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Showing 3 results for Ahmadi

Abassali Ahmadi,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
The Imamzadeh of Shahzadeh Abd al-Momen is located in Habibabad, 18 km northeast of Isfahan. This unknown tomb deserves attention because of its construction period, architectural features, and decorative arts. Decorative arrays, especially wall paintings, are of special importance, according to the time period, the existence of inscription, themes, the method of drawing, and the creators of art. In this article, considering chronology, plan and structure of the building, the decorations are presented, and as much as possible, content, and aesthetic analysis are discussed. The present study benefits from a descriptive-analytical method and a comparative approach, in addition to the field interpretations of the building. As the results of this study show, the Imamzadeh building was probably built during the Ilkhanid period. During the reign of Shah Abbas II Safavid and Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar, repairs, constructions, and decorations were conducted in it. The main activities carried out in the Safavid and Qajar periods were the creation of decorations such as murals, moqarnas, and karbandi, among which the murals are significant. These designs are based on oil painting, and watercolor techniques and consist of a variety of geometric knots, Coffee-house (Qahvehkhaneh) motifs, flowers and brids, bush and flowers, and the Western views. The themes of the motifs and inscriptions of the building have been directly related to Shiite thought and the symbolic concept of the exaltation of the deceased soul.
Keywords: Ilkhanid, Safavid, Qajar, Tomb of Abd al-Momen, Wall Paintings.

Introduction
Architecture is one of the important features of art and civilization, which human groups has always been a great effort in the development of various aspects of that. Among the architectural subdivisions, tomb architecture has a special place and includes a special and significant part of the architectural remains of the past periods. Meanwhile, the tombs of the great men of religion and politics, especially the tombs of the Imams and their descendants, are of great importance in the Islamic architecture of Iran and the growth and expansion of decorative arts, architecture, applied arts, urban spaces. Similarly, in the origin of some towns and villages, have been important and influential factors. However, some of these monuments, which have mostly appeared in the building of Imamzadegan, are still unknown, and the need to identify and study. The Imamzadeh of Shahzadeh Abd al-Momen is one of such buildings that, despite the existence of various decorative arrays, the type, and the artistic value of them, has been neglected. Hence, this research introduces the building and studies the architectural forms and the evolution of architectural decorations. In addition, there is not any proper chronology for this building, as a consequence of the original building destruction, numerous repairs and constructions of especially the contemporary period. To properly understand the context of the studied decorations, chronology, and the evolution of the architecture of the building has been taken into consideration.
Abd al-Momen’s tomb consists of a courtyard, a mausoleum room with surrounding rooms and porches, a columned nave, and three openings on the north and northwest fronts of the courtyard. The courtyard has been used as a cemetery from ancient times to the present day, and there have been crypts as the house dead bodies. The decoration of the building in the outer part of the dome includes tiles, which have been done in recent years, but as mentioned, the outer covering of the dome had been decorated with tiles at the same time as the construction period. Another decoration of the outer space of the building, which was described earlier, is the muqarnas of the upper part of the western entrance of the dome. Interior decorations include murals and carbandi. Painting decorations according to the inscription belong to the Safavid and Qajar periods. Safavid motifs include knotted motifs under the dome, which contain various names of God, some verses and hadiths. According to the inscription, these motifs are related to the time of Shah Abbas II Safavid. Qajar murals are more diverse. These motifs include motifs of flowers and plants, flowers and birds, Hazrat Ali and Hasnain, and noon of Ashura and belong to the period of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar. The artist of these designs was Seyed Hossein Emami, one of the famous painters of Isfahan. 

Conclusion
 Considering the plan of the dome chamber of the building and its adaptation to the examples of the Ilkhanid period, it is possible that the building of Abd al-Momen was one of the constructions of the Ilkhanid period. As usual in many holy shrines and shrines, during the Safavid period (Shah Abbas II) and Qajar (Nasser al-Din Shah) repairs, construction and decorations were done in the building. Due to the destruction, the lack of archeological excavation, and the impossibility of peeling the walls of the dome chamber, accurate diagnosis of how the physical changes and how the components of the building in different periods, especially the shape of the dome chamber of the Ilkhanid period, is not possible. However, as it turned out, the dome chamber was one of the Ilkhani components of the building, and in the Safavid and Qajar periods, due to the special religious requirements of these two periods, other spaces of the complex have been added to it. The existing decorations belong to the Safavid and Qajar periods, and among them, murals constitute the main decorations of the building. Considering the concept and content, the use of these motifs, along with the decorative inscriptions of the building, has been directly related to Shiite thoughts like the depiction of heaven, and the symbolic concept of the exaltation of the deceased soul. In the meantime, the motifs depicting the event of Ashura along with Imam Ali’s tales, which was one of the most effective ways to transfer religious beliefs to the public, as one of the topics of interest to Qajar painters. These widely used motifs in the decoration of holy shrines and Imamzadegan of the Qajar period have a special effect in comparison with other existing examples of Iranian tombs, especially the examples in the tombs of Gilan which has the highest quantity. In one hand, the high artistic quality, the existence of the painter’s signature, the existence of the inscription, and subsequently being considered as the oldest example with the inscription of this type of motif in the tombs of Iran, shows the artistic importance of the motifs related to the Ashura of Abd al-Momen’s tomb, and on the other hand, it shows the influential role of Isfahan Qajar painters in the growth and expansion of such motifs.
 

Khosrow Ahmadi-Khoei, Morteza Hessari, Alireza Khosrowzadeh,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Abstract

Abstract
In The studying of the settlement layout of an area, the environment and its contexts landscape is considered. most attention is toward to natural Geography and humans relations to locations and living in geographical region. The archaeological and geographical data, is used to analysis of settlement patterns of Bacun communities in the high Zagros. So, the main research questions is to: What factors impacted on the Location Patterns of the High zagros′s Bacun Sites? How is impacts of this Factors on the site numbers? There For, By considering of applicable nature of the subjects and the research mettods. The authors by plaing of theoretical  fram includs of theoretical basis and site visit, will be to study of survey and Excavation evidences. In total the bacon site numbers are 106 in this region. The main factors such as ASL-(altitude of sea level). Site distance to roads and waters water sources, accessibility to agriculture lands vegetation Types, Slope and its directions is considered as independent, and, Bacun site areas as Dependent variable. the relationship of variables are 1 to -1 in the correlation coefficient. the high correlation is showed by closeness to +1, and lowe correlation indicated by closeness to. If the correlation is -1, so the result is convers. The results shows that the variables such as site distance to roads, water supply and land use taype is more important than other variables in the formation of Bacun Sites. 
Keywords: Settlement Pattern, Bacun Period, High Zagros Region, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari.

Introduction
Always, the choice of settlementlocations depend to a large extent on environmental characteristics. In studying the arrangement of settlements in an area, the role of the environment and its contexts in a geographical landscape is important (Rostaei, 2010: 8). In this regard, one of the main goals of archaeological activities is to study how the interaction between human societies and environmental diversity, which ultimately led to habitation and location. Important environmental variables affect the location, distribution, sphere of influence, physical development and appearance of human settlements- (Dark, 1995: 134). Therefore, in spatial analysis, since “Landscape” represents the area of human interaction with the environment, the relationship between location and environmental characteristics is considered¬(Clarke, 1976: 119). In fact, by understanding the geographical space, the capacities and potentials present in the area have influenced the new type of settlement (migration, sedentism, or a combination of both). The high Zagros region, which overlaps the current political borders of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, is a defined area that we live in because of our habitat. The High Zagros, in fact, includes the highest part of the Zagros Mountains, and for this reason, it is called “High Zagros”(Darvishzadeh, 1991:175). This region is mountainous and about 76% of it is made up of mountains and hills; While only 24% of it consists of alluvial plains and valleys (Heidari et al, 2014:4). Leading research on this area, which has long been considered as a suitable place for nomadic communities, farmers and pastorals have always been considered by human communities:
The Main Questions Are: What factors impacted on the Location Patterns of the High zagros′s Bacun Sites? How is impacts of this Factors on the site numbers?
Research Method: In this regard, according to the practical nature of the subject and the studied components of the research method, after the theoretical design of the subject, which included reviewing the theoretical foundations and selecting and visiting the sites, to study the documents obtained from the studies and explore archaeological excavations were carried out.

Archaeological Evidence of Bacun Culture in the High Zagros
Due to the fact that most of the archeological activities in the high Zagros region have been focused on the survey; as a result, most of the data and documents are related to potteries. A total of 420 potterysherdsrelated to the Bacun period were identified and studied. Buffswares tempered by sand and fine sand are common, both wheelmade and handmade. This pottery is often in the form of a bowl with a circular bottom and has embellished ornaments with a compositional pattern in the form of wide stripes, circles patterned with dots around it, rounded lines, square textures, and ornaments. Intersecting with the lattice pattern and motif of the sun disk, they are black in color. These include one to three horizontal sections, half or a large section of the container.

Relation and Distribution of Sites to Environmental Variables
The study area has an undeniable role due to its special strategic location in the path of the well-known cultures of central and southern Zagros and their connection with both their position and role. These factors, along with the perspective of the region, play an effective role in creating the tissues of establishment in any period of time. On this basis, human societies have developed adaptive strategies in the habitat of various ecosystems. It is clear that the climate of the area under study is cold and humid with a variety of calcareous and shallow soils that are not so suitable for agriculture. These environmental and biological conditions prevailing in the region have led to the formation of a nomadic livelihood based on traditional livestock and agriculture. Unlike farmers, settlers whose location depends on livestock are not dependent on specific locations or environmental factors. They set up their own camps in places that, in addition to their own safety and that of livestock (against the sedents and predatory animals), had enough pastures for grazing. This new way of life has long been practiced in the highlands, and the area has been used seasonally by nomads. One of the most important shreds of evidence for proving this issue is the low correlation between environmental factors and areas, which indicates that the areas under consideration should be taken into light of the consideration. In the evaluation and study of settlements, altitude, distance, or proximity of sites to communication routes and water resources, the possibility of access to arable land, type of vegetation, slope, and slope direction are considered as independent variables, and the area of Bacun region as the dependent variables. Examining this number of sites, it was concluded that the altitude of 2000 to 2500 meters above sea level has been one of the most suitable elevations for the settlements of the Bacun Zagros; Because these heights have more fertile pastures than areas with lower altitudes at which, there is more evidence of migration in the area. It is clear that slopes less than 15 degrees are suitable for agricultural activities, and lands that have a high slope are in the form of pastures that are not usable for agriculture. This factor indicates that most of the ancient sites, which are located on higher slopes and have a relatively steep slope, did not matter to their inhabitants. This factor, along with the large distribution of cultural findings over a large area, indicates the temporary and seasonal use of these places, which can be related to nomadic communities. In addition, the slope direction factor indicates that no specific direction has been used. It seems that the use of different slope directions indicates temporary residences that have been used for nomads in the summer and the proper slope for their settlement has not been very important. The water and road factor indicates that most areas are close to water sources and roads. The study of land-use variables also shows that lands with poorer vegetation are smaller areas and vice versa. Even today, the distribution of villages is directly related to the type of uses. However, based on a superficial review, it is not possible to comment definitively in this regard, and more evidence is needed. However, it is understood that human beings in this region have long been dependent on places that can, in addition to suitable pasture, also provide the possibility of hunting or gathering food. 

Conclusion
High Zagros in different prehistoric and historic periods due to its strategic positioning and being located in the route of known cultures in central and southern Bacun, and the role of their relationship together,  enjoys an undeniable role and situation. These factors, together with the perspective of the region, play an effective role in creating the tissues of establishment in any period of time. On this basis, human societies have adaptive strategies in various bios. It is clear that the climate of the study area is cold and humid with a variety of calcareous and shallow soils that are not desirable for agriculture. These environmental and biological conditions throughout the region have led to the formation of a nomadic lifestyle based on a limited version of traditional livestock and agriculture. Unlike farmers, nomads, whose location depends on livestock, are not dependent on specific locations or environmental factors. They set up their own camps in places that, in addition to their own safety and that of livestock (against the sedents and predatory animals), had enough pastures for grazing. This type of lifestyle had existed from Bacun period in High Zagros and has been used by nomads in a seasonal manner. Among the most important documents to prove this, is the low correlation between environmental factors and landscaping that indicates that the areas under study have been used for short-term deployment. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the distribution of settlements in the study area in Bacun period, there is a relatively positive correlation between water sources, roads, and the function of the lands but this correlation is mediocre while in regression studies, other factors such as slope and distance to communication paths were also effective with low and medium effect. It is noteworthy that the intensity of the influence of these factors in relation to the Bacun periods of the high Zagros area using multiple linear regression analyzes is equal to 0.336. This number also strongly expresses the correlation between the set of environmental factors and the area of the sites. The results of the correlation and regression coefficients indicate that the distribution of the studied habitats is regulated in relation to the capabilities and constraints of the ecosystem, but its effects are limited.

Narjes Zamani, Hossein Ahmadi,
year 5, Issue 18 (3-2022)
Abstract

Abstract
Chehelsotoun Palace has always been a source of traditional and new interventions in the restoration of murals, which indicates the evolution of views on this issue in Iran. This study aims to understand the evolution of conservation and restoration approaches to murals by referring to the tradition of previous repairs and new approaches to conservation and restoration has studied murals in Chehelsotoun Palace and has sought to answer these questions: What were the procedures of the previous repair tradition? What were the new approaches to the conservation and restoration of murals and their fundamentals? What were the differences between the two? Data collection was done by documentary method. First, by adopting a comparative and descriptive method, the previous repairs will be examined. Then, the research, which has a qualitative and interpretive approach, uses an analytical method to explain the issues about the tradition of previous repairs and the fundamentals of new approaches. In the end, the results will be explained with logical reasoning. The research findings indicate that the previous repairs were performed in the form of repainting on the original murals, in the continuation of the life of Iranian Traditional Paintings. Such repainting, while following the visual elements of the original murals, also has different expressions from the artist in charge of the repair, which was rooted in the tradition of previous mural repairs and their contexts. New approaches were based on historical authenticity and aesthetic integrity, and led to the removal of some of the stages of mural development and reintegrated of the lacunas with a distinction from the original murals. The aesthetic and historiographical approaches of the West were the source of the differences between the new interventions and the semantic procedures of traditional repair which always focused on the nature of things. 
Keywords: Repair Tradition, Conservation and Restoration Approaches, Mural, Chehelsotoun, IsMEO Group.

Introduction
In recent years, the need to pay attention to the tradition of indigenous conservation in accordance with the specific cultural, intellectual, religious, historical and social contexts of each land; has been considered by international forums. In Iran, there are still many points about the tradition of heritage protection and repair that need researched and will cause to be known, like Western societies, the origins and evolution of views, procedures and approaches in the field of conservation and restoration in Iran. Chehelsotoun Palace murals have always been the subject of a variety of interventions, from previous repairs to new conservation and restoration approaches that became common in the mid-1940s. Today, only a few traces of the previous procedures of repairing murals in Iran have been left. In particular, the undesirable evaluation of traditional repair procedures has left no opportunity for their recognition. While in international treaties and documents have always been emphasized the importance of indigenous conservation traditions in each region and the role of recognizing these traditions as an intangible aspect of heritage in its preservation has been considered important. On the other hand, despite the continuation of many new approaches to the conservation and restoration of murals those took place in the mid-1940s; their constructive principles and criteria, and how they deal with previous procedures, have not been studied. This study will also explore the tradition of previous repairs to some of Chehelsotoun murals and how they were transformed into new conservation principles.
The aim of the present study is to gain an understanding of the tradition of previous repairs and the foundations of new approaches to conservation and restoration in Chehelsotoun murals, and finally an analytical cognition of how they differ from each other.
In conducting the research, the following questions were considered: What were the procedures of the previous repair tradition? What were the new approaches to the conservation and restoration of murals and their fundamentals? What were the differences between the two? Data collection was done by documentary method. First, by adopting a comparative and descriptive method, the previous repairs will be examined. Then, the research, which has a qualitative and interpretive approach, uses an analytical method to explain the issues about the tradition of previous repairs and the fundamentals of new approaches. In the end, the results will be explained with logical reasoning.

Discussion
In previous procedures, the purpose of the artist in charge of repair was to Continuing the spiritual dimension of the heritage. The artist performed traditional repairs according to the moral, intellectual and spiritual functions that traditional art had given him. Such repairs to the murals in question took the form of repainting performed by the artist directly on the original mural. These repainting, while having visual elements and general similarities with the original murals, also displayed different expressions from the artist in charge of the repair. The traditional repairs in imitation of the original murals, along with different expressions from the artist in charge of the repair, were a kind of mimesis of the original murals, as a representation of the original mural through the wishes, thoughts and ideology of the artist in charge of the repair. Also, the process of traditional repairs of murals had a hierarchy in the tradition of teaching art techniques. Such repairs, in the midst of the prevalence of the eclectic style of Qajar painting and then the abandonment of past traditions and covenants, were a kind of revival of the themes and features of traditional painting in the form of murals.
Restoring the Safavid identity and recovering the older layers of the murals was one of the main approaches of the new currents of conservation and restoration in Chehelsotoun Palace, As the IsMEO group seldom left evidence of traditional repairs on murals. IsMEO also used a system recognizable of distinct restorative additions to older sections in order to avoid misleading restoration operations in addition to establishing aesthetic integrity. Following the emphasis on preserving all the remains of the surviving murals from the Safavid period, the treatment of the murals with strategies resulting from the application of science gained a lot of importance. Thus, the use of new materials to help materials that no longer had the desired function, found a new place in the conservation and restoration of murals in Iran. It should be noted, however, that with the exception of a few experiments, the results of an accurate assessment of the compatibility between such solutions and the main materials of the murals and the traditional methods of their construction have not been published by IsMEO.

Conclusion
The new approaches to the preservation and restoration of the murals discussed at Chehelsotoun were based on an assessment of the aesthetic and historical aspects of the murals. IsMEO’s methods for reintegrating the lacunas of murals were also linked to the two fundamental categories of the historical authenticity and artistic integrity of murals. Aesthetic approaches in the new currents of conservation and restoration, derived from the perspective of art for art and beauty in a pleasant and enjoyable sense. Following this view; Attention to the main intention of the artist, and subjectivity, found a special place in many approaches to conservation and restoration. In contrast, traditional repairs were semantic in nature rather than aesthetic in appearance. Previous procedures were subject to spiritual concepts and also used visual values to express spiritual and epistemological expressions.
Emphasis on the historical authenticity in new currents was another way of distinguishing it from previous procedures. This view arose following the disintegration of Western societies from the past and the formation of historical consciousness, and forbade the process of re-creation and competition with the original artist in restoration. But in contrast to the new approaches focused on the nature of things and their semantic and epistemological aspects, they were independent of the time and place of the phenomena.


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