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Showing 133 results for Subject: Special Archeology
Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrian, Khalilollah Beik Mohammadi,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
Qalakamandbeg is one of the most important sites accrued to the Neolithic period and without pottery at the Hersin - in the west of Iran – this site has formed in the proximity a silex outcrop (mine) and at the bank of GamasiAov River. Identification of a site accrued to the middle Paleolithic in the recent surveys in the proximity of Qalakamandbeg clearly shows that forming these ancient sites and presence of the humans after Paleolithic period at this part has two reasons: firstly, availability to these silex outcrops to produce the applicable tools, and secondly a permanent water source in the name of GamasiAov River. The large number of dispersed stony manufactures and also numerous collected samples indicate that this site could be called as a camp site accrued to the middle Paleolithic, a site that has been formed to produce the various tools by the silex outcrop at the bank of GamasiAov River.
Keywords: Hersin, GamasiAov, Middle Paleolithic, Qalakamandbeg, Raw Materials, Tools Stone.
GamasiAov River in the Hersin and Bistoon regions has always caused that the east and southeast areas of Kermanshah province to be one of the most important areas in Iran having survey about the Paleolithic period. Stanly Cown’s excavations (1949) in the cave of Shekarchian (hunters) Bistoon are the first surveys in this region and Iran (Cown 1959-60), these surveys paved the way to the next studies. Philip Smith has researches in the Kher Cave and also was completed the past researches made by Cown in the Bistoon Caves (Young and Smith 1966). In 1977, Mortensen and Smith were identified some of the places accrued to middle Paleolithic in the west of Hersin including a big workshop for cutting and producing the tools (Mortensen and Smith 1977, 1980). In the recent decades, the trend of studies has been promoted objectively and the same has led to more identified and excavated sites (Biglari and Taheri 2001, Shidrang2005, Jaubert et.al 2009, Chehri 2009, Biglari 2004, 2007). Recently, a visit to the old Neolithic sites at the peripheral areas of Hersin and Passer village was led to accidentally identification of a range of the tools accrued to the middle Paleolithic at around the Neolithic site of Qalakamandbeg, this subject shows that this site has relics accrued to the Old Neolithic along with the relics from the middle Paleolithic period as well.
Question, Theory and Research Method
The main question in this research is: which elements have been affected the forming of the middle Paleolithic site of Qalakamandbeg and also could attract the humans to come around the GamasiAov River at the Hersin plain, despite there is not any stony cave or shelter to have a permanent habitat here, because this region has a harsh situations during night time and also winter. The different studies have showed this site is an open and outdoor camp; there is a theory that says the most important item to attract the humans here is the same silex outcrops (in north of the site) to produce the applicable tools and also GamasiAov River, since we could not ignore this vital water source and existed aquatic creatures in it to constructe the interim and outdoor habitats here. This research method has concentrated on the surveys to collect the middle Paleolithic tools of this site and finally this research has used the library method to have complete study about the typology and producing the tools and its comparison with the similar discovered samples from the other middle Paleolithic areas in the central Zagros (Kermanshah).
Paleolithic Site of Qalakamandbeg
The Neolithic Tappeh, without the pottery of Qalakamandbeg, has located in a 1329m height of the sea level and also is 1500m away from the west point of Passar Village and about the 15km away of the west point of Hersin town (map.1). This Tappeh has been firstly found by Mortensen and Smith in 1977. Based on various studies and surveys, this site has two types of the relics accrued to the Islamic and Old Neolithic periods (Ibid) and there is not any study about the older relics here. Also other people had various studies such as Abbas Motarjem and Yahghob Mohammadifar (2002), Mohammad Eghbal Chehri (2009) but they pointed out that there is not any relic older than the Neolithic period. The recent visits and surveys on the north part of this tepe were led to find a series of the Levallois tools accrued to the middle Paleolithic, moreover other silex outcrops were also found in the several parts as well – it seems this site could have been used as the raw material to make the applicable tools – this site has located between the old truss over GamasiAov River and silex outcrop of Passar village, therefore Qalakamandbeg site has been possibly as an open and outdoor camp to produce the stony tools in the middle Paleolithic period.
The comprehensive (recently) studies and surveys in the Kermanshah region shows the important of utilization methods accrued to the societies of Paleolithic period from their environment and also displacement models of these societies in particular. It is worthy to note that identification of this Qalakamandbeg site at the bank of GamasiAov River would be seen in the same framework, since it has been formed in proximity of the Hersin’s silex outcrops, therefore the regions (Kermanshah) where having raw materials to produce the applicable tools, should be carefully considered. The results of performed studies in this site point out this site had been taken as a tool-producing camp at the bank of the river due to the numerous Levallois tools accrued to the middle Paleolithic period in this site, finally in fact this site has been as a tool-producing workshop from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic period and after this period on, instead only an important Paleolithic site for the people of the Hersin region – Qalakamandbeg Neolithic Tappeh can confirm this claim.
Mohammad Amin Mirghaderi, Ali Hozhabri,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
Central Zagros as one of the significant Iranian archeological perspectives has attracted the attention of many archeologists during the recent century and especially from the 1950s. It seems that the rugged lands of this near east region have been the cradle of many cultural evolutions during the history and the prehistoric periods. Although central Zagros due to its adjacency to the central Iranian plateau, Mesopotamian and southwest of Iran lowlands, and also the northwest mountains of Iran has been of concern mostly for the cultural remnants of the prehistoric societies, yet it has been a strategic and important region during the historical and even Islamic period. Among them we can mention the complex of Taq-e Bostan on the north of Kermanshah located on the ancient path of “The great Khorasan road”. This complex is on the hillsides of Parkuh and surrounded by thickets and a lake which cause it a particular situation throughout the history. This complex owes its fame to the Sassanid rock relief which has been visited by Abeh Pushan in 1792 for the first time. However, Herzfeld studies are the first scientific investigations on the historical complex of Taq-e Bostan. On the other hand, the
conducted excavations by Mr.Kambakhshfard in 1969 led by the accidental discovery of some pithos graves by municipality workers, resulted in achieving the evidences of a Parthian cemetery with more than 50 pithos graves and also remains of a village related to Parthian period. According the archeological investigations and studies on the ancient paths of the western Iran, or the surveys have been done in the region and ninety years background of archeological studies about this area, no report regarding the prehistoric existence of this complex has been presented. Morad Hasel site is the closest prehistoric site to this complex which has been identified and surveyed by Mr. Hassan Rezvani and it is related to the chalcolithic and Bronze Age. During the surveys and visits of Ali Hozhabri in the summer of 2013, some evidences of a chalcolithic site have been identified in the western park of Taq-e Bostan complex. This site was surveyed and its surface findings were transferred to the C.H.H.T organization for filing and documenting. Regarding the nature of the findings which were collected during the field survey, the aim of the present study is to introduce this significant site and to present a relative
history for the site’s artifacts. In the following, the overall image of cultural structure of this site is recon structed with an analytical view and with regard to the chronology and the location of this site.
Keywords: Central Zagros, The Western Park of Taq-e Bostan, Chalcolithic Age, Kermanshah.
This site is located on the north of the current city of Kermanshah, Taq-e Bostan historical complex; with northern longitude of ″16 ′23 °34 and eastern latitude of 47″54.7′7°. Altitude of this site from the sea level is 1395 m and is one-kilometer length and 300 meters width. This site is located on the west of Taq-e Bostan, in the western Park of the complex and on the hillside, surrounded by pine trees and close to a basin with a boiling fountain. This basin known as Taq-e Bostan Sarab is one hundred meters far from the east of the site. The site is one kilometer far from the north of Qarasu River. On the rather steep slope of the mountain and some deep clefts have been made on its both sides by heavy equipment. The Parthian cemetery of Taq-e Bostan is formed on the Taq-e Bostan western park site’s remnants. Fortunately, the pine jungle around this site has prevented the urban construction and the field is preserved. However, since the Parks and green spaces organization of Kermanshah is beside the site, and in 2005 Kermanshah municipality decided to build a parking in this area and started to excavate in two parts of the site. The result of this earthworks were discovery of some Parthian pithoi graves which were unfortunately destroyed; although C.H.H.T stopped their progress but those clefts are still obvious and gradually they turned in to a dumping ground for city wastes and building debris. Later the municipality started to expand the west Park area of Taq-e Bostan with some changes. Except the known sites and caves around Taq-e Bostan which are far from the historical monuments, up to now Taq-e Bostan complex has been known and studied for its Parthian, Sassanid and Qajarian cultural remnants. Discovering a prehistoric site in this complex can emphasize its importance, not only for the historical and Islamic period but also the prehistoric (Chalcolithic) period. The Godin excavations can be considered as the base for western Iran chronology of central Zagros, but it seems that contrary to Kangavar plain, and in compare to eastern plains of Zagros, Mesopotamian ceramic culture was more widespread in the western plains of central Zagros such as Mahidasht during the fourth millennium B.C. accordingly, the chalcolithic chronology in Kermanshah and Mahidasht plains can be studied based on the excavations conducted in Siyahbid and Chogha Maran. Based on the chronology of the neo-chalcolithic period of this site which its evidences have been obtained on the workshop no. 3, handmade red ware and black ware ceramics with black decorative patterns have been found related to this period. The proposed date for the neo-chalcolithic of Mahidasht is 3000 – 3600 B.C; comparison of the discovered ceramics indicates the concurrency of this site with GodinVI: 1 and neo-chalcolithic layers in Siyahbid and Chogha Maran. Clearly, ceramics are the most important and significant cultural material of the near east. Due to the degradation and destruction, the surface cultural material of this site is just shreds. The neo-chalcolithic ceramics of the western Park of Taq-e Bostan complex are buff ware with vegetal temper and light red coating color. These ceramics are handmade, properly baked and medium quality. Among the surface ceramics of this site, no patterned shred was found but regarding the appearance of these ceramics, they can be related to neo-chalcolithic, specially the common rolled Rim bowls have been seen among the collected samples of the surface. Considering the clefts in this site made by the blades of the road construction equipment, the cultural material accumulation can be seen in this site. Ceramics are this site is comparable with the ceramics of GodinTepe in Kangavar plain and Siyahbid in Kermanshah plain.
Yaghub Mohammadifar, Faramarz Mirzaei, Maryam Rahmati-E Turkashvand,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
The composition of music and poem has leaded both of them to poetical growth and deep thinking. Sasanid civilization had penetrated in to the pillars of the society in Abbasid period, and music found an important place as one of the symbols of Sasanid civilization. Poets in Abbasid period have created lovely images by musical instruments. In this way, Abu Nawas was a poet who showed his power in creating poetical images by musical instruments. He was able to mix music with human feeling. He knew music as a doleful tune and delightful melody which rises up of the soul of musician, it did not come from a strict string, or a lifeless wood (stick). In his poems, he mentioned some of the instruments; Lute and Flute and Harp, Tambourine and Tanbur and Mizmar were the most important among them.
Keywords: Iranian Music, Abu Nawas, Sasanian Period.
Music of Sassanid and Abbasid era: The history of musical performance in Sassanid Iran is, however, better documented than earlier periods. This is specially more evident in the context of Zoroastrian ritual. By the time of Xusro Parviz, the Sassanid royal court was the host of prominent musicians. In general, the period of Xosro Parviz reign is regarded as an “golden age of Iranian music” and himself is shown in a large relief at Taq-e Bostan among his musicians and himself holding bow and arrows and while standing in a boat amidst a group of harpists. The relief depicts two boats and the whole picture shows these boats at “two successive moments within the same panel”.
The musical instruments which appeared distinctly on the Sassanid sculptures were the harp, the horn, the Daf, the drum and the flute or pipe. The harp is triangular, and has seven strings; it is held in the lap, and played apparently by both hands. The drum is of small size. The horns and pipes are too crudely represented for their exact character to be apparent. Concerted pieces seem to have been sometimes played by harpers only, of whom as many as ten or twelve joined in the execution. Mixed bands were more numerous. In one instance the number of performers amounts to twenty−six, of whom seven play the harp, an equal number the flute or pipe, three the horn, one the drum, while eight are too slightly rendered for their instruments to be recognized. A portion of the musicians occupy an elevated orchestra, to which there is access by a flight of steps. Music is one of the most important factors in the Sassanian Persian civilization. Unfortunately, there is no note left from that period about their melodies. Thus, we are not able to become familiar with the theory of music in these periods.
Abu Nawas, an innovative poet: Innovative poets in the beginning of Abbasid era changed the contents of Arabic poetry. It is exclamatory that the leadership of this innovativeness belongs to Iranians. Bashaar, Abu Ataaie, Abu Nawas are the initiators of evolution in Abbasid poetry and they are called as the modernists of Abbasid Period.
Musical instruments in the poems of Abu Nawas: The names of musical instruments in Abu Nawas’ poets are mixed with his poetic emotions. For Abu Nawas, these instruments are not a set of strings or woods to be mentioned in the poem, rather he connects his emotions with these instruments. He vitalizes them. He perceives them their sound as human emotions as he blows in them or plays them weather in mood of euphoria or illness.
Lute and Flute: Lute is also called Barbat. It is an old instrument which is called Mezmer by Arabs and it is considered the best and the most joyful instrument. It is said that: they asked Lute, “is there any instrument better than you?” It answered “No”, while he bent his head to the back and stayed that way.
Harp and Daf: Literary, harp means paw and it is the name of a popular instrument or the name of anything which is bent. Harp is made by zinc. Hitting two of them together makes it sing. In Hindi they call it Jahanche. In Persian, Daf is the name of a popular instrument. In Arabic it is called Dof. Daf has a circular shape and it is made by wood, covered by animal skin. In some of its parts, rings are attached to it and this instrument is very precious for Dervishes.
Tanbur: Tanbur is a Persian musical instrument which has entered into Arabs culture. Originally this instrument was called Danbare in the beginning. Its bowl and surface was smaller than the bowl and surface of Shervanian Tanbur and it surface was flat and smooth.
Mizmar: It is said that Mizmar is a reed or it is lute and also it has been referred to as Barbat. It has been called Mezmar by concise which means Trachea. Mazaamir are burnt reeds. Paluarr form of Mizmar means Trachea and in Arabic, it means the puluarar form of singers’ instruments.
Last words: Abu Nawas, a modernist poet of Abbasid period, is an Arab poet (originally Persian) who has created new and beautiful concepts and images based on the culture and civilization of Sasani. This concepts and images include Iranian instruments and melodies of Sasanid period. Reed, Lute, Harp, Daf, Tanbur, Mizmar are mentioned in Abu Nawas’ poetry. Among this instruments, Reed and Lute are two mostly been mentioned together. An important point to mention about these instruments is their vitalization by the poet. These instrument are not only names to be used to describe the event or report the lifestyle of that period, they have been used as symbols to show us the joy of living, by imagination and vitalization of the instruments. Abu Nawas’ proficiency in Arabic language, his knowledge of Iranian culture and Sasanid music, enabled him to create new images and meanings and granted him a special place in Abbasid period.
Morteza Hessari, Hassan Akbari, Alireza Sardari-E Zarchi,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
In this paper, research was performed on cultural materials from Bard Panir, which morphologically is located on southern Central Zagros at mountainsides of Lorestan, close to the Khuzestan Plain and is geopolitically a part of Khuzestan Province. However, this region is similar to Lorestan Province with regard to its average rainfall, its mild temperature is neither similar to freezing winters of Lorestan, nor like torrid summers of Khuzestan. In addition, this region had traditionally been fertile because of being near Bala Roud, Dez and Karkhe (Hole, 1994). Regarding Cultural-Historical parameters, this region seems to be at least contemptuous with cultural materials from cultural periods such as Shoush II or Uruk in Mesopotamia. Shoush II Period in Khuzestan is known based on what is found in Acropolis I, especially layers 17-22. Moreover, materials from Apadana are analogous to those from Acropolis1, layers 19-22 (Dittmann, 1986: 76). Therefore, this time horizon seems to be related to a network of societies that connect Central Zagros to Khuzestan, and from there to Mesopotamia, within which is especially located the key deployment called Uruk, which is divided into three periods: Early Uruk, Mid Uruk, and Late Uruk. Hence, based on cultural materials excavated by authors and some samples from this site which were kept in Andimeshk Cultural Heritage, the morphology and location of this Tappeh, as a special physiographical region, were determined.
Keywords: Bard Panir, Shoush II, Uruk, Beveled Rim Bowl, Baneshi Tray.
Location and Description of Bard Panir
This site is located near the banks of Bala Roud Dam, Bala Roud, close to Hosseinieh
Town, northern Andimeshk City, Khuzestan Province. It is at 32 40 13.4 northern latitude; at 048 15 49.4 eastern longitude; and at a height of 343 m Altitude the sea level. Although, Bard Panir is geopolitically mapped within Khuzestan Province, it must geographically be located at southern Central Zagros. Bard Panir is about 10 m high; its area is 3.5 Ha; and distribution of pottery in it extends to around 30 Ha. This site is within a plain, at 100 meters from the banks of Bala Roud. Moreover, the site is about 40 m above the level of this river, and all surrounding area can be observed. It is circular. Within it, there are observed pieces of architectural evidence such as steeples and walls. Fortunately, because of being surrounded by the dam, it is not damaged by illegal excavations, buildings, farming, and traffickings by domestic and humans; so that it is easy to find large pieces of pottery and other data on the surface of this site.
Different cultural materials were collected from Bard Panir such as:
Pottery, Coarse Ware
1. Beveled Rim Bowl (Tab 1, Fig 3): This type of bowl is buff or cream-pink in colour. It is categorized among simply designed potteries. It is made of Chaff. There is observed some impurities because of using sands. Its surface is coarse because of the methods of they are produced. On the interior side of this kind of pottery is observed the deep trails of potter’s fingers. The rim of the container had been bevelled by a thing such as a piece of pottery or bone or fingers. Temper such as large (about 1.5 cm) chaff had been used. Moreover, average and tiny (0.5mm-5mm) sands had intentionally been added to the pottery material, so that the surface of the pottery is coarse. The mouth of all excavated pieces were approximately identical, ranging from 15 cm to 16.7 cm. All potteries are firmly made and almost all samples are baked completely. Data with regard to four of these containers are as follows: Container no. 1: 980ML; Container no.2: 965ML; Container no.3: 940ML; Container no. 4: 928ML
2. Baneshi Tray: Baneshi tray, which is known by its Uruki name, is a simple and shallow container. This had been made in circular and oval shapes in pinkish or buff colour. These potteries are hand-made and are made without any kinds of decorations or motifs. The temper used is of herbal kind which includes large (1.5 cm long) chaffs; however, some tiny (rarely larger than 2 mm) soft sands had intentionally added to the soil. It seems that they had been haggled; then they had been sprayed like a bread; and lastly the rims of the container had been leaned inwards; while, the surface of the container is levelled by hands and fingertips. The coarse exterior surface is the outcome the method of manufacturing them.
Fine Buff Ware Plain and painted (Tab 2, Fig 4): This type of Buff pottery includes often simple and rarely painted Motives. They had been designed mostly in brown and red colours. Their body is relatively thin.The Temper which are used mostly belong to the category of minerals. In the body of these pieces are observed coarse and homogeneous sands (0.20-2mm), being graded with a quality ranging from good to very good. According to the temper used in these types of potteries, the soil used by the potters had been relatively clean. There were not observed any impurities except for rare cases. The mould used by potters had acceptably been knead; however, the large amount of temper had resulted in its firm structure.
Fine Red Ware (Tab 3): This kind of pottery with orangey-red mould, includes often plain and rarely painted potteries. The Temper that had been used in these kinds of potteries are tiny minerals and are similar to small knobs on the interior and exterior surfaces of all pieces. Furthermore, in some cases the additive Chaff is observed, and this is one of the most important characteristics. In all these types of potteries except for one, the interior surface of the open-mouth pottery which is covered similar to the exterior surface is simple and untouched; so that the trails of parallel lines made by pot-wheel are observed clearly on the interior surface of the pottery. The soil used in manufacturing these potteries are observable with naked eye, although the herbal additives are chipped very small in size, and lots of heterogeneous and numerous sands in all sizes. The mould had acceptably been knead and potteries are made of a constant and firm structure.
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
The site, Gand-Ab was archaeologically excavated during three seasons in 2002, 2003, 2006. During the first season, more than 25 graves were discovered, some of which were illegally excavated. In this excavation, we tried to use the excavated graves for completing our information about the funeral customs and architectural features of Gand-Ab Graves. The second season continued archaeological, anthropological studies; in addition to geological, topographical and networking studies of Gand-Ab Site. Seventeen graves were excavated during this season. In the third season in 1385, settlement sites were excavated as well as the graves, and this was an excavation of Gand-Ab settlements for the first time. During the first season, two hypotheses were proposed about the non-proportionality of architectural remnants and the settlements in Gand-Ab compared to the extent of the grave. This site is about 51 km northern Semnan City, 26 km northern Shahmirzad City, and 3 km west of Shahmirzad-Sari Road. This site is located 53/28/23 eastern longitude and 35/54/21 northern latitude. The Gand-Ab Site is about 2280 m above the sea level (Image 1 & 2).
Keywords: Semnan Archaeology, Graveyard, Iron Age, Gand-Ab, Kharand.
A: Body positioning
Burials placed in a number of different positions:
1. Supine burying (Image 4); 2. Squatting burying (Image 5).
In supine, the dead were buried straight, on their back, head on their right shoulder or their left shoulder. Their hands were sometimes straight at the sides of their bodies and sometimes they were placed on their stomach or on their chests. Any special direction for dead bodies were not observed. In squatting, the dead body were on sides of their bodies without considering any directions. The direction of the graves had been selected based on geographical conditions, so that the head had been placed in contrary to the slopes of the mountain, while their feet had been on the direction of the slopes.
B: the architecture of Graves
Because of the rocks, the Gand-Ab graves had been dug in a special method. These graves were prepared based on the height of the dead. The architecture of the graves in this site is of four types:
1. Hand-dug rocky graves; 2. One-stratigraphic graves; 3. Two-stratigraphic graves; 4. Sour-stratigraphic graves.
1. Hand-dug rocky graves: first rocks were dug, and then the dead had been placed inside the grave. After funeral, they had covered the dead with another rock, and at last they covered it all with soil. It is observed in some cases that they had filled the seam between rocks with pieces of sand and mud (Image 6).
2. One-stratigraphic graves: in these kinds of graves, one walls of the grave were built by placing stones on each other without using mud. The covering rock were placed on the grave in a declivitous form (Image 7).
3. Two-stratigraphic graves: in this kind of burying, two walls at the length of the grave were built by placing stones on each otherand covering it by a rock. On the wall of these graves were considered four niches. The existence of niches in graves is one of architectural features of Gand-Ab and Kharand Graves. However, there were discovered graves without any niches (Image 8).
4. Four-stratigraphic graves: the interior walls of these graves were all made by placing
pieces of sand and stones without using mud. On the wall of these graves, there were discovered one to four niches, in which they had placed things and food. Looking at the
covering rock, it is possible to guess the sex of the skeleton. Gand-Ab settlements had left much more things for the dead women. Therefore, for leaving more things in a grave they had needed more space, so that the covering rock had needed to be bigger (Image 9).
The Covering of Graves
The covering rocks on graves in Gand-Ab were prepared from the Sar Avar Mine in southern Gand-Ab. Some rocks had been monolith rocks, which are now broken into the grave because of pressure. In some cases, stones were placed on graves using trunks of trees (Image 10). It is observed in some cases that the seam between the wall and the covering rock had been filled with smaller stones and mud (Image 11) so that the soil do not enter the grave.
The Art of Pottery
The Gand-Ab settlements had been skilful potters, who had created lots of artistic beauties. The pottery paste in Gand-Ab is mostly a brownish red color. buff color is rarely observed. Kitchen pottery with soft paste and smoky body is observed among pieces of pottery as well. Pieces of sand are used for pasting pieces of pottery. Both hand-made and wheel-made pottery was observed in Gand-Ab. Most pieces of pottery are well-baked, but some pieces are mildly baked, while some are badly baked so that they had completely been smashed.
Because of the shortage of published sources, the author had to rely on the sources kept in the northern provinces of Iran (Golestan, Mazandaran and Gilan), which have mostly been discovered from smugglers, and compare them with the excavated cultural material from Gand-Ab. It is worth considering that most of the cultural material kept in these places had been dated wrongly because of a lack of knowledge about this site. Based on the existing documents, some tribes had been scattered at the end of the second millennium BC to the first millennium BC (Iron II, III) at the mountain ranges of Alborz and close to the water resources. The economy of these tribes had been based on ranching and for this purpose they had travelled from lowlands of Mazandaran to mountain ranges during summer to use rich pastures such as Kharand, Dargazeh, KhatirKuh, Gand-Ab, etc. These tribes had been aware of the arts such as pottery, metallurgy and decoration.
These tribes had a rich architecture. They used the local materials such as stones, mud and wood of Avras (gorse). The social hierarchy in Gand-Ab is recognized based on the quality and quantity of materials that they had placed besides women compared to men. Settlers in Gand-Ab had believed in the afterlife and they had placed close to the death inside the graves materials such as pottery, metals, stones and food. In addition to meat, these tribes had used herbal seeds. The dead had been buried with clothes because there were discovered cloths in the graves.
- Vanden Berghe, L .A. (1964). La Necropole de khurvin. Leiden.
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
One of the controversial architectural monuments in Iran historical era is a building that today, is known to Anahita temple. In summary, three expeditions excavated in Kangavar terrace that all of them conducted by Iranian experts. The first expedition conducted by Seifollah Kambakhshfard, from 1968 to 1975. He concluded that kangavar terrace was Anahita temple, and it is Where that Isidore of Charax so called Artmis temple. He reported that it had constructed in from fourth and fifth century B.C and it used until end of the Sassanids era. The second expedition conducted by M.Azarnoush, from 1976 to 1977. He believed that the historical monument of kangavar is Ghasr-e lesus, which has been reported in resources of Islamic historian. He supposed Kangavar terrace is a palace from second Khosro era. Azarnoush published a design that it be on basis of design of Alexander verika, but he added some crenation’s to the covering upside of columns.
The third expedition conducted by Mohammad Mehryar and have begun their excavations and repair operation from 1988 until 2000. He reported that the columns which were on the perimeter terrace wall, had been uncovered. Mehryar have presented a design which have shown three uncovered terraces and have shown uncovered columns of external façade wall of perimeter terrace against of other group opinions.
At present, the reasons which proved that Kangavar terrace is a cult that had been belonged to Second Khosro era are as follow:
A-The form of building plan which had been composed of three uncovered terrace and it is obvious that no royal palace or residential building had been constructed uncovered.
B-The form of Sassanid places which had been composed of a Ivan which led to the yard. On the other hand, Sassanid palaces usually contained numerous decorations of stucco; however, it is not found any small slice in excavations.
C-It found some engraved capital in Taq-e Bostan that it belongs to the Second Khosro probably, also historical resources reported that some monuments of Khosro consist of: palace, kitchen and so on in Kermanshah district.
Keywords: Anahita Temple, Kangavar, Khosrow Parviz, Dadi Vank.
This paper concluded that Historical monument of Kangavar had been a cult which had been belonged to Sassanid Second Khosro. In fact, this holy place had been a place that the second Khosro had wanted to construct near of his palace and symbolic grave (Taq-e Bostan). This monument had been three uncovered terraces and there had been one two sided stairway which had been in southern edge that had been composed the basic entrance of the building. The author believes that if we suppose Kangavar building as three uncovered terraces, with compared to the ceremonies and rites which had been seen in Armenian monasteries, especially in Dadivank and it had been the reflex of ceremonies of antique Mazdisnan. We can imagine that such ceremonies had been implemented in Kangavar building, but the style of shaving stones, thickness and short columns had been comparable with the lithic building of Zvartons temple which had been belonged to seventh century A.D in Armenia. This building had been constructed by Armenian architectures in according to the Christian column structure accompanying with trinity belief of Holy Gregory. This belief has been shown precisely in construction of this temple. In another place in Dadivank monastery which had been belonged to the middle ages (12-20), prayers and prayers walk through the mountains routes and enter to the collection as pilgrim in order to implementing the religious ceremonies and rites. When they enter to the collections, they understand that there is a chapel in middle part which is called Khachkars. There are holy trees and water fountain in this place. When they enter the temple, the believes should pass among the holy spaces. This first holy place is western entrances which has been constructed skillfully and have rich decorations. The second holy place is chapel hall and the third and the last holy place and also the most sacred place is altar that is called Khoran. At here there is altar situated against a window and is a place which God should appear in it and the prayers communicate with him and hold the ceremonies of cult and prayer. It seems, in Kangavar’ terrace, the king and praises after climbing of southern step to top of the first terrace, that had been called perimeter terrace, had been reached to the place which it’s uncovered columns like the circuit wall of holy trees had been shown the frontage and border of the cult. A Number of people should had stood or waited in this terrace. Then, a number of other people had been gone to the middle terrace which had been probably a chapel. The praises of two aforesaid terraces had been the witnesses of implementing the fire ceremonies in third terrace which in fact, had been a cult. According to the reports of historical resources, especial Zakariya Mahmod Ghazvini, after Khosrow parviz death, this building had been remained imperfect and never had been exploited completely.
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Reza Mehr Afarin, Zahir Vasegh-E Abbasi,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
Sistan is a plain land in east of Iran and today an extensive part of it is located in Afghanistan. In Parthian period, the region was an important natural, economic and religious zone and the homestead of one of the greatest Parthian families, Soren Pahlav. In Sassanid period, Sistan was called Sakestan and due to its special region, it was ruled by the Sassanian prince Sakan shah who ruled upon vast Koost of Nimrooz. Sassanians not only centralized the political power but also they used Zoroastrianism as the official religion of the country and severely defended it so that state and religion became two inseparable brothers which support and uphold each other. At the commence of the new period, Sistan was attended by the Sassanian monarchies because of the new religious basements of it. In the few texts remained of Sassanid period Sistan is introduced as a very significant region. In Khorde Avesta, Atashbahram, in the twentieth paragraph, after three magnificent fires, fire of Karkooy is alluded (Doostkhah, 1375: 607). In Bondahesh also fire of Karkooy is mentioned related to the three magnificent fires (Faranbaghdadegi, 1369). In Islamic narratives Karkooyeh is known as a private temple of Garshasb and the author of “The History of Sistan” writes: Zoroastrians know it as a holy place and believe that Garshasb left his divine spirit there and made it a holy place by it.
Keywords: Sistan, Zoroastrianism, Fire Temple, Karkooy, Ancient relics
The remnants of Karkooyeh or Karkooshah fire temple is twenty kilometers in west-north of Zaranj and in the left of it there is a branch of Hirmand river near Miyankangi region. This ancient building is interrelated to the culture and history of the region and the identity of it is still remained firm. The people of the region know Karkooyeh fire temple very well and narrate lots of tales about it.
Some of European scholars and counselors like colonel Yeat in 1894 have visited this place. Sir Percy Siecs in 1899 considered this place as the capital and the main temple of Kiyaniyan and in 1905 Georg Peter Tit, the topographer of Gold Smith team studied the detailed architectural features of it.
The geographers of the first decades of the Islamic period considered Karkoo a noteworthyregion and Ibne Khordadiyeh in third century H.gh counted it as a county of Sistan. Before the occupation of Sistan by Arabs, Karkooy and Targhoon fire temples were extensively important temples. Arabs stifled the temples and suffocated the holy fires. Most probably the Muslim Arabs neglected the little temples and suffocated the great and important ones to evince the predominance of Islam (Tit, 1362: 122).
Among the geographers the most amount of information was presented by Simaye-Karkooyeh, Zakariya Mohammad Ibne Ghazvini who lived in seventh century the AH. But it is not clear whether he describes the structure as it is in his age or he narrates it from what he heard from the ancestors: “Karkooyeh is an old city of Sajestan. There are two domes in it. The people believe that they belong to the age of Rostam and at the top of them there are two curved horns like the ones of a thorn. They are the wonder of the land from the age of Rostam. Under the domes there are two temples for Magians. It seems that they put up somewhere as a temple near their houses and the fire never suffocates there. And there are servants for these temples who kindle the fire by turn and sit up far from it while covering their noses and mouths and silver tongs in their hands put wood in fire and before it subside put another one in it and this is the biggest temple for magians.”(Ghazvini, 1371: 321)
According to the local studies, some cultural materials like tiles were obtained from this region to estimate the history and record of establishment in this ancient and religious land. After the typology tests and sorting them, they were studied by comparison. It shows that Tepe Karkoo was established from the Parthian period and it went on till eighth century AH (Musavi Haji, Mehrafarin, 1386: v.3). There is nothing remained of the Sassanid fire temple but from the structure of this period (the main building of the temple) some parts of a brick wall is visible; the other parts of it are under ground and the remnants of the Islamic period. Detailed study of it and drawing the outline of the plan of the fire temple is possible only through later archeological excavations.
Natural factors like wind, rain, severe sunshine, flood and especially human beings always had a destructive effect upon the structure.
Illegal excavations are a main reason for the destruction of the establishment. These excavations which are done by smugglers and predators of the cultural legacy cause severe destruction of the temple.
Deep roots of Zoroastrianism in this region, wealth and strong settlement of it, the strategic situation and presence of the prince, caused the establishment of such a huge and important fire temple in this region. According to the texts and books of the historians and geographers of the first decades of the Islamic period it seems that Karkooy village of today is the same Karkooy (Sassanid holy fire temple) which is mentioned in Khorde Avesta and Bondahesh and the town which is talked about in the books of Ibne Hoghal, Maghdasi, Estakhri and Hamdollah Mostofi and was alluded to lots of time in the historical texts.
Seyed Mohammad Amin Emami,
year 1, Issue 1 (12-2017)
The mineralogical and chemical investigation of ancient slag is of high importance for economic mineralogist and archaeometalurgist. These investigations reveal information, which is of general historical and mineralogical interest. Over than 95% of metallic reservoirs have proved antiquity evidences. By using mineralogical-petrographical studies on metallurgical slag as an object from the ancient world, it could be enhance to understanding about the major and trace elements via metal extraction.
The basin of Halil Rood (Halil River) is privileged to have a rich civilization. Many objects as well as metallurgical evidences belonging to the third millennium BC have been discovered in this district during the archeological excavations. Kerman – Rabor – Jiroft district is of great interest due to the archaeometallurgical signs in south-west Iranian desert and belong to the Halil Rood region. This district is important according to the enrichment of polymetallic hydrothermal ore reservoir such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, Ag and Au in south and south-west of Zagros orogeny. Several scientists have been focused on this region, as one of the born place of metallurgy in the ancient World . The primary aim of this study was the characterization of extracted metals and the methods of smelting. The objects to be discussed here are mostly copper slag as well as ores. 20 local mining- and metallurgical places have been found through recently archaeometallurgical expedition. These places are mainly consisted of slag-heap, fireplaces and ore deposition, which are remarked possibly as passage-metallurgy along south Iranian desert.
Keywords: Archaeometallurgy, Metallogeny, Petrology, Slag, Copper, Kerman.
There are several slag accumulations in Halil region. The slag samples investigated during the present work were collected from thirty-seven different ones which were located in different parts of studied area. There are four Types of slags in these districts districts.
A) The slags are generally massive and in some cases the colour is black with some red spots (Copper). The sign of flow structures can be seen on some of them, but there is no glacial one. The porosity is high as well as their density. The structure such as furnace has been excavated from this area. This Furnace has ca. 1.5 m cross section dimension.
There was a deponie of slags materials upside this furnace. In the furnace there exist no slags by now. It could be the furnace with temporary employment in this region. Such furnaces with the same structures have been observed in the north of central desert in Iran, In sahroud and Khorasan region.
B) there are five small dumps located near each other which have been considered. These samples have flow structures. They are black and red in color and have more porosity than an accumulation’s samples.
C) several small dumps located at the main stream at the north of Rabor-Jiroft district, which considered as C accumulation. Only one slag was selected from it. This sample is black in colour and has massive structure. No flow or glacial structures can be seen between slag pieces in C accumulation.
D) A very small dump has been excavated. The physical properties of these slags are completely different from other ones. This sample has many porosity and low density. It is black in colour and no flow or glacial structures are seen. Mineralogical and petrological analyses were performed only on slag materials. The dating of all this samples to classify these dumps could not be possible in this project. The distribution of the dumps is not only statistically but also commonly on this field, and for this reason there is another factor to have no chance to get the better results in respect on the ageing of dumps on this region exactly. The topographic situation and the changing of the earth in each seasons, and the movement of the seasonal rivers disturb the structure of the surface topography permanently each year. This distribution during the overflows in the wet seasons could be the aspect of slag’s distribution either.
Halil region is located in south central of Iranian metallogenic zone. Rock types in this area are mainly divided into 6 sections as follow:
1. Upper Proterozoiec: the oldest and the most abundant rock type in studied area. This formation is composed of quartzitic shist, phyllic- like schist, green schist and marble. Quartz-chloric, quartz- seresic, chloritic schist are also existed with an admixture of carbonate with thick layers and lenses of dolomitize marble, dolomite and rare beds of chloritized calcareous-quartz.
2. Cretaceous: This rock type forms bands of sublatitudal. Lower Cretaceous deposits are spread in external parts. This rock type largely composed of carbonate rock, less abundant conglomerate, gravels and sand stone.
3. Eocene: This basal unit of tuff- conglomerate lies completely at the lower part of the complex. These are overlain by tuff and lavas of trachyandesitic and andesitic composition, with intercalation of trachyandesite- basalt and lime stone. The section is crowned by fine- fragment of tuff and tuff- mudstone.
4. Dykes: the oldest and the most abundant Dykes are porphyry granite, aplitic granite, microgranosyenite, syenite and lamprophyre. The younger ones are porphyry granodiorite and porphyry diorite.
5. Plutonic rocks: these rocks are very abundant and most of them are acidic. Linear ultra mafic structures are observed in this area. Plutonic units are divided into different parts: Diorite-Manzanite, Manzanite-Quartz Manzanite, Porphyry Alkaline, Graniteporphyry, Quartz Syenite.
6. Quaternary: these sediments are widespread in all over the studied area. Genetically, they are subdivided into alluvial- proluviall- and eolian sediments.
The probable ore types which is outcropped in this area are classified as the following table; The objects to be discussed here are the copper slag. The primary aim of this study was the characterization of materials and the methods of smelting. The objects which have been found here are mostly slag as well as ores. The slag shows the structure of casting slag and also remains from the smelting furnace. The materials are characterized by means of XRD-XRF and Pol-Microscopy methods.
The slag contains high amount of Copper oxide, hydroxide and carbonate and silicate and some amount of MgO or MnO complexes. The main silicate appeared here is Fayalite and pyroxene which has been existed in the matrix of slag. The main paragenesis is chalcocite-chalcopyrite-covellite. copper was smelted at the high oxygen fugacity; approximately about 10-7 atm. Indeed, the furnaces heated with charcoal and charcoal observed also in the macroscopic texture of slag.
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year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
By author has been studied the areas of Jam, Riz, Saadat Shahr, Marvdasht, and Kazeron in Fars and Bushehr provinces from years of 2000 to 2007. During these surveys, 19 cave and rock shelter of Paleolithic period from plains of Jam and Riz are identified in southeast of Bushehr province that from this number, 5 sites related to Paleolithic period. The pastoral nomads of inhabitant in Bushehr province are most important groups of user these caves and rock shelters in plains of Jam and Riz. In this research are studied destruction factors of first of communities in south Zagros. The mining operations, non-standard construction, and excavations of illegal are the main factors of destruction in these sites. Furthermore, non-standard gathering the stone tools from Paleolithic period by archaeological students, and also unfamiliarity of the managers of cultural heritage of this region, are other the factors destruction these sites. So, for prevent the destruction of these sites must be done training local people and participation them in tourism this area. Introducing these tourist places in different ways is an important task to introduce these traces. Also, the build of museum site in the Paleolithic caves, and training of local children and tourists children, are from other effective actions. In this research for the first time, is study pathology of Paleolithic sites in Iran. The method of doing this research is descriptive-analytical. The analysis of this study is more reliant on information, founds, and data. So, in this research following questions are raised: Which is factors the main factors of destruction the sites of the Paleolithic period in South Zagros? And, what practical measures are there to protect these ancient sites?
Keywords: Pathology of ancient caves, Paleolithic sites, South Zagros.
Due to human activities are destroyed many of ancient traces as stone tools or faunal remains in the sites, caves, and rock shelters. The Mining operations, non-standard construction, and road construction are from main factors of destruction in ancient sites. The recent surveys are showed some of the caves and rock shelters of Paleolithic period in south Zagros affected by livelihood issues of pastoral nomads and indigenous people have been destroyed (Dashtizadeh, 2000, 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, and 2006d). The purpose of this research is survey destruction factors in these ancient sites.
In this research for the first time, is study pathology of Paleolithic sites in Iran. The method of doing this research is descriptive-analytical. The analysis of this study is more reliant on information, founds, and data. So, in this research following questions are raised: Which is factors the main factors of destruction the sites of the Paleolithic period in South Zagros? And, what practical measures are there to protect these ancient sites?
For doing this research has been used from field surveys that by author gathered from areas of Jam, Riz, Saadat Shahr, Marvdasht, and Kazeron in Fars and Bushehr provinces from years of 2000 to 2007.
General description of studied areas and main factors of destruction of Paleolithic sites and protective solutions
By author has been studied the areas of Jam, Riz, Saadat Shahr, Marvdasht, and Kazeron in Fars and Bushehr provinces from years of 2000 to 2007. During these surveys, 19 cave and rock shelter of Paleolithic period from plains of Jam and Riz are identified in southeast of Bushehr province that from this number, 5 sites related to Paleolithic period (Dashtizadeh, 2009). The pastoral nomads of inhabitant in Bushehr province are most important groups of user these caves and rock shelters in plains of Jam and Riz. Furthermore, 17 caves and rock shelters of Paleolithic period have been identified from the plain of Saadat Shahr (Dashtizadeh, 2006c, 2006d, and 2012). Of course before that 17 caves and rock shelters of Paleolithic period have been identified from the Marvdasht plain in the northeast of Shiraz. From the Kazeron plain have been identified numbers of 27 caves and rock shelters of Paleolithic period. For this research is again studied the basin of Maharloo lake (Barfi, 2007). Generally, mining operations, non-standard construction, excavations of illegal, pastoral nomads, unfamiliarity of the managers of cultural heritage of this region, and non-standard gathering the stone tools from Paleolithic period by archaeological students are the main factors of destruction in Paleolithic sites in the area of south Zagros. First these archaeological sites are must be on the national monuments list. One of the main duties of the Cultural Heritage Organization is training the local community and tourists to preserve national monuments. Education and awareness of people this region (As the main guardians of the cultural heritage), is important work in this direction. The build of museum site in the Paleolithic caves, and training of local children and tourists children, are from other effective actions.
Generally, mining operations, non-standard construction, excavations of illegal, pastoral nomads, unfamiliarity of the managers of cultural heritage of this region, and non-standard gathering the stone tools from Paleolithic period by archaeological students are the main factors of destruction in Paleolithic sites in the area of south Zagros. It seams, first these archaeological sites are must be on the national monuments list. One of the main duties of the Cultural Heritage Organization is training the local community and tourists to preserve national monuments. Education and awareness of people this region (As the main guardians of the cultural heritage), is important work in this direction. The build of museum site in the Paleolithic caves, and training of local children and tourists children, are from other effective actions.
Abbas Motarjem, Mehdi Heydari,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Aleshtar plain is central part of Selseleh county and located in North Loristan province. This plain is region lush and with pleasant weather and rich soil. This area has been from prehistoric period so far always settlements folks and different groups human. Location of Aleshtar plain and proximity with Northern areas Zagros, Central Plateau, Southwest Iran, and Mesopotamia, for a long time to this area has particular importance of communication. Authors, after explaining the climate and ancient roads Aleshtar, have analyzed dispersion form of ancient and historical settlements this area. In this regard, using with ArcGIS software (version 10.3) location of each site is specified in Aleshtar. Output of ArcGIS software, is four maps in Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, Historic, and Islamic periods. After studies is specified approximate route of ancient road in Aleshtar plain (north-south road in central Zagros). Therefore, combining the two points, included, ancient road north-south and also distribution of ancient and historic sites in Aleshtar plain, in before and after Islamic periods, this question was raised: what role has this ancient road in Aleshtar plain in the formation ancient settlements? For this question, authors with preliminary survey in Aleshtar plain they had this hypothesis: basically, this ancient road from Islamic periods has played a pivotal role in the formation of sites. Analysis distance of each site from this ancient road has showed, most archaeological sites has been formation in Aleshtar plain from the Islamic period along this route; In the Pre-Islamic periods, hasn’t been focus center of settlements around this ancient road with distance of about two kilometers. Data of this study is based on archaeological research Ali Sajjadi in 1998 and Davood Davoodi in 2006 and 2007. Also, authors have done again surveyes in this area.
Keywords: Aleshtar plain, Settlement, Ancient roads, and GIS Analysis.
Selseleh County is located in north of Lorestan and in South of Hamedan Province. From Aleshtar city is mentioned in various sources. This point has been indicative importance this region in Pre-Islamic and Islamic periods. Archaeological survey that so far has been done in Aleshtar plain, confirms importance of this area. In Aleshtar before all, by Oral Stin has been done archaeological survey (Stin, 1940). Colar Goff in during archaeological surveys in North Lorestan; She has also surveyed Aleshtar (Goff, 1968). In 1998, Ali Sajjadi was surveyed Aleshtar from administration of Cultural Heritage of Lorestan province. Now, report her work is in archives administration of Cultural Heritage of Lorestan province (Sajjadi, 1998). Furthermore, in 2006 and 2007, Davood Davoodi was surveyed historic and ancient monuments Aleshtar in during two seasons (Davoodi, 2006 and 2007). Authors, in order to explain process settlement in Aleshtar plain, and measurement influence of climatic conditions area, and importance of ancient and historical roads of this region, have done draw a map ancient settlements of Aleshtar plane in Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, Historic, and Islamic periods. For this purpose, has been used from report of survey Ali Sajjadi (Sajjadi, 1998), and reports of surveys Davood Davoodi (Davoodi, 2006 and 2007), and also, again surveyes authors in this area. In this research, has been used for register ancient sites on the map from ArcGIS software (version 10.3). So, authors in this research try to analyze the following issues:
What role has this ancient road in Aleshtar plain in the formation ancient settlements? And essentially, role of road north-south in Aleshtar plain at what period is seen? The main hypothesis of this research, it is: Around of ancient road in Aleshtar plain in Islamic period has been settlement. In the Pre-Islamic period, hasn’t been focus center of settlements around this ancient road with distance of about two kilometers.
Settlements of Aleshtar plain from prehistoric to Islamic periods
The Communication route that has been connected West to Southwest of Iran (Hamedan and Kermanshah to Khozestan plain), one of the most important route of communication in Pre-Islamic periods, and this road has been connected West and Northwest to regions of Southwest Iran. Continue this road has been crossed from Aleshtar plain. Study location of sites from prehistory to Islamic periods has points, has been effective in description of problem, settlement patterns and also role of ancient roads in this area in formation of settlement patterns. In study area, were identified in total 96 settlements sites. The sites were divided into four groups, that including Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, Historic, and Islamic periods. According to, in Aleshtar plain were identified 27 sites related to Chalcolithic period. It seems, in this period entire Aleshtar plain has been inhabited. Most of settlements are seen in around rivers of Kahman and Zaz. However, in the eastern part of Aleshtar, is seen number large sites settlements related whit this period. Also, in this area were identified 28 sites related to Bronze and Iron periods. Checking the distribution map of sites in these periods, interpretations related whit Chalcolithic period is show. In this period entire Aleshtar plain has been inhabited. In Historic periods (especially Parthian period), we see increasing number of sites in Aleshtar. In this area were identified 82 sites related to Historic periods. Furthermore, in Aleshtar were identified 52 sites related to Islamic period. In this period number of sites has dropped relative to previous period. In this period, aggregation of sites is in central area of Aleshtar.
Climatic and environmental conditions also ancient roads, is two major factors in relation to settlement patterns in Aleshtar plain from prehistoric to Islamic periods. In Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron, and Historic periods is settlement of pattern absolutely scattered and dependent on water resources and land. In these periods aren’t interpretable of focus in sites Aleshtar. In Islamic period, aggregation of sites is in central area of Aleshtar. Two to three kilometers in North and West in Modern city of Aleshtar has largest number of sites from Islamic period. In Islamic period settlement of pattern is around ancient road (north-south) in Aleshtar plain.
Reza Rezalou, Yahya Ayramloo,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
This site is located 60 km southwest of Khalkhal, in Shahrood plane, in Khalkhal city and 180 km south of Ardabil city. In May 2006, during the implementation of the road construction project in Khanghah village, the remains of several graves were revealed. From this date onwards, four seasons of Archaeological studies were conducted on this site. The first season was carried out in the same year, and graves 12, 19 and 25 were explored, among them a grave to the Iron Age I and the other graves belonged to the Iron Age II. The trench B was also explored in order to identify of more tombs. Following the excavation, graves 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 24 were discovered in this trench. According to studies on these graves, 2 graves belonged to the middle Bronze Age, 1 grave to the Iron Age I, 9 graves to the Iron Age II, and 4 graves belonged to the Parthian period. The second season was explored in 2007. In this season, the trench C with dimensions 10 x 10 m on the west side of the trench A and trench D with dimensions of 5 × 5 m along the trench B was explored. As a result, in this season, the remains of the 5 ancient graves were obtained; one of them belonged to the Parthian period, 1 grave to the Middle Bronze Age and three other graves to the Iron Age I. Four scientific explorations have been conducted in which the results of the first season are fully published. In this study, the graves of the Iron Age of the second season of this site are discussed. The comparisons, such as the results of the grave studies of the first season of the cemetery, show a cultural connection with the mid and late bronze Age sites and the Iron Age I and II, indicating a cultural sequence from the Middle Bronze Age to the late Iron Age II, which contrasts with the theory of cultural dynamism. So, the main hypothesis of this study, it is: Theory of cultural dynamism in Iron Age I, in this area isn’t correct.
Keywords: Northwest of Iran, Ardabil Province, Gilavan Cemetery, Iron Age Burials.
Gilavan cemetery is located northwest of Khanghah village and adjoined to it. In terms of archaeological findings, this cemetery is one of the most prominent sites in the north-west of Iran, because of the burial of the three archaeological periods of the middle Ages, the Iron Age and the Parthian period. Four scientific explorations have been conducted in which the results of the first season are fully published. In this study, the graves of the Iron Age of the second season of this site are discussed. During this season, 5 ancient graves were explored, identified by numbers 26, 27, 28, 29 and 31. Grave No. 29 dated to the middle bronze age, graves 26, 28, and 31 dates to the Iron Age I and 27 to the Parthian period. The graves of this cemetery were in the form of a hole in which burials were carried out in single and double burials. In the present study, gravels of the Iron Age of second season were qualitatively, descriptively-analytic and comparative approach, and compared with the effects of other burial grounds of the north-west and neighboring areas. The comparisons, such as the results of the grave studies of the first season of the cemetery, show a cultural connection with the mid and late bronze Age sites and the Iron Age I and II, indicating a cultural sequence from the Middle Bronze Age to the late Iron Age II, which contrasts with the theory of cultural dynamism. The studies of Gilavan cemetery are important because in this area, in the burial findings of the graves, we witness a cultural sequence from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age II. Such results are of particular importance to the studies of the Iron Age, as well as the theory of cultural dynamism in the late period of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, which some researchers believe it to be.
The tombs of Gilavan cemetery in this study
Tomb No. 26: This tomb is located in trench D, and in the northeast it, in a depth of -107 cm from bench mark. This tomb is from type of grave pit that after the burial from the rock has been used to highlighting the grave. This tomb has been belongs to man25 to 30 years old.
Tomb No. 28: This tomb is located in northwest corner of trench C, and highest level this tomb from the ground -149 cm. This tomb is from type of grave pit, and single burial. Tomb No. 28 has been belongs to female 25 to 30 years old.
Tomb No. 31: This tomb is located in the northern part of trench C, and to form of double burial. Tomb No. 31 is from type of grave pit.
The study of the graves of the Iron Age of this site indicates that there are many similarities in the burial findings of the northern-western areas of Iran during the bronze and iron period. In other words, the findings of this cemetery can be compared with the burial objects of many sites of the middle bronze, the late bronze and Iron Age I and II, and this represents a cultural sequence during a period to a period Another is in the north-west of Iran and even neighboring areas. It seems that many of the developments in the Iron Age region of Iran are rooted in the earlier period. Many of the forms and techniques of constructing objects represent a kind of evolved designs, and the subject matter that implies the emergence or sudden appearance of them is not visible.
Ali Navid Gabalu, Seyed Mehdi Hosseyni Nia,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
The subject of this study is analysis and comparison golden coronet obtained from Khalkhal county in Azerbaijan museum, that from obtained illegal excavation. Because of that hasn’t done research on this object, so, research for specifying function, manufacturing technique, comparison, relative dating, and analysis of symbolic motifs, is seems necessary. This article has done to form of comparative study, and is from type of qualitative research. Also, Information gathering in this research has done to two methods of library and field work (exact observation of trace and providing scheme and photo). This article is to form of analytical – descriptive and comparison of motifs with other artistic findings. In this article has done drawing motifs with computer software. Then, their decoration motifs have been investigated and comparison with other finds. Results of this research indicate that in create this coronet, beliefs and idealogy of artists has had much influence. In fact, these motifs have been to form of rites and sign from the gods, that by artists on the ceramics and sometimes on jewelries have been created; they have been with these works took of gods support. According to studies this coronet in terms of manufacturing technique, decoration technique, and results of analysis comparison of motifs with other similar traces as: golden necklaces and tusks of Zivieh, golden rhyton of Lorestan, golden rhyton of Marlik, and coronet of Hasanlo; golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum has been dating between late second millennium and early first millennium BC. So, two main questions of this research are as follows: How could analyze the decoration technique and comparison this coronet with other simila r traces? And, comparison of typology this coronet with other traces, shows this trace to what is related period?
Keywords: Coronet, Typical Motifs, Tree of the Life, Antelope.
Jewelry and especially golden jewelry has always been regarded as the economic capital of human societies, and special place in economic and cultural exchanges. Undoubtedly, besides creativity of Iranian artists, several factors have been contributed to the formation and construction of jewels, and desired objects have been position for appearance of the beliefs of past tribes. Cultural and economic interactions in inter-regional and trans-regional areas, environmental factors, cultural, economic, and industrial and technological advances, have been from the factors of effective the formation of styles different types of jewelry in past periods. It’s obvious that every nation has collection of legends and myths, that they are indicative their opinions, thoughts and beliefs. Golden coronet obtained from Khalkhal area, isn’t excluded from this general rule, and created motifs on this coronet can help to identify and better understand of ideas, and beliefs of people northwest Iran in late second millennium and early first millennium BC. So, authors in this study have been studied the coronet of Azerbaijan museum and analyzed relationship with the beliefs of people in this period. Therefore, main questions of this research are: 1- What does show the analysis and comparison of motifs with similar samples? 2- According to analysis of similar samples from other areas, what is the period this coronet? Assuming coronet motifs have been ritual; so, these motifs have likely been created by artists on pottery and sometimes on jewelry during the second and first millennium BC. They have been by doing this, supported by the gods. Thus, authors in this research have done analysis, semiotics, and aesthetics of golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum.
Golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum and semiotics of motifs it
Golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum is including decorative jewelry. According to appearance this trace, function it can be decorative coronet, or, it has probably used in ritual and religious ceremonies. This coronet is from made gold, and in form of crescent rectangle. Its length 22 CM and width 5 CM, and at the end of both sides it, two hooks to form of crescent (for hold on head) have been placed. The technique of making this decorative coronet is handmade, that on it has been created motifs with engraving technique. It should be mentioned, no type of inscription or text hasn’t been used on this trace. In center of this decorative coronet, has been painted Tree of the Life, that in both sides this Tree of the Life, 8 numbers of antelope to form of symmetry (head and neck of all them are bent towards down, and all of them are painted in one form) can be seen. At the bottom section in this trace and back of the motif of antelope, are embossed two lines of vertical and parallel, that inside them three equilateral triangles have been raising and embossed to form of tiny.
Comparison of coronet motifs with similar samples
Although can’t be seen sample quite similar with this coronet, but motifs this coronet in terms of style of making and decoration with seals, metal traces, and mud traces such as the golden rhytons inside and outside of Iran, is comparable. The objects of Tapeh Marlik related to about 1200 BC, antelope motif and Tree of the Life motif in golden rhyton of Lorestan related to between centuries seven to four, golden necklaces of Zivieh in Iron Age III, bronze coffins of Birmingham museum related to century of seven, and ivory box of tomb of 45 in Assyria, other are traces that golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum is with similar to them.
Findings of this research indicate that in inventing and utilization of antelope motifs, especially in coronet discovered from Khalkhal, beliefs and idealogy of ethnoes that are created them has had much influence. Considering that each of the ancient tribes, they saw the antelope as one of the beneficial elements of nature, horn of this animal has been from signs of the gods in ancient Iran and Mesopotamia. So, between antelope with curved horns and crescent moon has been a relationship. Because, among the ancient tribes have been moon of rain symbol and sun of drought symbol; so it seam, horns of this animal have been symbol of moon and rain. According to the submitted content, it seems, golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum have probably been related to late of second millennium to century of seven BC.
Mohammad Ebrahim Zarei,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
In Bijar County and in a relatively near route of Hasanabad Yasokand city are located of three tomb towers, in villages of Yengi Arakh, Och Gonbad Khan, and Alishah. Although, these towers haven’t been made at a time, but two samples of them are remarkably similar. These three buildings of shaped tower Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, and Yengi Arakh are located in north of Bijar County. These towers, in terms of geographical location, are located in caravan route of regional. Although these buildings with name of the tower are known, but the main problem is that, how can these towers placed in tomb monument? And, have these buildings been for resting of passengers? In this regard, there are two hypotheses; these buildings have been minaret of guide and sometimes from them used for resting passengers of Bijar, Soltanih, Zanjan, and Maragheh. Also, evidences of little available shows that these buildings in the late sixth century to eighth century A.H. and by local authorities have been made for themselves or elders of their family. The result of this research shows that made these types of buildings have been due to the proximity of Soltanih Zanjan in Ilkhanids age and influenced by events in the region. Local rulers have made these types of buildings in realm of government themselves for themselves or religious and mystical elders of the region. For do this research, has been used from field – library method. In information of field section, author, buildings this study from has nearly been survey and photography them. Furthermore, from library sources for preparing images and review of historical texts for purposes of this study has been used.
Keywords: Ashghon Baba, Och Gonbad Khan, Yengi Arakh, Tomb Tower, Bijar.
The tombs in Iranian architecture in Islamic period in terms of form and function have special place. Meanwhile, tomb tower are important in terms of shape and form. Although many these types of buildings in terms of form, architectural decorations, and function have been studied, but there are still monumental architecture of such buildings haven’t been studied because of the distance from the main roads. Unfortunately, due to neglect of these types of buildings, they have been destroyed. Including these traces are three tomb towers in villages of Hasanabad Yasokand city in Kurdistan Province. These buildings in terms of location, form, function, and use of local materials are deserving of separate study. In this regard, there are some questions: First; how can these buildings considered of tomb towers? Second; can be inferred these towers function of buildings of between roads for travelers rest? Third; these towers were related to the period and who were their builders? In relation to questions of above, can be raised these hypotheses: First; these towers are including of tomb towers and from these buildings have likely been used for funeral. Second; these towers have likely been guide minaret for guide and shelter of travelers in route of cities of Bijar in Kurdistan province and Soltanieh, Zanjan, and Maragheh in Azerbaijan. Of course, this theory haven’t been found until other documents, is accepted. The research method this study is historical-analytical that according to field surveys, providing picture, and study of historical texts and library documents has been done. So far, in relation to the topic of this research haven’t been done comprehensive studies. The only information available from these buildings is related to reports of 1970.
Location, introducing, and describing the towers
Ashghon Baba tower: The brick-work tower of Ashghon Baba is located in Siah Mansor district in near to village Alishah in Hasanabad Yasokand city, and in Bijar County. This tower due to lack of protection and restore, and also destruction by smugglers has been destroyed. The plan of this building has been octagon that up to 60 cm from the floor it has been built stonework and then up to dome valet built with bricks of special of Seljuk. The type of the outer dome it (that previously, has been made on it) has most been likely of type from frank dome of poly crack.
Tower of Och Gonbad Khan: This tower of rocky is located in distance of 75 km northwest of Bijar city and in village of Och Gonbad Khan. Tower building has a plane of circular shape. Tower of Och Gonbad Khan has been made of stone and mortar. The current status of the building is show, ceiling has been made with a dome of stone. The internal dimensions of the tower are 4/30 meters and entrance 1/30 meters high. The width of stone walls of tower is 90 centimeters and the height is 6 meters. It seams, this tower with tomb towers of Seljuk and Ilkhanid periods as Round Tower and Tower Joy (Brand, 1997: 620) is comparable in terms of appearance and plane.
Yengi Arakh tower: This tower is located in vicinity of village with this name and 63 kilometers north of Bijar city and in route of Qom Choghay river. Yengi Arakh tower has circular plane. The internal diameter of the building is 5/20 meters, and width of the wall is 1/55 meters, and outer diameter is 8/30 meters. In this tower most of the materials are made of stone and plaster. This building is comparable in terms of type of plane, materials, and form with tower of Och Gonbad Khan.
The Idea building of tomb buildings, in form of tomb towers with the function of minaret or tomb in distant places, during past periods has spread. It seams, tomb towers that in this research were study, have been built with this thought. These tomb towers alongside of cities in periods of Seljuk and Ilkhanid, have been cause of increased traffic. Furthermore, these buildings have also been effective in terms of promotion traditional architecture. In alongside this communication creation of buildings in the form of tomb towers with various functions as Emamzadeh Aghil in Hasanabad Yasokand city, and three tomb towers in this study, have been created.
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
Stucco art in Islamic period, in terms of technique and decorative motifs, pattern is taken from decorative art of Sassanids period. Motifs of stuccoes Sassanids period with inspiration from nature, does communicate (communication doesn’t exactly, but close to it), and can be easily identified similar samples it. This shows that unrealistic patterns less used in these motifs, and artist has shown less tendency to this direction. But these elements under the influence Islamic wisdom, have changed their form and meaning. One of the important findings and indicator in Aveh site were decorations stucc, that during the excavation in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman, obtained in the third chapter excavations this historic site in 2009. According to the date mentioned on one of the luster tiles found from this building (684 A.H.), this decoration is belongs to Ilkhanids period. The authors seeking to prove such dating, have done shape and technique used in this motifs and compare them to other historic sites stucco decorations from Ilkhanids period. This research has done to study this question related with Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building that, basically, this building based on stucco decorations, related with which period? And, stuccoes related to which style? In this regard, the present study seeks to prove these assumptions in execution of decoration motifs of stuccoes this building, has been used two styles stucco decorations with high bulge and decoration motifs caved. The decoration motifs are contains foliate, geometric, and inscribed. These motifs and their styles have been modeled from Ilkhanids styles. The method of doing this research is descriptive – analytical – comparative. Data in this study are taken from Library resources and field work. Field works in this study are contains extensive excavations in Aveh plain and in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman. Furthermore, cultural material obtained from excavation, have been drawn.
Keywords: Ilkhanids, Stucco decorations, Decorative motifs, Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman of Aveh.
The decoration of buildings Islamic period of Iran, usually have been used from brick, plaster, and tile. From of stucco, from early Islamic period to Timurids period as there has been template element in the decoration, and it has been most used in prayer niches and inscriptions of buildings (Pope, 1987: 166). Stucco at first has been more used for cover the rugged surfaces and decorate them; but, in the fifth century A.H., stucco has been transformed from a simple decorative mode to unique coating of decorative. Traditionally, stucco art has been among of decorative art dependent on architectural of Iran, that after from flourishing in the Sassanid period in middle centuries of Islamic and in Ilkhanids period has reached the peak of flourishing. In fact, Ilkhanid period is golden age of stucco in Islamic period Iran. This art in Ilkhanid period in vast areas as a decorative element in architecture of this period has used. From this period are remained traces very beautiful and unique. 24 km from Saveh County to Salafchegan is separate road to Qom; this is road of Jafarabad – Qom. The village of Aveh is located about a 6 km from this road. (Hashemi, 2007: 125). Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman in Aveh plain, based on obtained indications from field works of authors (discover the luster tile in this building with date 684 A.H.), is one of the architecture monuments in Ilkhanid period with decorations of tile-making and stucco. Stucco decorations this building, although a small number is obtained, but they are represents the pinnacle of stucco art Ilkhanid in middle centuries of Islamic. The main purpose of authors in this study, in first place, have been presented available sample from stucco art Ilkhanids from Aveh area; In second place, have been analysis of their decorative motifs (technique), and type of motifs used (foliate, geometric, and inscription), and comparison them with other similar samples in other historical places.
Stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman Aveh
After reviews on these stuccoes, their technique was studied in two groups: stucco decorations with high bulge, and decoration motifs caved. Techniques of shaping stucco decorations are with high bulge to form of in situ, mold, or combined from both techniques. In technique decoration motifs caved, has used from both techniques in situ, and mold. Furthermore, decoration motifs of stuccoes this building has been studied in tree group foliate, geometric, and inscribed. The foliate motifs of stuccoes is to form of arabesque and cinquefoil motifs (high and stretched), and Rosette flower. The most of foliate samples obtained in decorations of stuccoes Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman Aveh, are from of type of foliate motifs six and eight of fimbria, flowers and leaves (several of fimbria) with buds, and arabesque motifs.The geometric motifs used in stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are most to form of the honeycomb motifs.
In stuccoes of Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building has been seen inscribed. Unfortunately, inscriptions used in decorations this building, aren’t in good position for recognize the type of script and decorative style. Authors have been results based on speculation and also based on lines used in decoration of tiles luster painted this building (that from of types of Sols and Naskh script).
As was mentioned, decorative motifs of stuccoes in Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are divided to foliate, geometric, and inscribed, and they have been created to two styles: stucco decorations with high bulge, and decoration motifs caved. With comparison decorative motifs this building with decorations other traces in Ilkhanids period Iran, could be seen significantly specifications of decorative style of Ilkhanids in this building. So, decoration motifs Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman building are related to Ilkhanids period. Therefore, date mentioned on the tiles this building and decoration motifs of stuccoes have been contemporaneous. On the other hand, comparison of shaping stuccoes Imamzadeh Fazl Ibn Soleyman with contemporaneous buildings, power of architects Islamic in Ilkhanids period is show.
Hamidreza Safakish, Homayoon Hatamian,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
So far, have much been researches about confrontation IlKhanids of Mongol and putting end to Abbasids Caliphate and Ismailis, but still there are many untold of facts unknown to historians and researchers. Based on evidence that we have, local governments of 5 and 6 century were strongly afraid of murders of Ismaili mountaineer. One of the areas that was the perfect opportunity for Ismailis, was the mountains of north of Lur which through an important this passage could connect to Baghdad. The Ilkhanids that according to the Mongolian documents this time their goal was not only to destroy regions and looting, but had come to get a brilliant victory in west Asia because for ten years their territory was not developed in this direction. The situation was so unstable for Mongols that they continuously asked help from the court of Qaan and requested the dismantling of the government of the caliphs of Baghdad and Ismaili. Accordingly, this time they entered Iran with a pre-designed plan. Hülegü army was equipped with Chinese gunpowder and latest engineering equipment of siege. Cavalry archers of Hülegü were under the command of commanders that are involved with military operations with Subutai and Genghis Khan. So, in this study are two questions: What is due to be reviewed in this paper, is a different aspect, derived from this question; whether part of military confrontation with the Abbasids and the Ismailis occurred in places far from the range of historians and left behind in the dark? The first hypothesis this is: the policy of conquest or purchasing numerous castles and penetration in various mountains by the Ismailis and as well as finding ways to penetrate to Baghdad by Ilkhanids, has been gone the struggle between Ilkhanids with Ismailis and Abbasids Caliphate to southwest Zagros Mountains.
Keywords: Lur City, Ilkhanids, Abbasids Caliphate, Ismailis, Baghdad.
According to documents presented in this study, Lur City has been strategic center played an effective role for Ilkhanids in defeating their two arch-enemies. Lur city on one hand could play the role of logistics base in mountain base to combat Mongereh castle (Mongereh), that was located on Mount dez (dez) the mountains north of Lur, and also with use of the passage in southwest of city, and Ilkhanids army could easily pass the passage and access the center of the caliphate i.e. Baghdad. According to the documents, this passage also existed in past and according to ancient documents at one time it was crossing between Paul Assyria’s army to fight the Ilam / ancient Ilam, and at the Sassanid period, it was passage used by Sassanid Shapur to deal with Rome in the battle of Edessa. In the Islamic period, its importance was known to Ilkhanids and Hülegü in good way and using military terminal of Lur managed to use part of his military operations against the Ismailis in northern mountains and another part through the southwest passage of city against the Abbasid. Lur base helped Ilkhanids to overcome enemies of Ismaili and Abbasid Caliphate and also they established their rule. From this base, they used their military force against the Damascus and Aleppo, because their next stop after Baghdad was raid on Syria. Hülegü by strengthening its forces in the same passage managed the development, support and guidance of the military operations in other parts. The present article, after survey Lur city, is deals with political and military importance of city in facing Abbasids Caliphate, Ismailis, and Ilkhanids. The work method is based on collecting evidence of valid documents, archaeological and historical books, and analysis from them.
Importance of Lur crossing
Through the passage of southwest of Lur city, Hülegü in 655 AH / December 1257 AD started the battle against the caliphs of Baghdad and in February of 1258 I CE / 656 AH arrived in Baghdad. He plundered Baghdad and after that the caliph surrendered. Abbasids Caliphate treasures were looted and were shipped to the headquarters of the Mongolian Khan. By Hülegü’s command caliph was thrown under horses hooves and killed and after 5 centuries Abbasid caliphate was overthrown by the Mongols. They continued operations to other cities around Syria, through that passage until receiving news of death Mngoqaan the Mongol army was halted progress and Hülegü Khan returned to Azerbaijan. As a result Egypt used the provisional interruption that had emerged in the Mongol onslaught, and provided stability against them. But on the whole Ilkhanids using thus strategic passage by entering Baghdad from the west could bring under the control of different areas. In base of Lur city the Mongereh castle was conquered and this event started Ilkhanids serious presence in the Mongereh castle. Pottery glazed turquoise blue in 7 and 8 AH centuries, is indicate the capture of this important and historic castle by Ilkhanids and their establishment within this period.
According to discussions provided in this study, Lur City as a strategic center played an effective role for Ilkhans in defeating their two arch-enemies. Lur city on one hand could play the role of logistics base in mountain base to combat Mongereh castle (Mongereh), that was located on Mount dez (dez) the mountains north of Lur, and also with use of the passage in southwest of city, and Ilkhanids army could easily pass the passage and access the center of the caliphate i.e. Baghdad. So, it seams, fall of the Lur city has been led to overthrow of Abbasid Caliphate. The pottery glazed turquoise blue in 7 and 8 AH centuries, is indicate the capture of this important and historic castle by Ilkhanids and their establishment within this period.
Reza Ghaffari Haris, Rana Fasihi,
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018)
The purpose of this research is analysis and survey architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh. The research method in this study is based on surveying and descriptive analysis. The data of this research are contains 14 mosques in Maragheh, that from these numbers 8 mosques haven’t been studied because of that general reconstruction or without being pillars. So, in this study 6 mosques of Maragheh have been surveyed and analyzed. Today, because of the lack of use this kind of decorations in the construction of mosques and their uniqueness, this study is essential. The wooden capitals in this research are decorated with motifs of stalactite work and woodturning with shapes of geometric dangling, stair, and crenate. On these capitals are abundantly seen decorations of arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names. The results of this study indicate that decorations architecture of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh despite having art style of unit, they have variety of colors, designs and form of pillars. The method of doing this research is field-library. The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. Thus, two main questions in this research that the authors try to analyze them is as follows: Can with compare and analyze the decorations of pillars common tips between them found? And, what have decorations of pillars pattern?
Keywords: Decorations, wooden pillars, mosques of Maragheh, Islamic architecture.
In monuments and mosques have been used from the wood as the main components and also as a decorative element. The slender and long wooden trunks with decorations as carrier pillars of roof have been used in buildings. These wooden pillars have played a key role in holding pillars and prayers hall of mosques. The decorating the inner surface of wooden roofs has been of evolved over time and arrived in the late centuries of Islamic to ultimately development. During the Safavid period, that construction of wooden ceilings, known as Chehelsotun, has become spread (Soleymani et.al, 2011: 27).
In Maragheh city is remained wooden mosques of beautiful from Safavid period. These mosques have been contains 14 mosques, but in this research have been studied decorations of pillars mosques Molla Rostam, Molla Moez Aldin, Zarir, Sefid, Ghazi, and Najarlar. These mosques have wooden decorations and the capitals of wooden stalactite in these mosques have been decorated with motifs of arabesque and calligraphy. The artists tried in decoration of these pillars have been used the most beautiful and diverse designs. The authors in this research, after survey all of the pillars, have been presented the fixed pattern from them. So, due to the registration of Maragheh wooden mosques in the national monuments list and wooden decorations of unique them, do this research is essential.
The field data have been collected with direct observation from wooden pillars, and then designed them with using software Corldraw. The study of library resources is contains of study the articles and books published in this field and also use the archive of cultural heritage administration of Maragheh County.
Introducing samples of mosques
Mosque of Molla Rostam: This mosque is located in the south side of the Molla Rostam square and among the Chay Osto Bazaar. Most of the pillars of this mosque are made of wood and stalactite motifs. The wooden pillars in this mosque have been prepared from Sepidar tree and woodturning to form of octagonal.
Mosque of Molla Moez Aldin: This mosque is located on the west side of the Khoshkbar square (Salar neighborhood and Hatam alley) in Maragheh city. The mosque of Molla Moez Aldin has two prayers halls of eastern and western. These two prayers halls have roof with flat cover and beamed ceiling, and with the capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Zarir: This mosque is located in the northeastern part of Maragheh City and in street of Mir Habib Agha. The roof with flat cover of prayers hall in mosque of Zarir has six wooden pillars in two rows. Each of these pillars are consists of a stone pedestal, stem of wooden pillar, and capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Sefid: This building is located in the southeastern part of the historical context of Maragheh city, and along one of the historical and main gates of this city in the name of “Darvazeh Biron Ghaleh”. The prayers hall of this mosque has the pillar, and the pillars of them are numbers three.
Mosque of Ghazi: This mosque is located in the Ghazi neighborhood of Maragheh city and corner of Ghods street. The date of construction this mosque is Safavid period. The prayers hall mosque of Ghazi has roof with flat cover, and six of pillars with capitals of stalactite.
Mosque of Najarlar: This mosque is located in the Qom neighborhood of northern in Maragheh city. The plane of this mosque is to form of rectangle, and has a prayers hall with three numbers of pillars with stalactite.
The motifs and schemes in architecture decorations of wooden pillars in the mosques of Maragheh, in addition to the have artistic style of unit, they have color variation, scheme, and form in pillars. According to the construction period these mosques, we can see differences in them. The main decorations in these mosques are contains of the rich motifs and arabesque motifs. The colors are used in this motifs contains black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, light brown and dark, turquoise, and ranges of these colors. The alongside these decorations has been used calligraphy of verses and holy names.
Shaghayegh Hourshid, Rahmat Abbasnejhad Sarseti,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
Dehloran plain, because of geographic location itself has always been one of the population centers in the southwest of Iran. Also, this area, because of permanent and seasonal rivers and fertile fields has been a good place to live in a long time. In terms of natural landscape, this plain is divisible into three regions of eastern, central and western. The first area (eastern area) is includes east of Dehloran plain, that consists of peaks and slopes of Zagros Mountains. The second area are including of lands near to these mountains. This area by floods of these mountains is covered with rocks and coarse-grained sediments. The third area (western area) is includes settlements from Neolithic to contemporary period and farming fields. Overall, these three areas for a long time, because of the rocky shelters in Zagros Mountains have been good place to live a human. On the other hand, these areas because of animals and suitable vegetation them, have been provider of food for human groups. Furthermore, because of existence conglomerate sediments eastern highlands of Dalpari in Dehloran, human access has been easy to rich sources of raw rock for make stone tools. This area that is more than 30 kilometers long, on the way of Zagros Mountains of Dalpari near to Dehloran plain and Dasht-e Abbas, covered with stone tools. These stone tools are containing of indicator samples of points, blades, centripetal core, Levallois chips. These samples can be sign of human existence at least from the middle Paleolithic period. So, existence of the Neolithic settlements to the late Islamic era is sign of a long process from the settlement human in this area.
Keywords: Zagros Mountains, Paleolithic, Dalpari, Dehloran.
In 2015, in order to organize the western waters of the country, survey and identification programs frontier areas located in the provinces of Kermanshah and Ilam in format of ten programs for survey and identification (plan of tropical) were implemented. These programs were containing of identification water transfer routes, place of construction of dams, and drainage networks. The drainage network number 23 was studied by the author. This network was containing of Patk plain in Musian (eastern half of Dehloran), that water supply project it was on the agenda of the government. Therefore, all this plain with license number 943141/00/6495 with date of 2015/11/15 from Iranian center for archaeological research was carefully surveyed. During this survey (includes the southernmost tropical system in the south of the Ilam province), in addition to the identification of sites and ancient hills was surveyed wide area in the east of the plain that were many stone tools in it. The Dalpari area is several kilometers along the Zagros Mountains continue. The research background in relation to this area is shows the main focus of researchers on the sites belonging to the Neolithic period to the historic period and hasn’t been studied previous periods. The only survey of the Paleolithic period was done by Mohsen Zeynivand in year of 2015 in network number 22, that it has led to the identification and introduction of stone tools of type a Biface (Zeynivand, 2016 & 2017). So, the eastern half of Patk plain in Musian hasn’t been surveyed prior to this study.
Introduction of identified traces
A: Rock shelters
In a small part of the Dalpari Mountains a large number of small and large holes were identified with shelter form. These holes and shelters in sedimentary and conglomerate layers in low height hills have been formed with weak structure. The depth and width of the crater some of these holes and shelters 2 to 3 meters and high to 1.8 meters. Because of weak cement structure conglomerate and the existence of sedimentary layers of silicate and clay of non-condensing environmental degradation factors as wind and rain, it seems, these holes and shelters over time have been changed a lot. Due to a lot of stone tools inside and around of these sites, probably they were remnants of older refuges that used by humans (at least late) in the Paleolithic period. Today this area, because of a water fountain is used by pastoral nomads this area.
B: Surface finds
Mainly, at the surface of this area, can be seen stone tools includes blades, centripetal core, levallois chips, points, scrapers, and micro blades. The stone tools can be seen in all of plain, but in around the rivers less seen. Because of the continuity of distribution stone tools at surface this area, all of this range is introduced as a zone. During the survey this area, samples were collected from different parts of it. In total, 129 sites were encoded and distribution of the findings recorded. This area that is more than 30 kilometers long, on the way of Zagros Mountains of Dalpari near to Dehloran plain and Dasht-e Abbas, covered with stone tools. These stone tools are containing of indicator samples of points, blades, centripetal core, Levallois chips. Dating of samples collected is between 40,000 years and 16,000 years ago (Olszewski & Dibble, 1993).
Probably, dating stone tools collected of the Dalpari is between 40,000 years and 16,000 years ago. At most of surface the land in this area (except for a small area in the mountains) isn’t seen evidence of permanent deployment such as a cave or shelter. However, in these areas is identified little evidence of temporary and seasonal deployment of human in a small part of the northern mountains of the area. In this area, can be seen conglomerate and sedimentary layers, and because of the natural erosion including wind and rain have been created holes and shelters. These holes and shelters due to loose cement conglomerate and sedimentary layers is young seems to arrive, but stone tools around them doesn’t show this.
Mohamad Hosein Rezaei,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
The Kazeron County is located in the West of Fars Province and 732 M above sea level. From identified sites in survey of Kazeron plane (that mainly are sites of Neolithic period to late of Bronze Age) in total of 141 pieces of stone tools were gathered from 13 sites. Based on research on stone tools, sites as SK023 are show extraction and use / maintenance / repair. In these sites, the existence of core stone indicates of the construction of tools, and also existence a lot of the stone tools are indicates of settlement long-term in these sites. The core stones in all sites are exclusively chipped stone and mostly from kind of Chert stone of gray – green. It seems, produce of tools from other types of Chert stones such as red Chert, Chert of brown stripes, cream Chert, and… have been made in another place. The blades and their flakes in some sites of Kazeron plane (especially sites of SK022 and SK023) represents are the use of these tools for reaping of the plants. The raw material used to make stone tools (that often made of local stone) today it is easily accessible in the Kazeron mountains. These tools, to form of a combination and with natural resins such as bitumen have been placed inside the bone handle or in newer periods inside the metal handle, and similar to sickle have been used to cut plants. From of the main goals of the present research, study of technology diversity in stone tools sites of prehistory in Kazeron plane is for regional and comparative studies and for gain of general knowledge the prehistory of Kazeron plane.
Keywords: Stone Tool, Typology, Prehistory, Kazeron Plane.
The Kazeron County is located in the west of Fars Province and 732 M above sea level. This County from the north to Mamasani and Behbahan, from east and northeast to Shiraz, from southwest and west to part of Borazjan city and Bosher, and from southeast to Firozabad is limited. This County in terms of geographic is located in mountainous area and with surrounded by high mountains. The mountains of Kazeron area is stretched from the northwest to the southeast (Mozafariyan, 1994: 25). The Mountains of Kazeron consists of two ranges and Kazeron plane is between these two mountain ranges. The Kazeron County has a warm climate. The temperature of this county is max.49 degrees above zero and at least 6 degrees below zero. The average rainfall in Kazeron County in years of low rainfall is less than 500 mm and in the rainy years approximately 700 mm (Behrozi, 1968: 8). The Kazeron County has abundant water resources. Abundant springs and a lot of water has a created several rivers. The major rivers of this county are include of Jareh, Shapor, and also freshwater Lake of Parishan (Hatami, 2006: 12). So, Kazeron plane with a lot of water resources and suitable climate had a good environment for development of human societies in the long term. In this research, stone tools related to Neolithic period to Iron Age (that collected from survey of archeology Kazeron plane) have done typology and classification. So, from of the main goals of the present research, study of technology diversity in stone tools sites of prehistory in Kazeron plane is for regional and comparative studies and for gain of general knowledge the prehistory of Kazeron plane.
From identified sites in survey of Kazeron plane (that mainly are sites of Neolithic period to late of Bronze Age) in total of 141 pieces of stone tools were gathered from 13 sites. Tepe Qalat 2 (SK002) is located 1 km northeast of Baladeh city. From this site was obtained only 2 chips. A piece is Retouch and another Burin. The Galeh Narenji (SK006) is located in near of the village of Galeh Narenji and 1.5 km east of Pershian Lake. From this site 6 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Siah 1 (SK013) another from sites, that is located in around Pershian Lake. From this site 3 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites is Tal Siah 2 (SK014), that from this site 7 pieces stone tools have been collected. Gabrestan Karai (SK015) is located 500 meters southeast of Karai village, and from this site 11 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites this study is Dreh Tampoi (SK016) that from this site 12 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Zirakan is located 1 km east of Kaskan village and in south of the Kazeron city. From this site 17 pieces stone tools have been collected. Another from sites this study is Tal Rashton (SK020) that from this site 8 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Panj Mahal (SK022) is located 700 m west of Shapro River, that from this site 25 pieces stone tools have been collected. Tal Dehdaran (SK023) is located on the northern margin of Kazeron plain, that from this site 26 pieces stone tools have been collected.
Usually, estimate the ratio of blank flake to core stones can help us to guess that production of stone tools has done elsewhere. On the other hand, the blades and their flakes in some sites of Kazeron plane (especially sites of SK022 and SK023) represents are the use of these tools for reaping of the plants. In general, in spite of a lot of variety in the collection of stone tools in sites of Kazeron plane (that shows diverse and advanced industries), in core stones can’t be seen complexity and advanced technology. Ultimately should be noted, based on survey results and pottery samples, these stone tools are belonging to the 7th millennium B.C. to the end of the second millennium B.C..
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
Despite of studies about acceramic Neolithic period in west of Asia (especially Levant area), little has been done archaeological activities related to this period in Central Zagros. The Central Zagros is one of the important areas of west Asia that in this area has been done sedentary, domestication animals, and cultivation for first time. In Central Zagros, Seimare River is the largest river. The Seimare archeology project was done based on surveys and excavations archaeology in dam basin of Seimare. The Dangjoun from sites was excavated in related to Seimare archeology project in year of 2010. In total, 70 square meters was excavated from this site that led to discovery three phase of settlement. In Dangjoun wasn’t achieved of terra cotta ware, but architectural remains were achieved from all trenches with different quality. The architecture this site has been affected from Central Zagros environment. The materials used in this site are taken from the surrounding environment. This study was done with a fundamental purpose, and method of data amassment in this research is library – field method. In this research, in addition to the introduction and description architecture of Dangjoun, the complete descriptive has been done about architecture of A and B periods of acceramic Neolithic. In this regard have been explained specific architectural features of each period in Anatolia, Syria and Northern Zagros (in Iraq). Main questions of research: Due to the architectural condition of this site as right corner architecture, and …, this site belongs to, which period of acceramic Neolithic period? Due to the permanent architecture in Kapargah (that including of homes four corners, and built of homes on the ground), it seems, this site is belong to period B of acceramic Neolithic period and can’t be attributed it to earlier periods.
Keywords: Acceramic Neolithic Period, Seimare, Central Zagros, Architecture.
In the history of human culture, the Neolithic period is of particular importance. The Neolithic period is including from 11000 to 7000 BC. The human societies has been experienced many changes in this period. Some of the most important changes in this period as: Starting and developing agriculture and animal husbandry, permanent establishment, population increase, long distance commerce as obsidian, skill in the production of stone tools, beginning of metallurgy, production of pottery, use of fire in the industry, indication of personal ownership of objects, accumulation of wealth and beginning of social inequalities, construction of public and religious buildings (Hole, 2000: 192; Byrd, 1994). However, the most significant consequence of Neolithic revolution was emergence of a compound economy with emphasis on domestic plants and animals (Hole, 1984). On the other hand, production of pottery in this period is led to cleave Neolithic period into two periods: Acceramic and ceramic Neolithic. According to the hints top, the main concept of Neolithic period is with food production, appearance of village, and architecture. The Central Zagros is one of the important areas of west Asia that in this area has been done sedentary, domestication animals, and cultivation for first time (Zeder, 1999). The Central Zagros because of the strategic position and placing in between areas like Mesopotamia, Khuzestan, Azerbaijan and central parts of Iran, and also Due to the appropriate environmental facilities in this area as: fertile fields, good agricultural lands, abundance of water resources, … has always been a concern for human societies for a long time. Main questions of research: Due to the architectural condition of this site as right corner architecture, and…, this site belongs to, which period of acceramic Neolithic period?
The Kapargah is located in Lorestan and part of Kuhdasht County and Konani region. The nearest city to this site is Badreh city in Ilam Province. The Kapargah is located in Cham Ghoileh valley and for difficult transit this valley, in this area is living of wild animals. In terms of size, the Kapargah is small size and about 2000 square meters. Around this site rarely is obtained stone tools. This site is to form of rectangle and has 70 meters long and 30 meters wide. The Kapargah isn’t located on the floor of the plain, and with the passage of time have been created sediments about 6 meters on the site. The distance of this site to the river is about 50 meters, and surrounding lands are very prone to farming and animal husbandry. It seems, primary village because of located in between mountainous plains has been built on a gentle slope. The architecture this site has been affected from Central Zagros environment. The materials used in this site are taken from the surrounding environment. Workshop 1 was created with 5 m long and wide, and relative to workshop 2 had less architecture. All the walls have been made with rubble from mountain and river and sticking together with mortar. In this site was discovered three phases of architecture that hasn’t been seen structural difference between phases. Workshop 2 first was created with 3 m long and wide and then developed, and extent it was reached to 54 square meters. In this workshop too, discovered three phases of architecture that all the walls have been made with rubble from mountain and river and sticking together with mortar.
Due to the permanent architecture in Kapargah (that including of homes four corners, and built of homes on the ground), it seems, this site is belong to period B of acceramic Neolithic period and can’t be attributed it to earlier periods. The difference in architecture in two trenches this site probably because it is workshop 1 has been created in around of the village and this area has been temporary residential homes. Two warehouses in this workshop show each home has its own warehouse. The climate situation of this area has been influenced the construction of houses. Because of the air temperature above zero in this area, the walls aren’t thickened.
Esmail Rahmani, Ebrahim Nasiri, Younes Abolgasemi,
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018)
Study of human skeletons are gives researchers very valuable information about ancient people (especially, skeletons that in archeological excavations are obtained). In studies of osteology are considered different aspects of bone morphology after classification and typology. In this type of study, quickly gender determination and estimate of skeletons age is done from the appearance of bones without performing complex experiments in the lab. In the male and female skeletons are clear differences. These differences are based on standard indicators. The human skeletons of Korijan from a historical site was obtained, that after the recovering actions and maintaining the physical structure it in the first situation, necessity of studies of gender determination and estimate of skeleton age was considered. In the first view, maybe questions about gender determination and estimate of skeleton are looked completely clear or very complex. The review this point that human skeleton of Korijan have been related to men or women, or this skeleton is in the age of the elderly or adult; proof or refutation of these hypotheses was needed to use scientific approaches and use of measurable and experimental variables. The sciences of biology, physical anthropology, and osteology are close relationship with each other, and these sciences through this relationship are help great help to answer these questions and hypotheses. In this research, has been used from the combination of the species classification method (typology) and branch classification (that this method more is used biological studies and osteology). In these methods, skeletal data has been evaluated in equal of indices and variables in category of similar species. Use of the library resources, is another part of studies of this research.
Keywords: Gender, Age, Human Skeleton of Korijan, Hegmataneh Museum.
After the discovery of ancient grave in Korijan, in the first step, was done identification of bones and tissue fixation them, and the skeleton was moved to the Hegmataneh Museum with scientific methods. After restoration of the skeleton, was done gender determination and estimate of skeletons age. Many archaeologists are refitting the social structure of ancient societies based on traces from the excavation of ancient sites and cemeteries are obtained. In this research, based on bio data with species classification method (typology) has been studied apparent differences of male and female skeletons. The male and female skeletons are a lot of obvious and hidden features that can be categorized. These features are different with each other; and experts from these different features are used to classify human skeletons. Main research questions: What features should be used in the classification of the skeleton under study? And, how should these features assessed? In relation to estimate of skeleton age, in addition to use the species classification method (typology) and branch classification, also evaluation pattern of the skeleton age has been consideration. The purpose of this research, provide of the standard criteria for gender determination and estimate of skeletons age is done from the appearance of bones without performing complex experiments in the lab. In this research, has been used from the combination of the species classification method (typology) and branch classification (that this method more is used biological studies and osteology). In these methods, skeletal data has been evaluated in equal of indices and variables in category of similar species. Use of the library resources, is another part of studies of this research.
During the trenching for limitation of Korijan Tepe in South of Kabudarahang in 2002 year was obtained the human skeleton of Korijan, and for further studies to Hegmataneh Museum was moved. The male and female skeletons are a lot of obvious and hidden features that can be categorized. For this purpose, pelvis bones are most important part. The importance of pelvis bone is for distinguish of gender, and this Because of the difference in performance it between men and women. In general, the female pelvis is wider than the male pelvis. Thin pelvis is more suitable for movement. In addition to the pelvic bone, skull bones and then bones of hip, arm, collarbone, shoulder, and wishbone for distinguish of gender are important. Size and general strength of other skeletal areas as a sub-index are noteworthy.
Furthermore, by reviewing the skeleton, we can be estimate of skeletons age. The various methods that are use usually for estimate of age in the time of death in adult skeletons, as follows: Closure of the skull sutures, shape of ends of the ribs, shape of the articular surfaces, shape of the symphysis pubis, and checking the condition and covering of the teeth. In general, the age of human is determined: to 2 years from the milk tooth, from 2 to 6 years old from bone points, from 6 to 12 years old through permanent teeth, from the age of 12 to 25 from the junction of epiphysis to diaphysis, and from the age of 30 from the skull sutures and condition of the teeth.
Although, today is genetic laboratory methods for recognize the men and women skeletons, but these methods are expensive and time consuming. Adaptive method and typology used in osteology of Korijan skeleton and with knowledge of male and female skeletal differences, the most appropriate approach is to achieve the desired information. Ancient grave of Korijan was includes a squatting burial. In this research, that has been done based on osteology studies, gender of skeleton was detected woman, and its approximate age based on the skull and lower jaw, was adult human.