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Showing 4 results for Azadi

Ahmad Azadi, Ebrahim Ghezelbash, Majid Kouhi Gilavan,
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018)
Abstract

Abstract
Behbahan plain in Southwest of Iran, is a region where high peaks of the Zagros Mountain meet the lowland plains of Khuzistan. The plain, due to several rivers including the Maroun River which originates from the high peaks deep into the Zagros, and fertile lands has been a locus for nucleation and subsequent development of human settlements since prehistoric periods to the modern times. In August and October of 2007, the authors of this article were conducted a settlement survey in Mansour Abad area, North and Northeast of the Behbahan plain, covering 150 km. The principal aim of the survey was identification of ancient sites in an area which was subjected to seismic prospection for the Iranian Oil Company. In fact, it was a rescue operation to minimize the possible risks to the ancient sites of the area. The survey method was extensive using GPS to locate the surveyed sites on topographic maps with scale 1/25000. The surface materials were gathered using random survey. The surveyed region can be divided into several landscapes, including: Mansour Abad Plain, the hilltop rolling hills in North, East, Northeast and Northwest of the Behbehan Plain and the mountainous region including Khaeiz and Badil Mountains. The most important feature of the mountainous region is the existence of several valleies. At the end of the archaeological surveys of the Mansourabad region, in addition to known sites which have been identified previously during the Behbahan survey project, we could identify 55 sites ranging in date from the prehistory to the Late Islamic Period, with highest number at Middle Islamic Period. The surveyed sites could be divided into several types including mound, sherd/flint scatter, hill-top site, cave and various standing architectures including Imamzadeh (shrines), water-mills, fortresses, and settlement structures of the Islamic Period. These sites usually have low frequency of surface sherds, some none.
Keywords: Behbehan, Mansourabad, Archaeology Survey, Relative Chronology.    
 
Introduction          
The Behbehan plain, due to several rivers including the Maroun River which originates from the high mountains of Eastern parts of the Kohgiluyeh region, and fertile lands has been a locus for nucleation and subsequent development of human settlements since prehistory well into the modern times. The region, 150 km in area, was surveyed in August and October 2007. The main goal of the survey was identification of ancient sites in an area which was subjected to seismic prospection for the Iranian Oil Company. During the survey we identified 55 sites ranging in date from the prehistory to the Late Islamic Period. The survey method was extensive using GPS to locate the surveyed sites on topographic maps with scale 1/25000. Archaeologically, one of the important aspects of the Behbehan plain is its potential to track the cultural interactions between Khuzestan and Fars especially in the prehistoric period. Previous research in the region were excavations and surveys by Nissen (Nissen, 1971; 1973, Nissen and Redman, 1971) and Dittman (Dittman, 1984), conducted a few decades ago. The chance discovery of the Elamite Tomb of Arjan in the early 1980 striggered a series of research in the region (e.g. Alizadeh, 1985, Saraf, 1992, Majidzadeh, 1992, Stronach, 2003, Alwarezmon, 2006).  
Of these one may point to the archaeological survey of the Behbehan plain in the early 2000s (Abdi, 2008). New phase of the systematic archaeological research in the region has been launched by A. Moghaddam since 2014. In these investigations, in addition to excavation at the site of Chahe- Naft, a series of period-oriented archaeological surveys aiming identification of early settlements at the region were conducted (Moghaddam, 2014: 287-8). 

The Surveyed Sites 
As mentioned above, in general, 55 sites ranging in date from the prehistory to the Late Islamic Period were identified. The sites are belonged to the Protoliterate, Proto-Elamite, Elamite, Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanid and Islamic Periods. Of Protoliterate period, just one site, Taytou, was identified. Stone tools collected from the surface of the site includ bladelet cores, end-scraper and a number of debitages. Three sites (Karayale Talaw, Zaminhaye Partaki and Gasawz) can be dated to the Proto-Elamite and Elamite periods. They are distributed at the foothills of the Badil Mountains. In addition to Tange Takab’s ossuaries, four sites (Zaminhaye Partaki, Talaw, Darebazar and Konar Tepe) which are sherd scatter and mounded sites, are datable to the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid periods. Of these, Zaminhay Partaki is located in the Mansourabad plain and other sites are distributed in the foothills of Badil Mountains. These sites range in area from 1.2 to 16 ha.   
The highest number of the identified sites belongs to the Islamic period. In total, 46 sites of several types including mounds, sherd scatters and various standing architectures including Imamzadeh (shrines), water-mills, castles, and settlement structures were identified. These sites are located in various landscapes of the region like high altitude, at the mouth and inside the gorges, rolling hills and the Mansourabad plain. Save for the site of Karatowal, which accoding to an inscribed sherd found on its surface belong to the Early Islamic centuries, most sites of this period are related to the Middle and Late Islamic Periods.  

Conclusion
At the end of the survey, in addition to known sites which have been identified previously during the Behbahan survey project, we could identify 55 sites range in date from the prehistory to the Late Islamic period, with highest number at Middle Islamic Period. The surveyed sites could be grouped into several types including sherd/flint scatters, mounds, hill-top sites, caves and various standing architectures including Imamzadeh (shrines), water-mills, fortresses, and settlement structures of the Islamic Period. A considerable number of the surveyed sites belong to settlements with stone structures dating to the Islamic Period. These sites usually have low frequency of surface sherds, some none.   

Ali Aarab, Mohammad Bonyadi Nezhad, Seyedeh Iraj Beheshti, Vahid Azadi,
year 3, Issue 7 (5-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
The previous studies on the Elamite pottery generally focused on the form and shape of the artifacts. From the perspective of fabric, very few studies have explored the Elamite pottery. The pottery type studied in this paper is orange (ranging from light brown to red) composed of a tempering material, sand and white particles. The core of this no ornamented, wheel-built pottery is black. In an investigation to outline the scope and boundaries of Haft Tapeh ancient city, a number of the Elamite pottery samples were recovered in certain layers dating back to the late ancient Elam (Sukalmah) and the Middle Elamite near the adobe structures of Haft Tapeh. Haft Tapeh refers to a structure belonging to the Elamite Era located in Khuzestan and south of Susa. One major finding in this city is a tomb from the Middle Elamite Era. Since 1965, this building has been investigated by Negahban and later by Mofidi-Nasr abadi. Thus, Haft Tapeh can undoubtedly be considered a city belonging to the Elamite Era. In this light, the pottery type in this geographical scope can be particularly useful for comparison of similar artifacts found in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, both of which could be associated with the Elamite Era. This study focused on Asgaran and Saba as two regions in Isfahan and central part of Ardal in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. A total of 10 pottery samples were randomly selected from these regions. They were then compared in terms of fabric and composition against 4 counterparts found in archaeological layers of Haft Tapeh belonging to the Elamite Era. It should be noted that the two-color body in the pottery sample is not at all associated with the type of compounds or curing temperature, Since the two parts are identical in terms of composition. Moreover, it seems that the main reason for the two-color body lies in the curing conditions and techniques (oxidation and reduction) inside the furnace, leading to two different colors. Apart from that, there is a kind of orientation in the components of pottery samples, potentially indicating they were built on wheels.
Keywords: Elam, Orange-Red Pottery, Petrography, XRD, Ft-IR.

Introduction
One of the surrounding regions cover the north of present-day provinces Fars and Khuzestan as Elamite centres in the ancient era. The noteworthy point about these regions is their potentially rich metal mines. This has been mentioned in the Mesopotamian inscriptions, mainly explaining the link between the Mesopotamian plain and the highlands of Elam. The present-day provinces, Khuzestan and Fars, have small potentials for metal mines. Hence, they only served as surrounding regions supplying the metals. However, little investigation has been done on the archaeological data from the Elamite Era. It is crucial to carry out a historical study on these regions along with the archaeological data to enlighten the dark spots in the Elamite Era, and ultimately provide a toponymy of the Elamite cities. One instance of such archaeological data involves various types of local pottery in Khuzestan (as a central city of Elam), which was compared through petrography against the samples recovered in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari (as two dently the era in surrounding regions). Thus, this paper intends to discuss more con which this type of pottery was built and its origin in order to provide a toponymy of the previously mentioned cities based on historical and archaeological data. In Miankooh, Ardal, more than 76% of Elamite sites have been reported to be nomadic. This is highly important alongside the neighborhood of this province and Isfahan with regard to the toponymy of Zabshali and LU.SU. Meanwhile, there are a considerable number of pottery samples from this region comparable to their counterparts across the Elamite centers. 
The surrounding regions of Elamite centers (Susa and Anshan) have so far been rarely explored. One of such surrounding regions stretched across the norther of Elamite centers, covering certain areas of present-day provinces Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. In addition, there are pottery samples from the Elamite Era found in Khuzestan (as one of the central districts of Elamite), even though they have rarely been explored in studies on the Elamite Era. This can be partly associated with the limited number of such pottery samples against their counterparts from the Elamite Era in Khuzestan. Nonetheless, the noteworthy point about this pottery type is the great similarity (discussed later) in Khuzestan to those recovered in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. Therefore, this study attempted to explore these regions from the Elamite Era through an interdisciplinary approach involving archeology, archeometry and history of northern Susa and Anshan. Despite the importance of the regions surrounding Elamite centers (Susa and Anshan) based on the Mesopotamian inscriptions, insufficient effort has so far been made to investigate the Elamite Era in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari as two surrounding regions. Nevertheless, the pottery type studied in this paper has been frequently found in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. In this study, great effort was made to review the geographical locations of the two provinces in Elamite Era according to written sources and archaeological evidence. Moreover, the pottery artifacts were petrographically examined to find out whether or not the samples recovered in Haft Tapeh, as a key central spot in Khuzestan during the Elamite Era, are congruent with the clay artifacts found in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari from the perspective of appearance and textural characteristics. In fact, the discussion revolves around the possible involvement and predominance of the Elamite in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, while providing a toponymy of ancient Elamite regions in those provinces today.

Conclusion
The specific pottery type in this study indicated a remarkable frequency in Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. Moreover, it proved to be similar to counterparts recovered at Haft Tapeh (Khuzestan) in terms of fabric, production technique and curing temperature. It is essential to point out the pottery types across the northern Elamite centers which have been rarely explored so far. The specific pottery type examined in this paper can definitely be considered an Elamite artifact. It should originate from the Zagros Mountains in the north of Khuzestan (Bakhtiari highlands). That is perhaps why this type of pottery is less abundant in Khuzestan as opposed to Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. According to the constituent element of pottery samples, this pottery type does not originate from Khuzestan Plain, but it can rather be traced in Zagros Mountains.  Therefore, it can be argued that the Elamite were involved in dominated Isfahan and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, while delving into the toponymy of Elamite cities such as Zabshali and Tukrish in certain parts of Isfahan and LU.SU in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. The regions never explored from that very perspective can set out a new avenue of Elamite research into these Iranian provinces. Finally, it is recommended that future studies focus on northern regions of Elamite centers including the present-day Isfahan, Yazd and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiariti so as to clarify many of the archaeological ambiguities of Elamite Era. After all, an in-depth investigation of Mesopotamian inscriptions can help scholars realize the importance of these regions, while revealing their archaeological capacities.

Leila Salehioun, Mehrnaz Azadi, Reza Vahidzadeh, Faezeh Taghipour,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
Applying preventive conservation methods to protect the cultural heritages is one the most important subjects among the conservators. Preventive conservation is the best method that can be implemented in the museums. But the point comes out when one notices that numerous valuable cultural heritages are protected in the private homes or what is called private collections. That is why there are various attempts to extend the practice of preventive conservation in these collections around the globe. In Iran, despite the large numbers of private collections, there are many problems regarding preventive conservation which comes out of various reasons. Due to the importance of preventive actions toward the cultural heritages, this article tries to determine the effect of applying preventive conservation practice in private collections in Iran regarding the cultural values of their items. The applied method is a quantitative-qualitative one. In the qualitative section we have interviwed 14 experts in the field of cultural heritages, collection owners and museum. The reliability and narration of the deep interviews have been checked. Analyzing the obtained information was done by using Stevick-Collaizzi-Keen method. In the second and quantitative part, we have used the results of the first part to determine the details of a questionnaire and using Cochran formula, the size of sample society has been determined. Based on that, the questionnaire has been completed by 96 collectors around the country, Friedmann test gave us the priority of the components. Our results show that the effects of not applying or improper applying of preventive conservation methods in private collections can be expressed in three levels which contains the physical destruction of the items, destruction of their cultural values and at last, material and spiritual loss for the collectors. Based on the results, the most important effects of not applying or improper applying of preventive conservation methods in private collections, is cultural values destruction.
Keywords: Preventive Protection, Private Collections, Cultural Value, Protection, Collection Management.

Introduction
Historical items are quite important from the cultural point of view and require special treatments. Some of these valuable items are collected and kept in private collections. Although these historical items commonly registered by Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran, they do not receive the governmental supervision, continuously. In most cases these items are in private collections because they are family heritages or the owner is interested in keeping historical items. This implies that most of the collectors do not have proper information or experience in modern conservation methods practice. As the private collections are the key component to prevent the cultural heritages from trading out of the country. In addition, the values of the items in private collection is not normally less than the ones in the museums and they are maintained in a completely different condition compared to the museums, thus in the first place, the collectors should protect them from being damaged or lost. These heritages are our valuable cultural heritages, there needs to be more serious efforts by experts in the field or the governmental organization to assist the owners for better preservation of the items. These days, preventive conservation is the most noticed action toward the cultural heritage items. in this method there is just indirect actions toward the item to make their surrounding environment more suitable i. e. adjusting temperature, light, gases, insects and etc. In this way the item is less likely to get damaged or at least the speed of damage will decrease dramatically. Although these actions are not expensive but not applying them will make problems for our cultural heritage or damages for the whole nation culture. The main concern regarding is to know the most important effects of not applying the preventive conservation actions or the improper one. It seems that the most important one is damaging the cultural values. 

The Effects of not Applying Preventive Conservation
One of the key point in preserving the historical items is their “Values”, because all is being done regarding them has direct connection with their values in the society or nation. Recognizing the values of historical heritages and finding their priority is determining in applying conservations toward them. There are various definitions and charters for defining the different values of an item. 
As the items in private collection are not less valuable than the ones in the museums it is required for the responsible organizations to take proper action toward protecting them. The connections between the academic expert in conservation and the collectors has two sided benefits for both of them. In one way it will decrease the potential damage which can happen to the historical heritages, and in the other hand it will increases the experts knowledge about the history and inherited items.
 Here we have used a qualitative-quantitative method to analyze the effects of not applying or improper applying of preventive conservation practice. In this way we have interviewed conservation 14 experts and collectors to analyze using Collaizi -con method the outcomes so that we can design a questionnaire. The resultant questionnaire has been completed by the 95 collectors and last we have found the most important effects of not applying preventive conservation or the improper one using Friedmann test. We have also used Cronbach’s alpha and One Sample T-Test to check the reliability and the priorities and equalities of the variables (here the negative effects), respectively. Based on the Friedmann test, “loss of cultural values” of the historical heritages is the most important effect of not applying or improper applying of preventive conservation.

Conclusion
We have studied the effects of not applying preventive conservation in the private collections in Iran. Our qualitative results show that the consequences of not applying the preventive conservation can be categorized in three level and three classes. 
The first class is causing damage to the historical items such as damages to the cultural heritages of the country, damages to the items, causing damages to other items, continuing the damage process, damages to the completeness of the item. the second one which seems to be the most important one includes the loss of values of the item. This class has three subclasses itself: 1- direct loss of the values which can be scientific, historical, cultural and etc. values; 2- loss of their identity which will end up to the loss of nation culture as they will not keep their completeness; 3- loss of family traditions and cultural identities. 
The last class of negative consequences of not applying preventive conservation is the material and spiritual loss for the collectors. These damages includes: the items to be stolen, to be lost, decrease the life of the item and finally requiring expensive repairing or restoring actions.
A quantitative study using Friedmann test shows that between all of the possible results of not applying preventive conservation, the most important one is “the loss of cultural values”. As the “values” of an item is the most important factor for collecting the historical heritages, our results make a firm reason for the responsible organizations to take more serious decisions for applying preventive conservation in private collections.


Ahmad Azadi,
year 5, Issue 17 (12-2021)
Abstract

Abstract
Archaeologists have considered Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari region as one of the most im-portant origins of nomadic livelihoods in the past few decades. Meanwhile, Kouhrang region plays a main role as one of the major nomadic territories of the Bakhtiari tribe. The small num-ber of studies conducted in this region have led some researchers to discuss the recent history of this livelihood. In contrast, recent studies indicate that the nomadic way of life in Kouhrang region dates back to at least the 5th millennium BC. Two seasons of rescue excavations in Bir-gan region, which were due to the construction of Kouhrang Dam, have provided a good oppor-tunity to learn more about people’s livelihoods in this region. This paper delves into the results of the excavation of the KR 385 site. The approach adopted to excavate the site for recording the layers and the discovered phenomena was the locus method. The main aim of excavation of the site was to discover the nature of the site and to be familiar with various aspects of ancient nomadic life, and one of our key research questions was to realize the extent of possible cultur-al interactions between this region and the surrounding areas, including the lowlands of Khuzestan and the Central Zagros regions. Our main assumption in this paper is that, in addi-tion to the 5th millennium BC. Kouhrang region has had cultural relations with some parts of central Zagros. Although today the nomads of Bakhtiari region have close relationships with the lowlands of Khuzestan, comparative studies conducted on the forms and motifs of potteries found in this region reveal similarities between these potteries and those found in some areas related to the Bronze and the Iron Age of Central Zagros; The subject that confirms the Iron Age of the site by the C14 absolute dating. In addition to the cultural ties between these two regions, similarities in the forms and motifs of potteries in this region and the above-mentioned sites demonstrate that the pottery traditions of the Bronze Age have continued until the Iron Age.
Keywords: KR 385, Ancient Nomadism, Kouhrang Bakhtiari.

Introduction
Bakhtiari region in the southwestern part of the Iranian plateau has always been of interest to researchers as one of the most notable sources of livelihood based on nomadism. Thus far, Kouhrang region has been a summer residence for nomads since ancient times and is one of the most prominent origins of life based on nomadic livelihood. Needless to say, the reason for this significance is the favorable environmental landscape and biological facilities that have long made this livelihood as the most effective environmental adaptation for the residents of this region. In addition to the evidence of modern life, archaeological evidence, including the iden-tification of a large number of sites with nomadic nature in the archaeological surveys of the region and the results of excavations carried out in some of these sites fully confirm this issue. Studies in the recent decade shows that this livelihood in Kouhrang region dates back to at least the 5th millennium BC.
Due to the construction of Kouhrang Dam and Kouhrang 3 Tunnel and two seasons of res-cue excavations carried out in Birgan region, the way has been paved for us to broaden our knowledge about people’s livelihood in this region. The second season of rescue excavations of Kouhrang Dam began and ended in November and December 2013 after a five-year hiatus. The sites considered for the second season of rescue excavations were all identified in archaeologi-cal surveys in Kouhrang region by Kourosh Roustaei. The extent to which the sites were ex-posed to danger during reservoir impoundment was our selection criterion for excavation them. After assessing the sites, 6 sites of KD 04, KR 415, KR 523, KR 385, KD 022, and KD 030 were selected for excavation (Figure 1). This paper discusses the results of the KR 385 site excava-tion. Awareness of the nature of the site and familiarity with various aspects of ancient nomad-ic life were the main targets of excavation, and one of our chief research questions was to find out the extent of possible cultural interactions between this region and the surrounding areas, including the lowlands of Khuzestan and the Central Zagros regions. Our main assumption in this paper is that, in addition to the 5th millennium BC. Kouhrang region has had cultural rela-tions with some parts of central Zagros. The research method in this paper consists of collect-ing and studying the papers related to the previous studies into this region and presenting the results of KR 385 excavation.

Discussion 
With an altitude of 2260 meters above sea level, the KR 385 site was identified in the third sea-son of archaeological survey of Kouhrang region in 2010. This site includes a small conglom-erate ridge overlooking the Birgan River. This rocky ridge is located approximately 50 meters from the river and is about 20 meters higher than its bed. The primary objective of the excava-tion in this site was to obtain the most accurate information about the nature of this site due to its flooding after the impoundment of Kouhrang Dam. To this end, three trenches (Figure 2) were created and excavated in three different parts of the site, which were thought to provide more information on its nature. Trench I measuring 5 × 5 m, was created on one of the stone depots on the southern slope of the site, assuming that it was a graveyard. Excavations at this trench did not reveal any evidence of cultural remains, and it was determined that this stone depot and similar specimens were the result of the collection of rocks from the site by locals and were gathered to make agriculture easier. Since excavating trench I did not produce any outcome, we decided to test other parts of the site to determine its nature. Trench II was created in a part of the site that seemed to be the remains of a past settlement with the final dimensions of 5×7 m (Figure 3). By the time the trench was excavated, three spaces (Space 1, Space 2, and Space 3) and a platform (?) could be defined and identified. Trench III, measuring 5×7 m, was created on a steep slope in the southern part of the site, in a section where two ancient graves (grave 1 and grave 2) were unlawfully excavated at the same time as the site excavations, and solid evidence could be easily found on the surface (Figure 7).

Conclusion
Excavations at the KR 385 site yielded significant results. Concerning the climatic characteris-tics of the region, its common way of life (nomadism), and similarities between constructs found in Trench II and the current structures used by Bakhtiari nomads, the collection of struc-tures and spaces identified in this trench is considered as a temporary nomadic settlement, in which evidence of daily life such as ashes, remains of food storage jars, grindstones, and stone slabs was found. Due to similarities in the forms and some motifs of the potteries obtained in trench II and trench III, potteries in the settlement part and the cemetery of the site probably indicate a cultural period. Although today the nomads of Bakhtiari region have close ties with the lowlands of Khuzestan, comparative studies conducted on the forms and motifs of potteries found in this site shows similarities between these potteries and those found in some Central Zagros sites such as Babajan, Noshijan, and Godin Tepe dating from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.


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