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Showing 1 results for Farhani

Ali Farhani, Hassan Karimian,
year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022)
Abstract

Abstract
Castles are one of the most amazing innovations of Iranians in the field of architecture and one of the most numerous remnants of the past. These buildings, which have been formed in most areas with the aim of securing the inhabitants of this land, have been developed and developed with the passage of time and in accordance with the existing needs and according to the construction location, performance and objectives of its builders. the two main types of plain and mountain castles, mountain castles, commonly known as fortresses, have a more diverse space organization and form and its construction location determines the type of its map. Tehran province is one of the regions that due to its special geographical location and located in the path of highways connecting the central areas of the country with other parts of the country, as well as the existence of the ancient and historical city of Ray, which was at some point in the history of the Capital of Iran, countless castles can be searched in its plains and mountains. field studies of authors, a considerable number of these castles were identified, some of which are based on alborz heights overlooking tehran plain. Therefore, determining the spatial organization, form and function of these castles is the subject of research and its results are presented in this paper. In achieving this goal, answering questions about spatial and temporal distribution, the governing model of space organization, form and function, as well as the focus of these defense fortifications were necessary. In field studies, which were carried out by reviewing and documenting all samples, 159 fortresses and defensive buildings from pre-Islamic times and various Islamic periods were identified these, 69 castles and defensive buildings (about 40%) are located in mountainous areas and more than 50% of them are located in the east of Tehran in Firuzkooh city, most of which were founded in pre-Islamic times and have been exploited in various Islamic periods. One of the prominent examples of mountain fortresses located in the center of Firuzkooh city is a castle called Firuzkooh or Firuz Shah, which is the largest and most important mountain tin in Tehran. In this paper, we have tried to introduce this highly prominent and identified sample by relying on reliable historical documents and sources and archaeological field researches.
Keywords: Mountain Castles of Tehran, Firoozkooh Castle, Historical Texts, Archaeological Studies, Historiography and Practice.

Introduction
territory that is now called Tehran province is one of the areas that has been important in different historical periods due to its brilliant geographical location and favorable environmental conditions and being located along important highways of communication. The favorable conditions mentioned as the growth and development of civilizations in this region have also caused threats to the inhabitants of this plain and have prompted them to establish defensive buildings and facilities, including castles, in different parts of it for the rest of their lives. of the indicators identified in this study is the mountainous tin of Firouzkooh or Firuzshah in the east of the province. According to authentic historical documents and texts, the castle is an important government military center and one of the seven main darbands of the Ray-Tabarestan highway and the Great Khorasan Road, and until the 10th century AH, it has played an effective role in regional and trans-regional developments. this study, we tried to answer the question of what characteristics can firuzkooh be considered as the most important mountainous tin of the province and what was the historical background, spatial organization, form and function of this castle? It was assumed that due to the importance of communication in Tehran plain, strong castles have been constructed along the communication network of this plain, especially in the mountainous highlands of the east of the province. Furthermore, given the strong construction of defense facilities in the Medes era, it seems that tehran’s first mountain fortresses have been formed during this period. aim of this study was to analyze the governing model of space organization, form and performance of one of the most prominent examples identified (Qala-e-Firoozkooh) while presenting the list of castles and mountain defense facilities in Tehran province. . In achieving this goal, library studies as well as the results of field studies of authors have been used. The main approach of the paper on documents,, texts and historical reports and its adaptation to archaeological field studies.
 
Firuzkooh Castle: Space Organization, Form and Operation
In field studies of authors in Tehran province, 159 defensive buildings including castle- hill, fortress, observation tower, wall and other defense facilities were identified and documented. In this study, it was found that about 60% of the province’s defense facilities are scattered in the plains of the southern half and 40% in the mountainous parts of the north. to typology, the province’s mountain defense facilities include: 59 castles and fortresses, 9 observation towers and 1 building (possibly as a roadblock). The results showed that in terms of spatial distribution, mountainous peaks have generally been established in the vicinity of major roads, crossings and communication networks as well as main population centers. most concentrated castles from east to west are in Firoozkooh, Damavand and Shamiranat. In terms of time distribution, most of the mountainous castles of the province belong to historical periods (Parthian-Sassanid) and Islamic eras, especially the early and middle centuries (3rd to 9th century AH) and most of them are located in Firuzkooh city. The qala-e Firuzkooh or according to the people of Firuzshah on the height of a mountain located in the southwest of Firuzkooh city and completely overlooking it, is the largest and most important mountain fortress of Tehran, which due to its special geographical location and conjointity with the Tabarestan area, is of particular importance to the central governments and rulers of Tabaristan, especially Espahbodan, and its possession has led to various events, which are described in historical and geographical sources and texts. Middle Islamic sources such as Mu’jam al-Baldan Yaghut, History of Tabaristan ibn Esfandiar, Seljuqnameh, History of Jahangah Jowini, Naza al-Qulub Hamdollah Mostofi, Zafarnameh Sharaf al-Din Ali Yazdi, Travel The letters of Kalavikho and others and some of the most recent sources and travelogues such as Rawda al-Safa, The History of Jahanara, Habib al-Sayyer, the history of the Abbasid world of votes and the writings of Etemad al-Saltanah have been brought up and in this regard are also an exception.  

Conclusion
The spatial structure of Firoozkooh’s castle made it clear that the castle was constructed from three different parts of the citadel, Sharestan and Rabaz with materials of stone, gypsum, clay and mud, wood and brick, and these sections have been expanded from east to west according to the form and shape of the mountain. The citadel in the westernest and highest point of the mountain and completely dominant and overlooking the perimeter and with walls and towers separated from other parts, Sharestan Qala in the East, with a wall enclosed and Rabaz has a fence that has been destroyed by expanding the texture of the current city.
Analysis of the references contained in historical and geographical texts related to it indicates that the building was a completely military fortress and a very important military garrison or permanent center, which on the one hand was highly regarded by the rulers of various governmental dynasties such as the Samanids, al-Boy. It was the Seljuks, Mongols, Kharazmshahians, Timurids, Aq Quyunlus and Safavids, and on the other hand, it was considered by the rulers of Tabaristan, and in written references, often as it was One of the most important peaks of Tabaristan is mentioned.
This building, more than a millennium, is at the heart of many regional and trans-regional political and social developments and is considered an exceptional example of the first foundation belonging to the pre-Islamic days and one of the important doors of the Sassanid era and can be considered as the main focus of the formation and preservation of the historical city of Firuzkooh.

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فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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