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Showing 4 results for Abedi

Afrasiab Garavand, Karim Hajizadeh, Fatemeh Malekpuor, Akbar Abedi,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)

Khoy Plain has attracted various tribes in terms of geographical conditions and suitable environmental capacities over the course of thousands of years, and has been the basis for establishing human settlements in different periods. The pattern of dispersion of the areas identified in this mid-range plain in the Bronze Age reveals the emergence and existence of a large center called “Dozdqi”, which in this period becomes a very important center. Dozdaqi with a height of 1200 meters above sea level is an area with more than 16 hectares and 24 meters above the surface of the surrounding area, the highest prehistoric area of the plain, which is located along the permanent river of Ghodvokh Boghan and the springs and wetlands. The existence of a salt mine as an export commodity in this area, as well as obsidian artefacts (imported goods) in 7 different colors. The percentage of the volume of distribution of pottery on the surface of the site indicates that the period of dynamism and flourishing of the site was in the Bronze Age, and it seems that during this period and for the first time in Khoy plain, there could be an over-the-center Of the 16 hectares.The existence of such a center is likely to be in the context of trans-regional trade. In this research, 20 samples of the Bronze Age pottery sherds were collected from the surface survey and speculation to determine the area and privacy of the study area and typology.
Keywords: Dozdaqi Khoy, Bronze Age, Pottery.

The late fourth millennium and early third millennium BC, one of the most important milestones not only in Iranian history, but also in the history of the Near East. This period coincides with major events such as the formation of the first city government, the beginning of urbanization and the expansion of its line.
The ancient Bronze Age in the northwest is part of a widespread culture called the Culture of Kura-Aras (Rezalou and Zaban Band, 2016: 17) or Yaniq’s Culture (Burney and Lang, 1971: 44, Dayson, 1973: 686-7) Is known. n this regard, Dozdaqi  Khoy with an area of more than 16 hectares of the largest settlements in the north of Lake Urmia is related to the Bronze Age, which has cultural works of the Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age periods. The percentage of the volume of distribution of pottery on the surface of the site indicates that the period of dynamism and flourishing of the site was in the Bronze Age, and it seems that during this period and for the first time in Khoy plain, there could be an over-the-center center Of the 16 hectares, he said that the existence of such a center is likely to be in the context of trans-regional trade. Therefore, attention to the above-mentioned cases, as well as the study of the status of the Dozdaqi area in the Bronze Age, is one of the most important goals of this research in terms of the presence of cultural materials related to the three old, middle and new bronze periods on the site. In this research, 20 samples of the Bronze Age clay collected from the surface survey and speculation to determine the area and privacy of the study area and typology.

The Dozdaqi Khoy Area
The Dozdaqi area consists of two parts of the east (Dozdaqi area) and the western one (Hill Dozdaqi) separated by a sandy road (Picture 1). This ancient site is located 1.5 kilometers southwest of Khoy city, in the central part and 1 kilometer north of the Amirbiq village, in longitude N: 38.31 23, and latitude E: 44.5514 with an average elevation of 1200 meters The water level is formed in the middle of a mid-range plain and the fertile part of the plain on the eastern side of the Qodwokh Boghan River.
 The most important bio-properties of the Dozdaqi field are as follows: the area of the fertile and cultivated land, the amount of precipitation, the appropriate height, access road, the presence of pastures and suitable vegetation available around the site, fuel resources, abundant water resources and most importantly, there was a salt mine in the east of the area. This ancient work has brought the most important potential and conditions of economic exploitation based on agriculture, animal husbandry, trade and cultural exchanges (salt, rock quarrying, etc.) with neighboring areas.

Typology of the Bronze Age Crystal Enclosures
In this paper, 20 pieces of samples of pottery sherd that were collected during the speculation of the field and area of 1395 from the surface of the site were studied and typified (Plan 1 and Table 1). The color of the pottery is varied, and in this regard, the pottery of the collection can be divided into three groups: brown dumplings, gray dwarfs, red pottery, besides in one color case Black beetle. In making most of the samples, the binder is used in the mineral and the surfaces of the clay are smooth and smooth. On two levels, most of the pottery is covered with thick or thin flowers to peppery, light brown, cream and red. There is also a wheel maker in the collection of handmade pottery. The temperature required to bake most of the pottery has been sufficient. The specimen of the Bronze Age is a hot dip galore comparable to the clay samples obtained from the hills of Yannick (Burney, 1961), Burton-Brown Hill (1948), Haftevan (Burney, 1973), Gijler (Pecorlla,and Salvini, 1984), Cole Tape (Abedi, 2011), the Kohneh Tappeh Cy (Zalaghi and Akhalari, 2007) the Kohneh Pasgah (Akhalari 2008) and the Barouj Tappeh (Alizadeh and Azarnoush, 2002).

The percentage of the volume of distribution of pottery on the surface of the site indicates that the period of dynamism and prosperity of this site has been in the era of urbanization and urbanization, and it seems that during this period, and for the first time in the plain, there could be a center with an area of more than 16 hectares said that the existence of such a center in the Khoi Plain is likely to be in the context of trans-regional trade.

Yassin Sedghi, Iraj Beheshti, Akbar Abedi, Nasir Eskandari, Farahangiz Sabuhi Sani,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)

The site of Narjuiyeh III is located on the eastern natural mounds of the Narjuiyeh village, from the west overlooking Halil River. Scattering of the fourth millennium BC, especially typical Aliabad type are visible on these mounds. Traces of illegal excavation are also available as pits and holes all over the site. Aliabad ceramics are pottery dating back to the fourth millennium BC (Chalcolithic) in the southeast of the Iranian plateau, first excavated and reported by Caldwell from Aliabad in Bardsir of Kerman, and then have been found and reported from fourth millennium layers of Tell Iblis (Iblis IV) which eventually became known as Aliabad Culture (Caldwell, 1967).      Ali-Abad culture potteries (Chalcolithic age) dates back to the 4th millennium BC in southeast of Iran which the distribution of its potteries include the regions of Kerman, Balouchistan and Pakistan. Aliabad pottery in the south-east of the Iranian plateau is one of the most important and prominent pottery types in the Chalcolithic period (Eskandari and Mollasalehi, 2017), which for more detail understanding about this culture in addition to archaeological studies, requires scientific archaeometric analysis and methods; therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate, study and further understand the fourth millennium BC pottery of Aliabad culture from Jiroft’s Narjuiyeh III site and understanding the expansion of this culture by using structural and technical studies of pottery of this period. At the same time, it has been attempted to use the method of mineralogy (petrography) to get information about how to process the paste, clay type and used temper, conditions, heating and temperature of baking in the furnace, as well as the understanding of the origin of pottery of this area. Archaeological studies show that Aliabad culture in the southeast of the Iranian plateau was the dominant culture of the region in the fourth millennium BC. In this study, it has been attempted to obtain mineralogical information regarding pottery (Aliabad pottery) using library and thin section petrography studies. The polarized binocular microscope JamesSwift made in the United Kingdom at the Petrographic Laboratory of the Institute for Restoration and Conservation was used for microscopic study of the studied pottery.
Keywords: Archaeometry, Petrography, Aliabad Culture, Narjuiyeh in Jiroft, Southeast of Iran.

From the textural point of view, the pottery was divided into two main categories of fine-grained and coarse-grained specimens. In fine-grained specimens, the components are less than 0.5 mm in size, and the components are finely crystallized in the texture of pottery. A group of pottery has immature silty texture. In the texture of these potteries, there are fragments of different sizes next to each other, and there is some clutter and disarrangement to the size of the minerals in the pottery. In terms of composition, all available pottery has the same composition and their difference are in the percentage of pieces in the pottery texture and their size. In all available ceramics, there are several minerals, including quartz, in the form of monocrystalline (monocrystalline) and polycrystalline, which are more abundant in monocrystalline form. This mineral has angular to semicircular margins indicating that quartz fragments have been added as secondary to the primary source. In some samples, minor amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene and amphibole with mica are observed. Mica minerals are mostly muscovite grains that are orange-colored, but sometimes orange-yellow muscovite grains can also be seen in the samples. This reaction is due to the change in the optical properties of the grains at a temperature of approximately 1000 degrees Celsius, which can be partially detected the temperature the pottery tolerated on during the heating process. In some samples igneous rock, chert and quartz rock fragments were used as fillers. In some pottery, calcite minerals can also be observed and used to detect its temperature range. Therefore, it can be concluded that due to the geology of the region and the presence of calcium carbonate in the sedimentary deposits of the region, the absence of calcite mineralization in some samples indicates that the temperature of the ceramics is higher than 800 °C, and in calcite-clay ceramics, the baking temperature of the clay is less than 800 °C (Reedy 2008; Riederer 2004). The two N9 and N7 specimens differ in composition from the other specimens. In these two samples calcite minerals are associated with the clay texture, whereas in the other samples this is not the case.

Based on the petrographic study of the pottery, it can be deduced that the source of the pottery studied was identical and their source material was from the same region in Kerman. However, the origin of manufacture and extracting of soil mines cannot be determined definitely, because the geology of the Kerman region is very large and vast especially the studied areas are in volcanic formations, which, the mineralogical composition and sequence of some of them are granite, granodiorite to quartz. Metamorphic, plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, and mica minerals and igneous and metamorphic rocks are within the geological family of the area, which exactly similar compounds can be found with the minerals in the pottery. There are also three different groups for these pottery: 1) Pottery with homogeneous texture. In this type of pottery, fragments and minerals are seen floating and scattering in the texture. 2) Pottery in the texture in addition to clay and fine minerals, phyllosilicate minerals (mica) exist in combination with the texture. 3) In these ceramics the combination of the texture of mineral carbonate calcium (calcite) together with the clay texture is visible, a situation not seen in the other samples. This indicates that the pottery used has different manufacturing techniques, therefore, several pottery makers have been involved in preparation and procurement of early paste and clay of the pottery. Pottery samples N5, N6, N7, N8 and N9 contain calcite minerals. It can be suggesting that the baking temperature of these pottery was less than 800 degrees Celsius. In the samples containing muscovite minerals, some of the grains show changes from orange to yellow, indicating that these ceramics have been sustain a temperature of approximately 950-1000 °C. Based on the results and even the buff-orange color of the ceramics, it should be noted that the analyzed pottery were baked in an oxidation condition and in a closed furnace. The type of baking and precision used in baking the pottery in high quality, especially the 4th millennium BC pottery, is very high, indicating that the technique used in baking pottery was also very professional. Some ceramics, such as (N1, N8, N9) have porphyry texture and in their texture quartz mineral, chert stone and igneous rock have been used as filler and temper. In most cases, the edges of quartz minerals are edged and sharp, which, indicates the use of primary soil and its paste processing and resultant of grinding of core and ore extractive mining because all fragments and sherds have sharp and angular angles as well. It should also be noted that there is no evidence of the use of organic materials as temper in pottery making.

Ali Karimikiya, Reza Rezaloo, Akbar Abedi, Ardeshir Javanmardzadhe,
year 5, Issue 16 (9-2021)

Northwestern Iran and the South Caucasus have relatively favorable environmental conditions for the formation of ancient settlements. These include the Urmia Lake basin and the Aras shores in northwestern Iran, and the Kura River, the Mil-Moghan (mountainous areas) in the South Caucasus region. The archaeological evidences and recent researches in two geographical areas illustrate the cultural shares and similarities of the period. The main purpose of this article is to introduce the areas and pottery traditions and to identify the sequence of chronology in the areas of study. The following questions will be raised in order to achieve cultural interactions in the geographical area studied in the Chalcolithic Period: How is the condition of chronology sequence in the two cultural domains? The main hypothesis in this regard is the existence of approximately the same chronology (the beginning and the end of the Chalcolithicperiod) in the two geographical locations. How do the layers of settlement and the sequences of residence from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic Periodin ancient sites indicate the theme of cultural continuity and transition? The present article is written by descriptive-analytical method. As a final result, it can be pointed to the similarities and differences of the archaeological data, including thepottery features, architectural structures, burials, etc. By studying the areas such as Dalma Tepe, Jolfa’s Kul Tepe, Khoy’s Davagöz, etc. in northwest of Iran and Leila Tepe, Galayeri, Puylu Tepe, Boyuk Kəsik, Soyuq Bulagh, Brikil Dibi, Kawtskhevy, Tekhvot have been obtained in the South Caucasus region and chronologically covers the millennium from 5000 BC to 3700/3600 BC. 
Keywords: Chalcolithic, Northwestern Iran, South Caucasus, Cultural Interactions, Chronology.

The northwest of Iran and the Caucasus have long been a prominent site for archaeological studies due to their proximity to important cultural sites such as Anatolia, Zagros, Mesopotamia and Central Asia. Most of the ancient sites both in the Caucasus region and in the northwestern Iran, which were inhabited by the Chalcolithic period, were also inhabited during the Neolithic period, suggesting that the human and animal habitat conditions and the environmental conditions are favorable. The following questions will be raised in order to achieve the cultural interactions in the geographical area under study in the Chalcolithic Period: 1. What is the status of the chronologysequence in the two cultural areas? The main hypothesis in this regard is the existence of a same chronology (beginning and end of the Chalcolithic Period) at two geographical points. 2. How do the layers of settlement and settlement sequences from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic Periodsindicate ancient sites, cultural status, and the cultural continuity and transition themes? Most of the ancient sites both in the Caucasus region and in the northwestern Iran, which were inhabited by the Copper-Stone period, were also inhabited during the Neolithic period, indicating the existence of afavorablehabitat and environmental conditions for both human and animal. Although there are also single-period enclosures among them.

In recent years, one of the most significant issues in introducing and studying the Chalcolithic culture of northwestern Iran havebeen the ambiguity and darkness in the timing chronology of the Chalcolithic Period of this region. Because, this period was introduced after the late Neolithic period, was identified in areas such as Haji Firouz, Hassanlu, Yaniq Tepe, etc., with a break of almost a thousand years. Dr Abedi’s recent years’ excavations atJolfa’s Kul Tepe and Khoy’sDəvə Göz have eliminated the gap in the timing of the Chalcolithic Period of northwestern Iran (Azarbaijan). The archaeological studies are divided in twostages; and its early stage dates back to the 19th century and is known as the Eneolit cultural period. The archaeologists in the North Caucasus geographical area of have identified two culturaltypes of Kura-Arax and Maikop in the Chalcolithic Period, hence, the two Kura and Araxrivers in the Caucasus Basin are named as the Mesopotamia of Caucasus.
One of the most important cultural data of the Chalcolithic Period is the rectangular architectural structures which are made of white raw clay. Inside the structure, large crumbs, food storage wells and numerous stoves, along with the data such as mortar, and grindstone, and burned remnants of grains such as barley, wheat and lentils have been obtained. The burial variety ofthe Chalcolithic Period is more diverse than the Neolithic period. The most repeated type of burial in the Chalcolithic Period is the pits burial, but more recently therehave also been found two other burial types such as burial in earthenware, and kurganburial.

One of the most important issues of Chalcolithic culture in the South Caucasus is anunbroken continuation of the Chalcolithic Period after the Neolithic period. This continuation can be seen in Mentesh Tepe, Aratashen, Khatun Ark- Aknashen, and theChalcolithic Period begins unbroken after the Neolithic periodin these areas. But after the Neolithic period, the Old Bronze Age beginsinNakhchivan’s Kul Tepe. Scientists consider the climate change as the main cause of cultural disruption. In the southern Caucasus, the earlyChalcolithic phasehas been dated from 4800/5000 to 4600 BC, and themiddle andthe lateChalcolithic phases from 4600 to 3200 BC, and some new areas, such as Nakhchivan Tepe, Uchan Aghil, Uzun Oba, is derived from the earlyChalcolithic Period that are closely related to Dalma culture.

Omidreza Kakuee, Majid Montazer Zohouri, Akbar Abedi, Ali Biganeh, Vahid Fathollahi, , Shokofeh Mesbahi, Amir Movafeghi, Omid Oudbashi, Behrooz Rok-Rok, Eafat Yahaghi, Mostafa Zahedifar,
year 6, Issue 20 (9-2022)

Archeology is the scientific study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of the remained material culture. The prerequisite for the development of archeological knowledge in the country is access to equipped laboratories, hiring experienced specialists, and expanding national, and international cooperation. Due to rapid advances in instrumental analysis, relevant people in the fields of art and archeometry should be aware of the advantages and limitations of different types of instrumental analysis. In this paper, facilities and research opportunities in analytical archeometry using natural science in Iran are presented and discussed. To introduce the technical capacities of the country in this field, the available equipment and facilities for performing nuclear analysis techniques and their related data analysis are investigated. Moreover, to identify the materials used in the cultural heritage samples and to determine their origin, characterization of some of these samples has been done using nuclear analysis methods. The activities performed in this research include X-ray and neutron imaging of the structure of an ancient jar belonging to the early Qajar period, elemental analysis of miniature in an ancient manuscript using elemental analysis method, investigation of the golden threads in the precious carpet belonging to the Safavid period using elemental and structural, and elemental analysis of luster tiles belonging to the Kashan using elemental analysis. The results of this research show that the existing technical capacities in the country can provide new opportunities for archeologists to understand the nature of the cultural heritage samples in more depth and to provide more accurate analysis of the investigated samples.
Keywords: Analytical Archeometry, Cultural Heritage, Elemental Analysis, Structural Analysis.

Archeology is an interdisciplinary science that studies ancient artifacts using analytical methods of various sciences and provides a deep insight into biological, social, cultural, and economic processes, and technologies used by humans throughout history. From the 20th century, cultural heritage researchers used the experts of all sciences and their new methods for the comprehensive reconstruction, biological and cultural transformation of humans, and knowledge of ancient artifacts and previous civilizations. As a result of this synergy, the recognition of cultural findings from archaeological excavations went beyond their mere description and classification, and more detailed analyzes of them were presented. Today’s archeology can be seen as the result of chemical studies in archeology since 1795 in Europe (Pollard, 2007: 5). These studies included preliminary investigations regarding metals, minerals, glass, and some organic remains. In 1853 A.D, in the archaeological reports, the first appendices related to chemical analysis were presented by the archaeologist Austen Henry Layard, which was the beginning of the scientific and systematic cooperation in the two fields of chemistry and archaeology (Layard, 2018: 9).

Materials and Methods
Neutron and X-ray radiography: A jar sample from the Qajar period has been used for radiographic images. Figure .1 shows the results of the experiment. 
PIXE analysis of the miniature: The PIXE analysis of the miniatures from the 15th century is measured in this work. Figure 2. Shows the setup of the experiment. 
Micro-PIXE and RBS of the gold fibers in the Safavid carpet: Figure 3 shows an exquisite carpet from the Safavid period from the Iran carpet museum. The elemental analysis of the fibers used in this carpet is performed by micro-PIXE and RBS. The detail of this experiment is presented in (Torkiha, 2010: 17).
PIXE-PIGE analysis of the Zarrinfam tiles: Figure 4 shows the ancient Zarrinfam tile related to the Tapehsilk shrine in Kashan. To check the presence of the Azure pigments in the blue color, the PIXE-PIGE analysis of the carpet is performed. The detail of this experiment is presented in (Ghadiri, 2015: 9).

The elemental map of the fiber of the carpet obtained by micro-RBS and PIXE is shown in Figure 5. The PIXE and PIGE of the Zarrinfam tiles are presented in Figures 5 and 6, respectively. 

The structural investigation of a jar from the Qajar period by the X-ray and neutron radiography showed that neutron radiography can show the detail of the sample. The PIXE analysis of the blue pigment in the miniature shows that the origin of this pigment is Lazorite stone (Kakuee, 2014: 124). The presence of the characteristic element of the mercury in the pink pigment shows that the origin of this color is the mineral Shangerf, which was also used to make red color in the Iranian ancient times. The bright pink color is also due to the green malachite pigment added to the main pigment of Shangerf (Kakuee, 2012: 178). The composition of the elements in the yellow pigment also indicates the use of gold in this pigment in order to increase its brightness. The use of gold to decorate the paintings in this form is still used. Regarding the black color, due to the presence of the characteristic element Mn in this pigment, its origin can be attributed to the mineral Pyrolusite (Clark, 2002: 7).
The micro-PIXE and RBS of the gold fibers in the Safavid carpet shows that there are large amounts of the sulfur element in the composition of all 3 fibers which is related to the silk thread used in making the fibers. The elemental distribution map of all 3 samples shows that gold, silver, and copper were used to make and decorate these fibers. In other parts of the fibers, no other characteristic element indicating the presence of pigment in the fibers was observed. Therefore, the silk used in making these fibers is raw and without dyeing. Micro-PIXE elemental analysis also shows that in the old samples of Golabatoon fibers, a thin layer of gold is covered on silver wires.
The PIXE analysis of the ancient Zarrinfam tile related to the Tapehsilk is performed by WinQxas (WinQxas, 2009) and the PIGE analysis is done by Fitzpeak software (FitzPeaks, 2011). Elements with an atomic number greater than aluminum have been detected using the PIXE analysis and elements F, Na, and Mg have been detected by PIGE analysis. The characteristic element for identifying lapis lazuli is Na, which is detected in large quantities in the samples 2 and 3. The amount of Na element in the sample 1 is very small and sample 4 also lacks this element. To confirm the results, all the 4 samples were exposed to the proton beam. In this case, induced light emission was detected only from the samples 1 to 3. Therefore, we can safely say that sample 4 is not lapis lazuli. Moreover, as shown in Table 2, the high amount of Co element in Zarrinfam tile distinguishes it from lapis lazuli stone. In fact, the combination of Co element with a glaze of Na alkaline elements in the sample is the origin of the azure color in Zarrinfam tile. The results of this research provide a suitable solution for determining the origin of lapis lazuli in the ancient samples and can be a suitable solution for monitoring of the economic and cultural relations of the past.

In this article, the scientific and technical capacities of the country and the active centers in the field of archeology, the state of analysis and software related to the data analysis are presented. To identify the active laboratories in the field of analysis of ancient artifacts, several active laboratories in the field of the analysis of archaeological samples and cultural heritage were introduced in this paper. Moreover, the results of the analytical archeology using several techniques were presented and discussed. 

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