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Showing 2 results for Izadi

Arezoo Izadi, Shahriar Nasekhian, Mahmoud Mohammadi,
year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019)

Sustainable regeneration is an approach whose objective is to improve the economic, social and physical state of the historic environment and it is an approach which is familiar in the field of conservation and heritage protection. Documents and statements of this approach have been restored since the 1990s. Many studies have been done on this topic. Each of them proposes principles for the realization of regeneration but until now, none of them has provided comprehensive view in urban sustainable regeneration. This research aim is Explaining of the conceptual framework for sustainable regeneration of historical fabric. The Methodology of this research is functional on objective and content analysis in method. Analyses, comparison and summation are used in this paper. The conceptual framework is explained by analyses of documents, statements, charter and previous research. The zone of this research is all of the historical fabrics. In this research, regeneration of historical fabric is defined in 4 dimensions: economic, social, management and cultural. Property value, private investment and branding are Economic scales in Sustainable regeneration of historical fabric. Resource supply, Sustainable urban management, Citizen Participation and promoting the level of knowledge and awareness of society from historical fabrics are Sustainable regeneration in the field of management. Social status, social identity, Social capital and Social Security are social scales in Sustainable regeneration. Cultural scales in Sustainable regeneration are creative industries, cultural neighborhoods and Cultural events. So, this research seems necessary because of the attention to the dimensions and criteria of sustainable regeneration of historical fabrics. The aim of the present is to explain a conceptual framework for sustainable regeneration of historical fabric.
Keywords: Historical Fabric, Regeneration, Urban Sustainable Regeneration, Urban Regeneration Documents.

Historical fabrics face a variety of problems today, such as Exiting residents from area, Existence. Low-income people in it, and the imposition of high costs to conservation these areas. Experience shows that applying a single-dimensional model in the urban system in which historical fabrics is located, generally leads to serious problems. Therefore, when making a model, it is vitally important to take various aspects of the issue into consideration including economic, social, cultural, demographic, and management indexes. Accordingly, one of the most recent approaches dealing with historical fabrics in urban planning, is urban regeneration approach. This approach was originally emerged from the principles raised in sustainable development and from the growing importance of the participation of relevant groups in the process of urban planning. One of the salient features of urban regeneration approach is that it simultaneously takes into consideration social, economic, cultural and management indexes in historical fabrics. In similar studies previously done by other researchers, certain factors were suggested to realize sustainable regeneration. However, no integrated model has been so far suggested to comprehensive attention of historical fabrics. In this research, in order to provide a model for the dimension of social sustainability. So, this research seems necessary because of the attention to the dimensions and criteria of sustainable regeneration of historical fabrics. The aim of the present is to explain a conceptual framework for sustainable regeneration of historical fabric.
Text of paper
Regeneration approach focuses on improving economic, social, and environmental conditions of the city. It covers a wide range of activities which makes deserted regions, worn-out buildings and those being reconstructed, habitable again. Regeneration, broadly speaking, is meant to improve the general conditions of city and citizens (Hull, 2000: 77). Different definitions of sustainable regeneration indicate that this approach focuses on improving economic, social, cultural, environmental and physical conditions.
Economic in historical fabric’s regeneration: To English Heritage (2008), the main purpose of regeneration historical fabrics is to make the productivity of the place. It provides return of fund for owners or developers. So, it provides income for conservation and preservation of historical buildings and fabrics. 
Management in historical fabric’s regeneration: The preservation of historical contexts does not make without the presence of the people. So, attracting and creating the necessary context for people’s presence requires management tools.
Social in historical fabric’s regeneration:  To Assefa and Frostell (2007), although all principles of sustainable development are involved in regeneration, it is the recently-poised issue of “social sustainability” which is the main topic in sustainable places. While it has been suggested that the final goal of development is social sustainability, economic and environmental sustainability are also two pivotal tools by which sustainable development is reached.
Culture in historical fabric’s regeneration: To pour Ahmad et al (2010), the most important aspects of this approach are the attention to the role of culture, the use of historical and cultural values as resources for development and the leisure time of the people.
Regarding the dimensions of the historical fabrics’ regeneration approach, this study categorized the regeneration variables into four economic, managerial, social and cultural dimensions. To this end, major document and charters released since 1990s, when the idea of urban regeneration started to emerge, and studies related to this subject were examined.

In this study, the criteria for sustainable regeneration of historical fabric were identified with reference to documents, statements and charters and previous researches. The results of the study have introduced criteria in four economic, managerial, social and cultural dimensions for sustainable regeneration of historical fabric. Economic value, private investment, and branding are criteria of the economic dimension of sustainable regeneration of the historical fabric. Criteria for management of historical fabric have been introduced such as resource preparation, sustainable urban management, citizen participation, and the development of knowledge and awareness. Social capital, social security, social status, and social identity were defined as dimensions of social dimension in regeneration. Creative industries, cultural neighborhoods and cultural events are criteria for cultural regeneration of historical fabrics. The table below shows the sustainable regeneration criteria of historical fabrics.

Nasim Asgari, Shahriyar Nasekhian, Mohammad Saied Izadi,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)

The landscape formed by the holy places of the pilgrimage cities is considered a central element in recognizing their physical and semantic indicators. These landscapes unite their affiliated religious rituals and ceremonies in a useful framework while developing an integrated whole in temporal and spatial aspects. The spirit of these landscapes is the human soul. Therefore, what causes disruption and chaos in this relationship disrupts the authenticity of these holy places and the integration of their immediate fabrics and will have undeniable negative effects on the pilgrimage. Since the residents have always considered these spaces, pilgrims, and even tourists, their written and illustrated documents can be examined to represent the subjective and objective aspects of the mentioned landscapes. In this regard, by raising the question, what aspects have the physical and semantic structure of the stated landscapes included throughout the past ages? The current research aimed to find the apparent and latent aspects of this subject to represent the central features of the landscape of the pilgrimage cities of Shiite religion and the role of their holy shrines. To this end, the derivation approach was selected based on inferential-historical and thematic analysis methods, and the texts and images of 29 travelogues reported in the interval of 6th to 14th AH were studied. The findings indicate that as symbols and indications of the pilgrimage city and individual and unique in their surrounding area while having an integrated cohesion in the natural context of the city, the stated places arranged the landscape in the form of a united complex, including all the relations, events, and its related local customs and rituals. The result shows that the sacred landscape of these places was a semantic network and a series of tangible and intangible values and elements requiring increasing attention to conserve their visual sanctity zone and review the current plans and measures. 
Keywords: Sacred Place, Ritual Landscape, Pilgrimage Landscape, Sacred Landscape, Visual Sanctity Zone.

Religious landscapes reflect ritual beliefs and thoughts, and the sacred landscape of a pilgrimage city is considered its inseparable element. The sacred places create privileging landscapes in the urban landscape and, as a known indication, contribute to determining the cultural changes of their related historical-geographical fabrics. However, nowadays, claiming the uniqueness of these places due to having prominent spiritual values and deep religious roots in the related culture and religion, the visual sanctity zone of these cultural properties has faced numerous irregularities and disorders. The conservation of the visual sanctity and the landscapes formed by these places will significantly affect the organization of the mental image of their audiences to recognize them besides its significant role in protecting the authenticity and identity of its affiliated cities. Thus, according to the stated necessity, by raising the question, what aspects have the stated landscapes included in the interval of 6th AH to the early 14th AH? the current research aims to represent the central and influential indicators in the structure of the scared landscapes of the Shiite pilgrimage cities through which it can obtain rethinking and developing the practical principles in the plans.
It is noteworthy that the main focus of any previous research was not on the sacred landscape of the famous pilgrimage cities of Shiite religion, and the current study analyzed the narrations of the travelogues from a new perspective. Since the current research had a qualitative-interpretive paradigm based on the analytical induction and required analyzing the text and illustrated data, the applied method was the historical-inferential and thematic analysis method.

A landscape can include the cultural history of a place with legibility capability and message, and since the effect of the belief insights and religious beliefs is obvious thereon, it is considered a religious landscape. Primarily, this landscape includes all the cultural and social activities in its related religious area, and then, it is considered an area of the civil and structural territory of a city. Beliefs related to the spaces formed by the previous two areas, the scale and how it is related to a particular place, a region, or the integrity of a city according to the worldview system that governs it, are manifested and in concepts and titles such as “ritual landscape”, The “pilgrimage landscape” and the “sacred landscape.”
A sacred landscape of a pilgrimage city cannot be perceived correctly, disregarding how the sacred places play a role in its prospect. In other words, the indications of the spatial separation between the holy shrines and their surrounding and external spaces are considered the elements of the sacred landscape. For instance, in Khorasan Travelogue, while mentioning a place in the suburb of Mashhad called “Tappeh Salam”, Houtum-Schindler states that “Mashhad city with its sacred dome of Imam can be seen from this hill”.
Thus, the observation, imagination, and even thinking about how these landscapes were created varies based on people’s worldviews.
Considering the abovementioned and based on the narrations recorded by the travelers, it can be deduced that the sacred landscape was one of the central bases of travel writers’ subjective structure map so that it began from the historical core of the city, which included the shrine and its surrounding areas and extended to the suburb. Their first descriptions before reaching the entrance of the city were the description and explanation of a landscape that indicated the religious and pilgrimage identity of that city, and can be divided into two main groups as follows:
1. Representing the visible and tangible structures of the holy shrines and their immediate surroundings,
2. Expressing the intangible and latent aspects of their affiliated landscapes. 
Others indicate the importance of a sacred place as a focal landmark and valuable element of the pilgrimage city that all the visual attention led to that. The integration with the natural elements is one of the cases that extended to these places’ core and internal zones.
The extracted propositions indicate that the interaction of the religious values, natural context, and the residential fabric neighboring the holy shrines with a network of the cultural systems, such as pilgrimage behaviors, local beliefs, and customs, human interactions, Etc., formed an integrated network of communications besides the sacred place as the central core the results of which was the formation of the integrated sacred landscape in the physical structure of the pilgrimage city.

The obtained result shows that the sacred landscapes of the stated holy places included a perfect and homogenous complex in the aesthetics background role and displayed a multifaceted manifestation for the viewers’ thought and perceptions like a communicative-social system. In other words, these scenes are a manifestation of the coexistence and synonymy of structural-semantic elements in the observer’s mind so that the hole formed in their dependent context represents the importance of the quiddity of the holy shrines.
Therefore, the values of the sacred landscape and its related meaning were entirely dependent on the cultural aspect of a context, which has been integrated with traditions, rituals, and beliefs over time. It is related to a relationship between the human, sacred place, and immediate environment. These landscapes were related to the sense of a metaphysical presence and lived through the religious symbols and rituals, such as pilgrimage, because the feelings experienced by the pilgrims and viewers, such as travel writers in the current research, were under the influence of a set of features of the sacred shrine. The high visual quality that integrated the sense of place and sense of sanctity zone surprisingly in the audience is proved by the high visual quality that integrated the sense of place and sense of sanctity zone. Therefore, it can be concluded that these landscapes indicate the attributes, context, and background of the holy shrines. Thus, one cannot disregard the two-way and inseparable relationship between two tangible and intangible cases linked with their related landscapes in today’s development plans of these places.  

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فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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