main issue of this research is to know the construction methods and the constituent elements of the jewelry discovered from the northwestern region of Iran. In the Iron Age, especially the Seldouz valley, these sites are primarily located in the Seldoz Valley and are geographically very close to each other, which can help understand the methods of construction and elemental analysis of the metal samples tested. The present research has been done by analytical-experimental method and based on scientific and laboratory studies. The purpose of this study is to identify the methods of construction and elemental analysis of “ornaments” discovered from “Iron Age” sites in northwestern Iran, using metallographic experiments and an SEM-EDS elemental analysis device. This research responds to the question, what methods used to make the discovered ornaments from the Iron Age sites in the northwest? Or what were the most used elements in the construction of these objects? In these areas, the current research hypothesis is that most of the “ornaments” made by hot hammering and casting methods and have a large amount of tin in their structure, which uses for greater strength and flexibility of copper and tin (bronze) alloys.

Materials and Methods 
In this research, the first eight metal samples from different Iron Age sites in northwestern Iran were collected through the reservoir of the National Museum of Tehran and sampled in the same place, and then sent to the Materials and Metallurgy Laboratory of the Sharif University of Technology for metallographic testing.

Laboratory analysis and elemental analysis of metal samples using the SEM-EDS method show that a small amount of arsenic was founded in the alloy composition of the samples Because most copper metal ores before extraction and smelting contain amounts of arsenic. Therefore, there is a possibility of the unintentional existence of arsenic in the composition of these metals. Another element that a large percentage obtained in the composition of these metal samples is tin. Metallographic images of the ML-98-7 and ML-98-8 specimens show that these two specimens have a branched or dendritic structure in their body and are made by casting. Also, tiny cracks on the metallographic images of ML-98-2-ML-98-3 and ML-98-6 samples formed due to stress and fatigue caused by continuous hammering work on these metal works. The dark spots seen in most of these microscopic images indicate oxygen, carbon, and a lack of copper and tin, which have caused corrosion and sulfidation of these metal objects.

The results from the images obtained by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an SEM-EDS device found that the metal samples have a relatively large amount of tin. A small percentage of arsenic found in the metal samples tested. Considering the amount of arsenic in these samples can be concluded that metalworkers of this period may not have noticed the harms of using arsenic at that time and therefore used this element to improve the properties of bronze alloy. Ancient metalworkers used tin, arsenic, and antimony elements in the composition of bronze alloys to increase the hardness of the work. The items in the category of jewelry need to pay more to get the right shape. Another possibility is the unintentional presence of arsenic. The presence of large amounts of tin in these samples indicates that arsenic may have been naturally present in copper ores and Ancient metalworkers used tin to lower the melting point of copper and increase its strength and flexibility. Microscopic studies of bronze objects show that many copper sulfide compounds are present in metal samples. The presence of copper sulfide inclusions dispersed on the surface of the metal matrix and stretched in the longitudinal direction of the microstructure of ancient copper alloys may indicate the use of oxide ores along with some copper sulfide ores for extraction. Most of the ornaments found in the northwestern Iron Age sites, such as bracelets and collars, were made by hot hammering, subsequent hammering or forging, and objects with larger volumes and decorations molded by casting. In general, the objects discovered from the Iron Age sites in the northwest, especially the Hassanlou site, are more complex in terms of technique and construction style than the Iron Age sites in other parts of Iran, where existed local and indigenous governments. This issue has been due to the proximity of northwestern Iran to powerful governments such as Urartu and Manna.

Abdol Reza Mohajerinejad, Kamal Aldin Niknami, Haydeh Khamseh,
year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022)

Among the collection of findings from the archeological excavations of the Iron Age cemetery of Lefour, in Savadkuh, there is an engraved a two-humped camel on a bronze belt buckle, skillfully made through molding method. According to the studies of physical anthropology, in terms of morphology of the skulls, it shows that the excavated dead bodies were different from the previous inhabitants, and the grave goods also indicate they were cattle breeders and nomads. The most prominent object found is a bronze belt buckle with the engraving of a western two-humped camel on it; this animal is definitely not native to the southern region of the Caspian Sea, and may belong to the plains of Central Asia; the southernmost habitat of this type of camel is in the north of Gorgan plain and in the south of Turkmenistan. In the Achaemenid period, two-humped camel is also shown with groups of gift givers who came from Central Asia and the east of the Caspian Sea. In the memorial stone carvings of Shalmaneser III, the King of Assyrians, there are also people carrying two-humped camels, along with the inscriptions seem to be belonged to a far distant country in the east. The most important questions in this study are: Were the human remains found in this cemetery are native or migrated from other areas? Whether the obtained grave inputs were made on site or imported, and to what extent were they influenced by the artistic and industrial techniques from near or far areas? And is it possible to reconstruct the migration route of these groups in the fertile and foothill areas of Mazandaran by studying the findings of this research? In this article, in addition to comparing the form and nature of the bronze belt buckle with other findings of Lefour Cemetery, the authors analyze and interpret it regarding historical documents and sources to provide more accurate answer to the questions. The result of the research reveals that this object was produced in another place and entered the region through immigrants.
Keywords: Iron Age, Bronze Belt Buckle, Lefour Cemetery, Savadkuh.

The study and interpretation of the cultural characteristics of past societies and the study of the evolution of cultures based on the cultural relics left by these societies constitute the main framework of archaeological studies, the most important evidence in this regard is material and tangible effects. It is complex and difficult to know more accurately the cultural relics of past societies by relying on purely material evidence. The deep connection of religious beliefs with social customs and economic activities is one of the characteristics of past cultures. Therefore, one of the most important sources for understanding the religions, culture and functions of its predecessors is the study of ancient formulations and cultural materials. In this method, researchers usually consider one or more formative features such as objects placed inside the grave, adaptation of the grave or the general plan and location of the cemetery, and then, based on that class or social status of the buried people, adapt to the form, and compare the nature of objects. Despite the importance of accurate and scientific analysis of objects and graves from the Iron Age to explain religious beliefs, no independent research has been done so far. 
Research Question: The most important question that arise as a result of the two chapters of excavation of Lefour Cemetery is that according to anthropological studies  and comparison of ancient date, the graves of the deceased were relatives who migrated to this place from other areas and due to the similarity of form and was the nature of the particular object in question imported? And to what extent has it been industrial practices from near and far?
Research Method: In archaeological research, in addition to printing and disseminating data from field activities of an area, it is possible to analyze and compare the form and nature of an object with the data of regional and supra-regional sites to analyze the origin of a culture. In this article, focusing on the role of the bipedal camel on the bronze belt discovered from data from the Iron Age, Lefour and the similarity of this or that with the role of the western camel of the Persepolis donors, as well as the memorial stone of Shalmanser III it reinforces the hypothesis that it was intended to be imported and that its origin was in east and north of the Gorgan and Turkmenistan plains. 

Belt buckle with the Motiv of Balkhi Camel
The most prominent object of this burial was a unique Bronze belt buckle with the image of a Balkhi bipedal camel, and it is made by casting and embossing method and is reminiscent of desert and arid regions of the east of the Caspian Sea and the steppes of Central Asia

The plain and mountainous regions of the south of the Caspian Sea due to their suitable biological and climatic conditions are very important in studying the settlements of the Bronze and Iron Ages, but unfortunately no independent and complete research has been done on the origin and end of this period. It is done on a case-by-case basis and separately from each other in terms of time and place. Leford Savadkuh Cemetery is no exception. Regarding Leford Cemetery, it should be noted that according to the knowledge of cemeteries and settlements in the center of Mazandaran, it is clear that the cemeteries of nomads in mountainous area, unlike the plains, are often small and limited, and each cemetery probably belonged to a specific group or tribe. The nomads, whose main occupation was herding, spent most of their time in the highlands, migrating animals from one place to another in search of pastures throughout the year and the works obtained also show that in this sense it is economics and small works have on animal husbandry.

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