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Mehdi Karimi Mansoob, Yaghub Mohammadifar,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)
The two most prominent types of material cultures in eastern Zagros are Bronze Age black burnished pottery (3rd millennium BC) and grey Iron Age pottery (second and first millennium BC) that were dog out during archaeological expeditions are being investigated and reconstructed. The technique of firing these two types of pottery will be analyzed in the present study. The main objective of this research was to reconstruct the similar conditions and techniques of these two pottery class using experimental archaeological methods and practical reconstruction of traditional kilns. Along this route, the technical similarities and differences are discussed, relying on archaeological data and comparing it with reconstructed samples. In this regard, two samples of each of the Bronze Age and Iron Age potteries were reconstructed and samples were produced and refurbished by traditional kiln that utilize modern laboratory facilities and precise temperature-measuring devices and are heated in the firing process. The results of the try and error tests indicated that baking with chemical reduction and emergence of gray color is the most important common feature of difference of gray pottery with other pottery assemblages. The firing technique and the structure of the kilns are the most important factors in distinguishing the two types of bronze age and iron age pottery assemblages. What is certain is that with the evolution of the furnace structure, the heat generated from about 700 ° C in the gray Yanniq period of the Bronze Age has increased to about 1000 ° C in the Iron Age specimens, resulting in a higher firing quality as well as a complete and complete chemical reduction of the vessels. Practical comparison of the reconstructed samples showed complete conformity of their characteristics with the ancient specimens (Pisa Tepe, Tushmalan Tepe and Ahmadabad Tepe) and also revealed the secret of producing these two species of gray pottery.
Keywords: Eastern Zagros Central Regions, Bronze Age Pottery, Iron Age Gray Pottery, Experimental Archeology, Kiln, Firing and Reduction.
In modern archeology, the scientific question is not what we know, but how we know it. This point of view is one of the most important and at the same time the simplest modern archeological approach to past phenomena (Alizadeh, 2004: 91). Therefore, the idea of reconstructing the conditions and the environment in analogy with what was reported in the reports and data was presented. In response to such ambiguities, it can be said that using more modern methods in research such as “experimental archeology” will increase the accuracy of the premises. Early sections of this study have followed up on existing data and library studies of past sources and reports; therefore, in the next section, reconstructing the conditions and environment consistent with the information provided, has been the author’s main goal. In this section, the “kiln making” and the experience of firing the pottery in these kilns were practically achieved, leading to new information on the evolution of the gray pottery production; Proved the assumptions to be true, so that by producing products that were quite similar to ancient data, the key role of the resuscitation process in the firing process and the important role of kiln design and structure in the specific type of firing were demonstrated However, in some sources (Majidzadeh, 1370: 9-7), general references to the reasons for the pottery being grayed out as interfering with elements such as oxygen, iron, and carbon, and in other research, the reduction process was the main reason ( Kambakhshfard, 2010: 296). Finally, it can be added that according to the comparisons and studies of the samples, the firing of the Iron Age gray pottery somehow evolved into conscious firing methods during the first millennium BC. Although in the early Bronze Age achieved to somehow the technique of reduction firing, but only in Iron Age pottery assembladges, the correct pottery reduction firing can be clearly seen.
After the pottery kiln reconstruction operation and the success of the production of the specimens, only by a very simple comparison, the accuracy of the existing probabilities, which were the unknowns of the equation, can be easily ascertained; however, accurate and scientific recordings of the work confirmed these results. Based on these empirical findings for the Bronze Age gray pottery, although previous findings indicate that the potter accessed the firing process may be regenerated, it is due to the amount of carbon accumulated in the samples (carbonization) that is due to its proximity to heavy smoke and firewood. It can be said it was still not possible to control precisely the firing conditions by the potters.
According to existing reports and objective observations of the Bronze Age pottery assemblages, such pottery has much thicker bodies than the gray Iron Age pottery, and empirical indications indicate lower firing temperatures; There are some other features that have been ignored because of their relevance to the subject of this study, that is, firing techniques. As for its firing technique, most of the existing documents refer to the possibility of a ditched type kilns, which is not far-fetched from the evidence.
Reconstruction of the firing conditions of the Bronze Age pottery indicated that the kiln was probably a small-size oven shaped hole that provided a relatively primitive chamber for controlling fire and firing in the vicinity of heavy smoke from firewood and fuel. Reconstructed furnace firing sector were able to provide similar conditions for oven-kilns. In this oven shape kiln, pottery was quite similar to the Bronze Age specimens, especially the Yaniqe or Godin IV pottery, but due to physical limitations and initial quality and reduction facilities, they were never comparable to those found in the Iron Age.
In fact, despite efforts to create optimum conditions, these types of kilns are not capable of achieving a higher quality product such as gray ceramics of the Iron Age, even though due to the excessive energy loss of the maximum heat produced in the oven by about 700 Centigrade did not exceed that production of higher quality pottery in these conditions is almost unlikely.
As the kiln construction techniques expands and evolves, the reconstituted kiln will eventually move closer to the plan of the kilns in the Iron Age, and after a complete overhaul, the result also confirms this claim. In this kiln, reasons such as the separation of the firing chamber, the dominance of proper flame allocation to the vessels, the closure of the pipes and the non-collision of the pipes with the air, made it easier to obtain the appropriate chemical reduction conditions.
In fact, the gray color of the potteries reconstituted with the conditions of the Iron Age kilns are mostly due to the correct reduction and dependence of the carbon chemical interactions and the consumption and replacement of the oxygen present in the composite iron oxide in the ceramic body soil. The technical differences in these two species, which are mainly due to differences in the structure of the kiln structure, are evident in the firing quality of the bodies and the difference in the intensity of carbon accumulation and the color difference between the surface and the body depth.
After examining the documentation available in the time and location of interested research subject, it can be said that the gray pottery has two major variations, both of which have significant differences in terms of time of occurrence, originating culture, and specific production and reduction techniques. In terms of firing technique characteristics, it can be said that the only similarity between these two cultural products is the presence of a “different gray color” in the body of both types of pottery, which has brought them closer together because of the differences in the characteristics of the other species.
The characteristics of the Early Bronze Age gray pottery that distinguishes it from the Iron Age gray pottery lie in the presence of two main factors, namely the type of kilns and the pottery body features. According to the comparison and examination of samples, firing gray pottery assembladges of the Iron Age somehow evolves conscious firing methods and only in the examples of the Iron Age pottery can a complete and correct chemical reduction of a pottery be clearly seen.
In fact, both of these types of potteries are common in creating an atmosphere of chemical reduction in firing, both of which are interesting in their quality and type of performance, which can be attributed to the progressive evolution of the kiln structure and the facilities and knowledge necessary for its construction and observance for centuries.
Hamid Fadaei, Seyed Mohammad-Amin Emami, Ayub Karimi-Jashni,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)
The rock art heritages all across Iran have a exceptional importance compared to the rock arts of the world. For example, the Bistoon rock art complex is listed on the World Heritage Sites and some others, like Naghsh-e-Rustam, are located in the cultural landscape of World Heritage. The entities of such rock heritages to an evolving environment, have been threatened, especially with the increase in air pollutants. Threats of Environmental Pollutants might have endangered the Integration of these Cultural Landscapes. The presence of these pollutants is due to the presence of large and small pollutant industries, especially petrochemical complexes. For the first step, it is necessary to evaluate different methods of monitoring air pollutants on rock cultural heritage. Various methods of environmental measurements have been used to assess the condition of the rock heritage. These monitoring techniques can be divided into direct and indirect methods. The main research question is about the advantages and disadvantages of each of these two methods for choosing the suitable rock heritage monitoring system. In this article, next to gathering information from objective observations and theoretical studies, the data were obtained through qualitative analysis. In this article, after examining the characteristics of these two methods, the type of direct monitoring required has been identified to identify air pollutants and control the rock heritage. Meanwhile, new conservation experiences in historic sites can reduce concerns about energy infrastructure constraints and reduce the cost of continuous monitoring of rock heritage. Therefore, the results will be applied in addition to having fundamental and theoretical values.
Keywords: Rocky Heritage, Air Pollution, Environmental Monitoring, Naqsh-e Rostam.
Monitoring is the periodic measurement of the environment that compared to the data obtained and the predetermined characteristics (Thomson, 1965). In cultural heritage sites, it is necessary to examine the process of environmental change over the short, medium and long terms, in relation to the historical impact and development centers. It also analyzes whether the two issues of conservation and economic development have been compromised (Íñigo et al., 2006). Continuous monitoring can be considered as a criterion for decision-making in the conservation of cultural heritage and provide shared benefits to heritage sites with the goal of improving site management and preventive conservation (Smith, 1991).
Research Objectives and Necessity: The main objective of this paper is to evaluate air pollutant monitoring methods in rock heritage. The gradual expansion of cities and industries has made it unavoidable to change historic and ancient spaces even in the most remoted areas. This has become a challenging debate about the World Heritage Sites and the cultural landscape around the, and more and more important is how to control the side effects of this condition, so environmental measurements are certainly the first step.
Research Questions and Hypothesis: In the present study, while reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect monitoring methods in rock heritage, has been analyzed a more appropriate system for monitoring of such heritages. It seems that in order to select an effective monitoring method, should be evaluated their impact on measuring the quality of changes in the site and to determine its scale and method according to the objective.
Methodology: In this paper, while classifying environmental pollutants, it is emphasized the necessity of choosing an appropriate monitoring approach. Also have been investigated different methods and experiences of measuring and monitoring air pollutants and have been analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect monitoring techniques for selecting the most suitable rocky heritage monitoring system.
Generally, environmental pollutants are divided into several major categories Which include:
1) Small and Large Industries 2) Large Scale Agriculture and 3) Road Vehicles, that each of these sources produce all kinds of environmental pollutants and can damage the rock structures (Likens Gene E., 2013: 259). Large groups of pollutants are SOx, NOx and COx that have been identified and measured for many years by sensor monitoring (Frassoldati et al., 2005). Monitoring sensor are continuously developing and they are advanced enough to be able to detect the type and concentration of different types of Nitrogen oxides, Sulfur and Carbon oxides both in situ (without the need for a laboratory) and at time (not after time) (Yu et al., 2015: 250 ؛Zhang Y. et al., 2018: 224). In this respect, techniques SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction), DLLME (Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction) and etc., have been very effective in extracting environmental pollutants (Tang et al., 2011; Farré et al, 2010). There are two main options for monitoring: direct monitoring (active or passive methods) or indirect monitoring (structurally or using extraction methods). Direct monitoring measures and records the amount of air pollutants at specific time periods. In contrast, passive monitoring measures the effect of air pollutants on monuments indirectly at specified times, which are usually longer.
Choosing an effective strategy for rock heritage management with the objective of preventive conservation against air pollutants, it needs to understand the structure of the object, the environment around it and the relationship between the two. In addition to scientific studies, this is partly dependent on the value and significance of the object from a social and cultural point of view. The advantages and disadvantages of using direct and indirect monitoring methods for selecting the appropriate rock heritage monitoring system and its measurable variables are presented and summarized in Table 1. Therefore, it would be far more useful to have a direct monitoring system for rocky heritage and it is a strategy for treatment and preventive conservation. It should be noted that any strategy definition does not necessarily mean conservation of the objects and it is necessary to continue the environmental monitoring after adopting preventive conservation, in order to determine the effectiveness of the methods and, if necessary, to revise and correct the methods.
Atefeh Shekofteh, Omid Oudbashi, Giuseppe Cultrone, Masoud Ansari,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)
Identification of resources and quarries used for extraction of raw materials in the ancient time is a very interesting subject matter for researchers and archaeologists. Results of analysis and study of ancient mines and quarries may lead to characterize the know- how of ancient technology of production of materials and tools in the old world and shows the techniques rendered by artists and craftsmen to apply raw materials for producing different artistic and ordinary objects. Moreover, identification of ancient mines and quarries (especially stone quarries) provide unaltered materials for conservators to reconstruct archaeological and historical stone monuments. In this paper, stone blocks used in Anahita Temple in Kangavar and ancient stone quarry of Chel Maran (Chehel Maran) were studied by analytical methods. The aim of this study is to determine chemical composition and microstructure of stones used in the Anahita Temple and their correlation with the stone mining evidences observed in the Chel Maran quarry. For this purpose, some samples from the temple and the quarry were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and polarized optical microscopy methods. The results indicated that the stones used in the temple and those of the quarry are limestones and Si and Mg were identified in the analysed samples as minor constituents. Microscopic structure of samples presented calcite as the main phase including some dolomite crystals and clay minerals as impurities. Based on the results obtained, the Chel Maran ancient stone quarry was widely used for the construction of the Anahita Temple.
Keywords: Ancient Mining, Anahita Temple of Kangavar, Chel Maran Quarry, Limestone, Calcite.
Stone has been used widely during the ancient time to make different artefacts and monuments including small ritual and decorative objects, reliefs, decorative monuments and buildings. The studies on quarrying and manufacturing of stone objects as well as the provenance of raw materials are an interesting subject in geoarchaeological and archaeometric investigations (Goldberg et al, 2006), and this is a useful study when restoration interventions are required.
The large archaeological complex of Anahita Temple is located in western Iran, in the city of Kangavar and based on the archaeological excavations and findings, it was dated from the Achaemenid to the Sasanian periods (Azarnoush, 1981; Kambakhsh Fard, 1994). It was constructed on a natural hill and it was erected by stone and gypsum mortars. The main building was built with large stone blocks including cubic blocks for walls and very large and thick circular columns. There are some evidences of stone quarrying in different areas near the Anahita Temple. The main and important stone quarry in this region is Chel Maran (Chehel Maran) stone quarry located in the west of the Temple in a mountain with the same name (Chel Maran mount) (Oudbashi, 2008). The aim of this paper is to analyse the stones from Anahita Temple and the Chel Maran quarry in order to compare their chemical and microstructural features and to find a possible relationship between the building and the quarry.
Five fragments from the Anahita Temple and two big samples from the Chel Maran quarry were selected. Ten grams of each sample was powdered for chemical analysis. A thin section was prepared from each sample for microscopic studies. The chemical composition of samples was characterized by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis by using a S4 Pioneer model X-ray fluorescence spectrometer manufactured by Bruker. Microscopic observation of fragments and stones were done on thin sections by using a Primotech model Zeiss polarized optical microscope. Thin sections were studied by alizarin-red method to identify presence of dolomite in the texture of stone samples (Flügel et al., 2010)
Findings and Argument
The results of XRF analysis of the stone samples are presented in Table 1. The results show that all samples are calcarous stones as can be deduced by the high amount of CaO and the loss on ignition (LOI). Furthermore, SiO2, MgO and Al2O3 were detected as minor constituents in the composition of the stone samples. Other elements were detected as minor/trace content in the compsoition of samples. Although, the stones shows variable amounts of some constituents such as Na2O or Al2O3 , it is visible that the chemical compsoiton of stone samples of the Temple and the quarry is quite similar.
The pertographic study showed a layerad texture of micrite to sparite in all samples. There were many veins of secondary calcite in the texture of the samples. Alizarine-red test indicated the presence of sporadic dolomite crystals in the texture of the stone samples. Furthermore, some compact clay veins were visible with dark colors in the microstructure of the samples (Bausch, 1968). The compariosn of the petrographic micrographs of samples from the Anahita Temple and the Chel Maran quarry reveals that they are very similar from textural point of view, in particular, sample CM-2 that was taken from the western part of the Chel Maran mount, where many evidences of quarrying and stone extraction are visible in that area.
The results of chemical and petrographic analysis of the stone samples from the Anahita Temple of Kangavar and the Chel Maran stone quarry showed that the Chel Maran stone quarry was used as a main resource to provide stone blocks for the construction of the Anahita Temple. The analysis indicated that the stone samples can be classified as limestone with some impurities such as SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO that are due to presence of clay minerals and dolomite in the structure of both the stone of the Temple and the quarry. The petrographic studies also showed a micrite to sparite texture with evidences of clay veins and small amounts of dolomite spread in the texture of the stones. The results obtained proved the similarity of the chemistry and the texture of samples from Anahita Temple and the quarry which indicate that the ancient quarry of Chel Maran was one of the source of the stones used in the historic monument of Anahita Temple.
Daryoosh Akbarzadeh, Fariba Sharifian, Azadeh Heidar Pour,
year 3, Issue 9 (12-2019)
The Sasanian Empire is one of the most magnificent dynasties in ancient Iran. Numerous archaeological and artistic works as well as written manuscripts have been remained from the Sasanian period. In the meantime, oral traditions of the period and its inspiration on Islamic era cannot be denied. The Sasanian inscribed bullae are among the most important heritages of this glorious era. This article deals with a technical analysis based on “electron probe microanalysis” to understand compounding materials of the Sasanian bullae. It also stresses on the mineralogy of the bullae’s compounds and raise a question if their manipulation follow any standard(s) or not? Evaluating such a hypothesis, the authors have selected small sample pieces of the bullae from three well-known historical sites: Takht-e Soleyman (West Azarbaijan Province), Qasr-e Abu-Nasr (Fars Province) and Teppe Kabudan (Golestan Province). To answer to main question of the paper, EMPA technique has been selected, which is one of the most accurate tests. Initially, fixed compound elements of each bullae were discovered and then an attempt was undergone to evaluate and compare the bullae compounds of the three Sasanian sites.
Keywords: Sasanian, Bullae, EPMA, Mineralogy, Compound Materials.
The Sasanian Empire is one of the most magnificent dynasties in ancient Iran, which was founded by Ardashir I (224 AD), and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the advent of Islam (651 AD).The collapse of this dynasty was so bitter for Iranian identity and nationality, that it can be equal to Zoroastrian final resurrection in some texts.
Varied cultural heritage of this magnificent era, including royal inscriptions, coins, gold and silver vessels, glass containers, seals and bullae belonging to nobles and officials, including priests, governors and army commanders, can be a proof of the claim. Such archeological evidences have been discovered in most of the historical sites of Iran, especially in Sasanian homeland: Fars province (cf. Gyselen 2006: 25).
Nevertheless these Zoroastrian Pahlavi manuscripts, written heritage, or the Sasanian heritages in the other countries, is out of this paper.
Although so many scholarly works have been published about the history, art and culture of the Sasanian in the past 100 years up to now (Malandra 2005: online), but less effort has been made on technical tests such as fingerprinting of the bullae, analyzing glass works with non-destructive testing, etc. in Iran. These technical tests are obviously a part of Iranian Studies, Archaelogy and Museum studies. So, we decided to conduct a highly accurate EPMA (electron probe micro-analyzer) test on some Sasanian bullae in three different geographic regions. This paper describes the results for the first time. We avoided ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) test or other destructive technical tests. EPMA is one of the safe ways to examine and preserve objects without any damages. In professional ICP technical test a solution, i.e. part of an object with a liquid should be made, but such a test runs counter to the rules.
The Sasanian inscribed bullae are one of the most important remnants from this great cultural period. These works are most important references in archeological studies and Iranology, etc. such as research on artistic aspects and inscriptions (including individual names, their designation and religious legends). The bullae were also used in administrative matters, both in political affairs and in commerce (Gyselen 2002: 24). Several collections of Sasanian bullae has been discovered in Iran’s provinces most of which have been printed by Western scholars (cf. Gignoux and Gyselen 1987). These works have been made out of raw mud which has been kneaded with hands and are mostly in rounded form. In an overview, most of them are looks like the same in shape and color. The largest collection of Sasanian bullae is discovered from Takht-e Solayman.
However, this article doesn’t focus on historical, artistic and administrative aspects of the works (cf. Azarpay 2003: online; Gubaev et al 1996: 56); but the authors of the paper are looking to find out how well the makers of these bullae were familiar with the knowledge of mineralogy? Whether they used any standard(s) to extract mines or select initial mud for the creation of these works? Whether technical tests, based on analyzing of the compound materials of the samples, can improve us about ability and knowledge of the makers? How much similar or dissimilar are those compound materials from a site to another one?
In the past years, some scholarly works were published based on the technical tests (or chemical) on metals, ceramics, bronze and porcelains. Most of them used “XRF” or “PXRF” (cf. Ashkanani 2013: 245; Tanasi at al 2017: 222-234). Meanwhile no chemical or other tests have been reported on bullae
Furthermore, the results of the tests such as XRF and the like cannot be comparable with the technical test of EPMA. While the other tests are destructive, EPMA is completely safe. Moreover, it is much easier for scholars to access to the ancient archeological works such as ceramics and bronze rather than bullae.
Selecting Samples of the Bullae from Three Historical Sites
To answer the above mentioned questions, we selected samples from three known Sasanian sites (Iran) including: Takht-e Soleyman in West Azarbaijan ProvinceI, Qasr-e Abu Nasar in Fars ProvinceII and Tappeh Kabudan in Golestan ProvinceIII . The samples were selected from the Department of Seals and Coins of the National Museum of Iran, where the bullae of these three sites are kept. The samples were sent to Research Institute of Processing Minerals of the Ministry of Industry, the only holder of EPMA instrument in the country; Mr. Qolizadeh and his colleagues were responsible to do the technical test. Two small pieces of bullae were selected from each above mentioned site (Bullae) and sent for the EPMA test. Meanwhile, the team was unable to use the “polish section” test on the basis of BSE because of ICHTO rules; also the EPMA photos are of a higher resolution. Obviously the resolution of %10 - %15 is enough for such a test and there is no need for resolution of %1 -%2. In this work, the expert team used the BSE shooting method, which means “backscattered electrons (for photography)”. The following, charts indicate the compound materials of the samples:
According to the charts, close similarities have been seen in the compounds of the Takht-e Soleyman samples except iron. Qasr-e Abu Nasr’s samples could be considered of having the same similarities next to Takht-e Soleyman. In fact, remarkable dissimilarities between the examples of these two sites can be seen in those of Teppeh Kabudan.
Meanwhile the question arises as: “why there are such similarities and dissimilarities between the compounds?”
Takht-e Soleyman is one of the most sacred, important and well-known Sasanian sites. Enough has been said and written about the religious aspect of the site for the Zoroastrianism (Boyce 1987: online) and Iran under Sasanian; the very important works of the Sasanians have been discovered in this site (Gobl 1976). This site is geographically surrounded by the nearby mountains so that the craftsmen accessed probably to the mines of clay. It is not reasonable to suppose that they transferred mud from far away!
Although Qasr-e Abu Nasr is one of the most important Sasanian sites, but it cannot be compared with Takht-e Soleyman. Meanwhile archeological excavations attest its rank in Sasanian studies. The Achaemenid evidences from Qasr-e Abu Nasr can be considered as a part of archaic background of the site (Frye 1973: 8).
Tappeh Kabudan, unlike the two above mentioned sites, is almost unknown,in which the least excavations have been conducted. Sasanian bullae from Tappeh Kabudan in the National Museum of Iran have been discovered in the site accidently. The lack of the archeological excavations to get more information about the site from one side, and its special geographical location in Golestan Province which has been surrounded by the mines, fertile hills and rivers from another side, differentiate Tappeh Kabudan from the previous sites. Most probably the craftsmen who worked in Takht-e Soleyman and Qasr-e Abu Nasr cannot be compared with those in Teppeh Kabudan. Post-Sasanian texts have frequently referred to Sasanian kings who visited Takht-e Solayman for the ritual rite. Also a royal gateway of Qasr-e Abu Nasr’s site can be assumed as a connection between the site and the Power, while there is no trace in this regard on Tappeh Kabudan. It seems that Takht-e Solayman and Qasr-e Abu Nasr were two significant political and religious sites in Sasanian era.
In spite of this, we need many other samples from the north, south, east and west sides of the country to determine similarities and dissimilarities of the bullae. However such destructive tests on objects are illegal, we were unable to find more samples.
The Sasanian bullae are one of the most outstanding heritages for understanding the administrative geography of Iranshahr in the eraIV These bullae have been widely used in administrative matters, especially in the trade.
They belonged to the nobles and ranked class such as the priests, army commanders, provincial governors, tradesmen and etc. Despite the scholarly works, the technical tests to analyze the compounds of the bullae have not been done yet. As any destructive test is prohibited according to the rules, we need broken fragments and pieces for doing such a test on the bullae. In fact we hardly received a few number of the samples for EPMA test from the National Museum of Iran.
The EPMA is one of the most accurate technical tests for analyzing the compound elements of the archeological clay objects; thus it can serve as a gateway to other tests on the other clay works such as jars, bowls and etc. The result of our technical test testifies that the bullae compounded from fixed elements, the issue that has not been studied during the last century.
The results of the tests show that the makers prepared raw mud very accurately; so that they did not use the raw mud of anywhere. The similarities of the compound’s elements of the two most important sites of the Takht-e Soleyman and Qasr-e Abu Nasr show that the makers have had good information for selecting the mud. These similarities have been certified as a standard selection of raw mud for Sasanian bullae. However, a question arises as to whether those who provided the mud were same as who kneaded it?
It cannot be also ignored that most of these bullae date back to the late Sasanian (sixth century A.D.). Obviously during the sixth century art, music, coinage technique, and probably the knowledge of how to prepare mud for such a work had reached its peak. At least The percentage of silver in Sasanian coins is a good attest for standardization in this century. However the tests, which have been done on the bullae, testify the skill of the makers of these works.
Furthermore this achievement is a significant event in archeology, Iranian studies, and etc. Takht-e Soleyman, as a sacred religious site, was probably a place where craftsmen and masters worked in. The specific geographical location of this Zoroastrian site would have possibly provided the artists with a unique opportunity to look for their required mud within the site and nearby. Perhaps the similar compounds of the bullae can be considered as a proof to testify that makers extracted mud from specific mine(s) of that region.
Many masterpieces have been discovered from Qasr-e Abu Nasr site in Fars province. Similarity in compounds of the bullae of this site, same as Takht-e Soleyman, can be a claim that craftsmen followed a kind of standards for their works. Historical sites of Fars province, homeland of Sasanian kings, have played a significant role on Sasanian studies since the last century.
Tappeh Kabudan, unlike the two above mentioned sites, is a less known site in archeological studies, especially on Sasanian era. A considerable difference is being noticed in the percentage of the compounds of the samples of this site in comparison with the two discussed sites. The geographical location of Tappeh Kabudan can be a notable factor that causes dissimilarities between this site and Takht-e Soleyman and Qasr-e Abu Nasr. Against to the archeological knowledge about Takht-e Soleyman and Qasr-e Abu Nasr in the past fifty years, our information about Tappeh Kabudan is not enough. In fact, the results of the tested samples of this less known site, in northern part of the country, cannot be compared with the two mentioned well known Sasanian sites.
I. The site was excavated by German archaeologists in 1960s. They discovered a most important collection of the bullae and seals (Osten and Naumann 1961). Meanwhile Mr. Y. Moradi (RICHTO) excavated the site some years ago and discovered more than 300 new bullae: cf.RICHTO, Archive).
II. Qasr or Takht-e Abu Nasre is located in Fars Province, near Shiraz city. The collection of the bullae (and other objects) was published by R. Frye (Frye 1973).
III. Cf. Akbarzadeh and T. Daryaee 2012: online.
IV. The term used by Sasanian inscriptions and Zoroastrian Pahlavi texts (Daryaee 2009: 5).
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Pure religious and mystical thoughts in the minds of Muslim artists have led to the emergence of a common spirit in all Islamic artworks. Understanding the nature and purpose of Islamic art in the last century has attracted the attention of many scholars and researchers and their studies have led to various theories about the philosophy and wisdom of transcendent Islamic art. Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, including intellectuals who use a traditional approach based on religious and mystical views to explain what, why and how Islamic art - architecture, applied arts and visual arts. The question is: Islamic miniature of Iran based on traditionalist thinkers such as Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr on what features are similar to other Islamic Arts? In this study, the visual and content characteristics of the Islamic miniature of Iran are explained based on the religious and mystical views of Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr and the degree of similarity of Iranian miniature in form, expression, and meaning with other Islamic arts has been studied. Accordingly, after collecting some of Titus Burckhardt’s and Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s theories on Islamic art and examining several Islamic era miniatures through surveying and documenting, the data obtained have been drafted in a descriptive and comparative method. Finally, data analysis was performed using inductive reasoning. Based on the findings of the research, elements such as form, color, specialization, non-representation and use of writing (in the form of poetry) have given Iranian miniature, like other forms of Iranian art and architecture, special meaning. On the other hand, the form, expression, and meaning of Islamic miniature in Iran are in line with the mystical and religious views of Titus Burkhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, and these views are not only true about non-religious and court images.
Keywords: Islamic Art, Burckhardt, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Iranian miniature, Religious and Mystical Views.
Pure religious and mystical thoughts in the minds of Muslim artists have led to the emergence of a common spirit in all Islamic artworks. Like most Islamic arts, Iranian miniature has been subject to the temporal and spatial requirements of each era and has passed developments. Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hussein Nasr are among the scholars whose in-depth studies of nature, why and how of Islamic art have led to theories of Islamic art. In their works, they have described the characteristics of Islamic arts in a mystical and religious approach, and in the meantime, they have sometimes explained them in the visual arts, sometimes in the applied arts and sometimes in architecture.
Research Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to first study and understand the characteristics of Islamic art from traditionalist thinkers (Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr), secondly to compare and analyze the features mentioned in Iranian miniature with other Islamic arts. And third, recognition of the consistency of miniature Iran in form, expression, and meaning to other Islamic arts.
Question: The question is: Islamic miniature of Iran based on traditionalist thinkers such as Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr on what features are similar to other Islamic Arts?
Research Methods: The research method is descriptive-analytic and research data (images and miniature and taking notes) to the style library (documents) collected. Data obtained by descriptive statistics and comparisons have been drafted. Finally, data analysis using inductive reasoning in terms of the miniature of painting, as an extension of the total is made. On this basis, a number of the miniature have been studied and analyzed and the result has been generalized to the whole miniature in Iran.
in this article, important points are explained in a separate heading, including Tradition and Traditionalism, the Relationship of Islamic Art with Pre-Islamic Art in Iran, Burckhardt and Nasr’s View of the Nature of Islamic Art, the Human Position in Islamic Art and Iranian Painting, Paint in Islamic Art and Islamic Painting in Iran, Poetry in Islamic Art and Iranian Painting, Balance between form, Expression, and meaning in Islamic Art and Iranian Painting, Spaceship in Islamic Art and Iranian Painting, Lack of Views on Islamic Painting in Iran. For example: In Burckhardt’s view, the characteristic of Islamic art is to be consistent with the spirit of Islam, and this compatibility is at least evident in its core manifestations, such as the architecture of sacred places. Burkhardt states: “Islamic art itself is the concept that comes from its name, without ambiguity” (Burkhardt, 1986: 16).
Nasr also argues that the Islamic view of Islamic mysticism is “art for human” and since man is the caliph of God on earth and a central being at this level, it means that “art is for God” (Nasr, 2013: 291). According to Burckhardt: “Colors are the richness of the story’s inner illumination. Because they are confronted, they are blinding and in harmony with the harmony of the colors that we find in the true nature of the spectacle itself (“ Burkhardt, 1986: 88). According to Nasr: Every color has its allegory. As some mystics and poets have directly pointed out, such as the military sage, and every color has a connotation with one’s inner being and his soul, and its use in various aspects of life has a profound effect on the morale of the people (Nasr, 2004: 5).
According to traditionalist scholars such as Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, elements such as form, color, specialization, and use of writing (in poetry form) have played an important role in Iranian art. Iranian miniature based on the mystical and religious beliefs of Islam does not merely portray the outward appearance of nature and, by combining tangible and intangible forms, goes beyond material nature.
Colors have also helped to instill Islamic mystical and religious notions in their symbolic and semantic functions in Iranian miniature. Literature, poetry, and written works in the nomadic culture have also had a prominent place, as the word of the revelation of the Qur’an was a written miracle in the Muslim community. Literature, poetry, and written works in Islamic culture have also had an important place, as the word of the Qur’an’s revelation was a written miracle in the Muslim community. The importance of writing culture was that painting was at the service of verses, literary poetry.
Thus, the form or form, color, spatiality and enjoyment of the text as illustrated by the views of Titus Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr in the Iranian-Islamic miniatures also have more or less similar features. It should be emphasized that the above features are common to Islamic miniatures and Islamic art, and this cannot be generalized to non-religious and courtesy examples.
Mehdi Kord Noghani, Ali Salmani,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Muhammad Zaman, painter of the Safavid era, in some of his paintings has copied the western (“Farangi”) works. He has also used some of the techniques of the Western Modern age painting in some of his original works, having a traditional theme. Among these techniques, perspective has a great significance. In his copied works, Muhammad Zaman has used the perspective correctly, but in his original works, sometimes the perspective has been done correctly and sometimes incorrectly and unaligned. Until now, some commentators have argued that the use of perspective by Muhammad Zaman was due to a kind of incompetency and lack of academic education. In this article, in contrast to this view, it is argued that the point about Muhammad Zaman’s correct/incorrect use of perspective has been underestimated and therefore, there is a need to reinterpret what has hitherto been considered as a simple inaccuracy. In his original works, Muhammad Zaman, has arisen a question about the relation between traditional Persian miniatures and Western painting. Hence, in this paper, by examining some of the original works of Muhammad Zaman, this question is discussed and it is claimed that in the absence of theoretical discussions concerning the relation between the old and the new elements in painting, the inevitable result was the domination of Western perspective on Iranian painting. In other words, the works of Muhammad Zaman can be considered as a vehicle for “thinking”. Imaginary atmosphere of Persian painting and the Western perspective are mutually exclusive, and Muhammad Zaman transformed this incompatibility to the image as a “question”.
Keywords: Muhammad Zaman, Perspective, Painting of Safavid.
The title of my Ph.D. thesis was “The problem of basis in theoretical Iranian art studies”. While writing the thesis, I encountered issues that needed further study. Perspective was one of those issues. Formerly, I had read important works such as Panofsky’s Perspective as Symbolic Form and Belting’s Florence and Baghdad: Renaissance Art and Arab Science, but it seemed to me that the Perspective issue in Iran had certain conditions that had to be examined in the greater context of the nature of art in Iran. It is not possible to describe that framework in detail here, but I would point out that at the time of the emergence of perspective in Iranian painting, there was not even a word for “Fine Arts” in Iran. Of course, in Europe at that time such a term had not yet been formed as well, but the situation in Iran was different. So, there was no theoretical understanding of the arts at that time and there was also no treatise on perspective. The issue of perspective was important because, unlike other western techniques, the structure of Iranian painting and western perspective were mutually exclusive. Muhammad Zaman was among the first painters to use perspective, but as I will explain, this use was problematic. In this article, I will try to show how his works can be considered as a vehicle for this problem.
Muhammad Zaman and the Problem of Perspective
In some of his paintings, Muhammad Zaman has copied the western paintings. In Persian, it calls “Farangi-sazi” (This terms means making paintings by imitating western themes or techniques). In these paintings perspective has been used almost correctly and shows that he was briefly acquainted with this technique. But he also has “original works” which are more important to my discussion. In the latter works, sometimes the perspective has been done correctly and sometimes incorrectly and unaligned. Although these “original works” have a Persian theme, their form is a combination of western and Persian principles. Contrary to the supposition of a group of researchers, some other scholars have proven that Muhammad Zaman has never traveled to Italy and India. In this article, this issue is not discussed and, instead, his remaining works are addressed. So, in this article, five “original” paintings of Muhammad Zaman are examined: “A meeting between Afrasiab and Garsivaz”, “Fitna and Bahram Gur”, “Simurgh appearing at the birth of Rustam”, “Bestowal of a ring”, and Finally “Head of Iraj presented to Salm and Tur”. I will first show that in them the structure of Iranian painting is combined with the wrong and correct perspectives. There are two hypotheses about the combination of incorrect and correct perspectives of these works: First, Muhammad Zaman did not have a proper understanding of the western linear perspective, which indicates that he had not traveled to Italy and he did not have academic education in painting. The other hypothesis is that he, consciously or unconsciously, realized the contradiction between the Imaginary atmosphere of Persian painting and the Western perspective, and therefore transformed this contradiction to the image as a “question”. In this paper, taking into account some considerations, the second hypothesis is defended. In the final section, two issues are considered: Before Muhammad Zaman and after him. Before him, Behzad, Reza Abbasi and their followers had provided a groundwork for the encounter between Western and Iranian paintings. But perspective was never a problem for them. It was Muhammad Zaman who, using perspectives in his original works, dared and crossed the boundaries of tradition (“Sunnah”). However, he could not find a clear answer. After him, this question was neglected and considered as a style in Iranian painting, the so-called “Farangi-sazi”. His question, however, had the potential to be viewed as a question of painting style, as well as the question about the larger context of our relation with the West.
Iran has inevitably encountered West since the Safavid era, and its arts were no exception. In that time, Muhammad Zaman made new experiences in painting, of which perspective was the most problematic one. His style continued until the Qajar period among some painters. According to some scholars, Kamal-ol-Molk eventually corrected them. But did they make a mistake? Can art be said to be true and false? No! I finally conclude that Muhammad Zaman’s “gaze” was lost, and today we can regard his work as a “visual question” that helps us understand the nature of Iranian art in the modern era.
Mahdi Khalili, Iraj Rezaei,
year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020)
Having a favorable environment, the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea have hosted human settlements for millennia. So far, as a result of archaeological excavations as well as illegal diggings, a considerable number of ancient artifacts have been unearthed from archaeological sites in this region. The nature of many finds from unauthorized excavations and accidental discoveries are still unclear. These objects, generally found as hoards, often have unknown provenance and unknown fate. However, some of the objects, which are discovered from the Mazandaran region during the last centuries, are unique and their analogous have never been found from elsewhere. These are the main questions this research tries to answer: 1. given quantitative aspects of the accidental or unauthorized finds from Mazandaran, what sorts of information can be achieved by the study of these objects? 2.Which groups of sources can be helpful for the study of historical objects found by accident in the territory of the Mazandaran province? In this research, we will focus on certain historical objects from Mazandaran, which have been discovered either accidentally or by unauthorized diggings during the last two centuries. A number of these objects are currently kept in museums not only in Iran, but also in some western countries. Their provenance and fate can sometimes be traced in historical books, newspapers, travelogues and oral narratives. This study attempts to show the necessity of reconsideration of the provenance of certain objects as well as their historical and artistic significance.
Keywords: Mazandaran, Ancient Objects, Qajar and Pahlavi Periods, Unauthorized Excavations, Accidental Discoveries.
The name of the treasure and desire to achieve it, has always been tempting for some people, even kings and princes. Treasure finding, antiques, buying antiques and collecting of antiques have been prevalent among the Iranians, at least since the Qajar era. At the time of Naser al-Din Shah (1264-1313 AH), some scattered concessions have been granted to the various western governments for excavation in some historical sites of Iran. In the historical books of Mazandaran, during the Islamic Middle Ages and even in the works of ancient poets such as Omar Khayyam Neyshabouri (440-536 AH), have been mentioned to the treasury and the legend of its discovery, which some of them are fictional. For example, in the book of Tabaristan history, have been mentioned to the digging of Hissam al-Dawlah Ardeshir (636-647 AH) in the city of Amol and discovering of a woman’s skeleton. As well as it is said about the Marashians that they seized the property of the defeated clans and people’s and buried part of it underground and hiding another in the fort of Mahaneh-sar. This treasury was so important that Taimur Gurkan (771-807 AH) always said that the Marashian Treasury was more than the property of several monarchs which he had dominated over them. In common belief, historical objects have often of a commercial and profit-making nature, and of course many exaggerated stories and narratives have been made and discussed about it. In the past few centuries, some of the folk tales about the monuments of Mazandaran have been mentioned by Orientalists and Western travelers. Similar to such stories that derives from the folk notions about the historical treasuries, is heard from the whole of Iran. In general, the narratives related to the discovery of historical objects in Mazandaran are scattered, but significant. This article points to the discovery of historical objects in Mazandaran that are more relevant to the contemporary period (before the Islamic Revolution of 1979).
In the contemporary era, many unique historical objects have been obtained in Mazandaran while digging in agricultural lands, road construction, landslides, floods and so on. According to Ezatollah Negahban, before the excavations of Marlik and Pileh-Qaleh, most of the ancient artifacts in the Mazandaran and Gilan areas were obtained as a result of unauthorized and commercial diggings. many of these discoveries are including of silver objects, especially silver coins. In generally regarding to the accidental way in which such objects were discovered, the available sources do not give much detail about them and the available references are usually transient and sometimes ambiguous. Some of the most important artifacts or collections found in the Mazandaran accidental discoveries that have been specifically studied in this article include: Historical objects obtained from the cemeteries of Voraw, Ozirak and DerooshKor all located in the vicinity of Kandlus village in Kojur section of Nowshahr city at the time of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar, which included pottery wares, earrings, necklaces, beads and so on. The accidental discoveries of Konim village and Hezar-jerib of Mazandaran which discovered by a shepherd in time of ruling of Nasser al-Din Shah including three inscribed vessels belonged to the Islamic period, the Sassanid silver mirror frame discovered from Chalus with a Pahlavi inscription, three Sassanid silver vessels discovered from Sari in 1333, three other Sassanian vessels from Mazandaran purchased for the National Museum of Iran in 1334; the Kelardasht treasury discovered in 1318 in Reza Shah palace including exquisite objects such as a famous gold cup and some Sasanian silverwares, the treasury of Adineh mosque of Jawaherdeh acquired in 1330, the Sawadkuh Shirgah treasury discovered in 1334, 129 silver coins belonging to the Sassanid and Islamic periods from the village of Islamabad and Zaid and some other scattered objects which discovered from accidental discoveries of Mazandaran.
Undoubtedly, the Mazandaran region is one of the most prominent historical and cultural regions of Iran. A look at the position of this region in the Iranian history and mythology as well as the quality of its historical monuments and artifacts remain from different periods attests the historical importance of Mazandaran. In the folk narratives about Mazandaran have repeatedly referred to the discovery of historical artifacts by various rulers which indicating their attention to such objects and artifacts. However, many of the existing narratives are exaggerated and some time the validity of some of them is questionable. The treasure and trove searching has historically been popular among the people in this area, which some of them has been mentioned in this study.
In this article, we only study some historical objects discovered from unauthorized excavations or accidental discoveries during the last two centuries until the Second Pahlavi Period. The mean of accidental discoveries is the artifacts which discovery in result of actions such as plowing, various constructions, floods, unintentional destruction, and so on and constraint by related offices. The sources cited in this article are mainly are historical texts and documents, travelogues, and press of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods. The fate of many historical objects discovered from unauthorized diggings or accidental discoveries is unknown. Some of these objects are scattered in internal museums or in the foreign museums and private collections. These objects are often unorganized and have not an obvious condition. However, some of the artifacts found in Mazandaran, including the Gold Cup of Kelardasht and the Sasanian silverwares, are unique in terms of artistic and historical value. In this article, we tried to explore some of the hidden and explicit angles related to these objects. Achieving better results depends on the efforts of other researchers.
Yaser Hamzavi, Mahdi Razani,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
The Varjuy rocky temple is one of the prominent buildings with religious purposes and troglodytic architecture on the slopes of Sahand volcanic mountain. It is located in Varjuy village, Maragheh City, East Azerbaijan Province. Verjui Village is located Varouy in the vernacular. The name “Varouy” is composed of two words of “var” with the meaning of sun and “ouy” with the meaning of house in Turkish. So, the name “Varouy” means the house of sun. This name plays a key role in understanding the meaning of this valuable Varjuy complex. Maragheh City was one of the most important cities in Azerbaijan during the Seljuk period. As the first capital of the Il-Khanid (or Mongol) dynasty, this city played a key role in the developments of that era. Maragheh city, with an area of about 5388 km2, is located on the southern slopes of Sahand Mountain in East Azerbaijan Province. It is located in 130 km of Tabriz and limited to Tabriz city from the north, Hashtrood City from the east, Urmia Lake from the west and Miandoab City from the south.
Keywords: Maragheh, Troglodytic Architectural, Varjuy Rocky Temple, Architectural Decoration, Inscription.
Today, that room of this temple which was decorated with Muqarnas is known as Mullah Maso’om Imamzadeh, which is the burial site of Mullah Maso’om Maragheh (a scholar lived in Maragheh in the 13th century AH). Until recently, it has been the dome-shaped cover above the openings of Varjuy Rocky Temple but is now destroyed. In previous references, less attention has been paid to the architectural decorations of this troglodytic complex, and in general, many previous studies have repeated the history, use and rock reliefs of this troglodytic buiding. Since no specialized studies have been done on the architectural decorations of this complex so far despite a variety of architectural decorations in this building and the evidence of the use of decorations made by materials other than stone in this building, the present study aims to recognize and introduce the architectural decorations applied in the troglodytic architecture of Varjuy rocky temple in Maragheh. Considering the research objective, field study (coding, photography of architectural spaces and architectural decorations, and detailed exploration of them) and library study are applied to verify the obtained information and then, content analysis is performed. The present study is applied-developmental research.
Data collection methods: A. Review and study of Persian texts in the field of troglodytic architecture will be done to extract historical and technical information. B. Field study and documentation of the status quo: Field studies will be performed to understand the troglodytic architecture of Varjuy Rocky Temple and especially, its architectural decorations. In the present study, observation is one of the necessary methods for deep understanding of the nature of the phenomena and variables studied. C. Analysis: After analyzing the information obtained from field studies and observations, at this stage, a more detailed analysis of the data and identified components will be performed and in this regard, important concepts and points will be extracted.
The review of historical and comparative studies on the troglodytic architecture of Varjuy Rocky Temple showed that there is still no single opinion about the uses of this complex in different periods, especially about its temple use. However, current studies show that this building was used in the Middle Islamic period (around the Il-Khanid period). Moreover, after introducing the spaces and their architectural and structural features, as well as studying the surfaces of the interior of this rocky temple, it was found that this building has architectural decorations, which have been not described and studied in other studies on this building. In addition, there are shortcomings in the identification and accurate reporting of the verses carved on the building body, as well as the lack of recognition of architectural layers and decorations of this building in previous studies. This building has been considered and applied in the Middle Islamic period and some architectural decorations of calcareous mortars have been executed on the body of its main Gonbad-khaneh (the space under the dome), and there is a need to revise the previous interpretations of rock reliefs of this building. We now know that in addition to rocky decorations in the form of Quranic Surahs, interior plaster is observed in the troglodytic architecture of this building and all the decorations in the interior of the main Gonbad-Khaned (V-6 space) were of plaster and not rock. In addition, the plaster has been renewed in different periods and different plastering techniques have been used for the interior.
Another point is that in most of the interior spaces, a plastering mortar has been used. The plaster in this building is considered architectural decoration. Considering the stiffness, color and materials of the mortar, it seems a kind of Pozzolan-lime mortar. The mortar has been applied in several layers, all of which belong to the Middle Islamic period, because there are Thuluth calligraphies below these layers. In the architectural decorations of this collection, the inscription has been executed in two different spaces using two different techniques: carving technique in space V4 and painted inscription technique in space V6. This point was identified for the first time in this research. Evidence shows the three layers of mortar applied to the dado of the main Gonbad-Khane of the studied temple. Among the characteristics of the abovementioned mortar, one can mention the high stiffness, gray color, low thickness and similarity of the bottom layer to the surrounding stone. Evidence also indicates the use of red pigment in the structure of the mortar, which made it red (top layer). Also, in the middle layer, plant fibers have been used extensively and their remains can be clearly seen.
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
Oil lamps are one of the earliest kinds of portable lighting devices which has been used by mankind all over the world, including Iran. Therefore, this essay, while studying on and seeking formal changes and developments of Iranian oil lamps from historical period, aims to explain these developments in terms of a typological classification. In order to achieve this goal, here in this essay, applying descriptive analytical method of research, first I have depicted the different steps and developments of earthenware and bronze oil lamps from very moment of their appearance up to the beginning of historical period in Iran. Then in historical period I am going to discuss developments in the shapes and forms of earthenware and bronze oil lamps, respectively. While one can distinguish at least six types of earthenware lamps, metal lamps can be categorized only in three types. There are various factors which has influenced developments on the forms of metal and earthenware lamps. Earthenware lamps, for example, have been influenced both by Iranian bronze lamps and Greek and Roman earthenware lamps. On the contrary, although bronze lamps have an original design and compared to earthenware lamps are less inspired by foreign shapes, they have mostly been influenced by their own technological developments.
Keywords: Iran, Historical Period, , Lighting Devices, Earthenware Oil Lamps, Bronze Oil Lamps
Oil lamps are one of the earliest kinds of portable lighting devices which has been used by mankind all over the world, including Iran. These old and archaic lamps use vegetal wicks and vegetal or animal oil to produce artificial lighting. It is not so clear when and how the very idea of such a lighting device has been developed in Iran, however it is somehow obvious that the final design and structure of the lamps already has been created and stablished way before the beginning of historical period in Iran. There again, during historical period, one cannot see and determine really distinctive changes in the old-stablished function of these oil lamps, but their shapes and forms has been gone through many changes and developments. Therefore, this essay, while studying on and seeking formal changes and developments of Iranian oil lamps from historical period, aims to explain these developments in terms of a typological classification. In order to achieve this goal, here in this essay, applying descriptive analytical method of research, first I have depicted the different steps and developments of earthenware and bronze oil lamps from very moment of their appearance up to the beginning of historical period in Iran. Then in historical period I am going to discuss developments in the shapes and forms of earthenware and bronze oil lamps, respectively. These developments unlike prehistorical developments of the lamps are obvious and tangible.
Therefore, one can categorize almost easily the evolution of forms of earthenware lamps in six major types. The first type of earthenware oil lamps is that of bowl like shapes. These have a simple body with a small protruding part on its rim as wick holder. Second type is consisted of oil lamps with boat shaped bodies. These lamps differ from previous ones only in their slightly bigger wick holders and bodies of somehow oval form. earthenware oil lamps of third type have completely round wheel-made bodies with small round-shaped wick holders which has been totally separated from their bodies. Oil lamps of the next type can be distinguished from previous types mainly based on their mold-produced bodies. Dome shaped bodies without distinctive wick holders are basic characteristics of oil lamps of fifth type. And finally, the sixth type of earthenware oil lamps is characterized by closed and tubular wick holders continuing the form of their bodies. On the other hand, it is possible to make at least three groups out of bronze oil lamps of this period. The first group contains oil lamps of closed bodies with elongated tubular wick holders. Oil lamps of second group have spherical bodies and separated small wick holders. And zoomorphic oil lamps make third group of this bronze Iranian vessels from historical period. Although variety in forms of earthenware oil lamps is very considerable, the forms of some of them has been developed under direct influences of foreign earthenware oil lamps or Iranian bronze lamps. On the contrary, most of the oil lamps made of bronze have original forms and designs. According to author’s observations, it can be concluded that the main factors behind the developments and changes in designs and forms of both earthenware and bronze oil lamps include: the very first prototype of oil lamps, technological factors, inter medium factors, cross medium factors, foreign factors.
The main idea of mechanism of a lighting device called oil lamp has been conceived most probably during prehistorical times. However, during historical period, due to rapid improvement of technologies, especially those of metalworking and earthenware production, numerous developments and changes has occurred in regard to forms and shapes of oil lamps. These changes in the forms of earthenware lamps are considerable. While one can distinguish at least six types of earthenware lamps, metal lamps can be categorized only in three types. There are various factors which has influenced developments on the forms of metal and earthenware lamps. Earthenware lamps, for example, have been influenced both by Iranian bronze lamps and Greek and Roman earthenware lamps. On the contrary, although bronze lamps have an original design and compared to earthenware lamps are less inspired by foreign shapes, they have mostly been influenced by their own technological developments.
Hossein Kohestani Andarzi, Hassan Hashemi Zarjabad, Atefeh Bazzi, Mohammad Amin Saadat Mehr, Sepideh Bakhtiari,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
Tabaristan State (Mazandaran) has always been of great importance due to its numerous economic and commerce potentials. Moreover, it has politically been much valued by Qajar rulers. Accordingly, an old mint was actively working in this city up to 1288 AH which issued (uring Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (1264-1313 AH) numerous silver qirans in the following years: 1264-1266, 1269-1274, 1280-1283, and 1287-1288 AH. The coin issuing system was although superficially obeying Tehran rules, each city acted independently in practice, and the coins in many cities were issued with different grades of silver purity. Such problems raise two questions regarding Tabaristan mint: how much was the silver purity grade of the coins issued in Tabaristan, and how have they changed during the history? What was the position of Tabaristan’s coins which was an important state in comparison with other important states such as Mashhad, Tabriz, Isfahan, and Shiraz? Therefore, to answer these questions, the elemental analysis of this era coins (using PIXE method) was chosen as the main base of the present research due to not being destructive, being quick, and being highly precise in order to present an analysis of the Tabaristan’s mint commitment level to the central system of coin issuing during different times in comparison with other main states and cities in Qajar dynasty. In the present research, 17 coins from 17 different historical periods were elementally analyzed. Based on the numbersshowing the average silver purity grade changes during two periods of 1264-1278 AH and 1280-1288 AH, the results are 90.13 % and 84.33 %; the average for the whole period is then 88.08 %. At the same time, the silver purity grades of other mints are as follows: Mashhad (84%), Tabriz (82%), Tehran (90%), Isfahan (84%), and Shiraz (90%). Also, valuable information was obtained on the type of silver mines used, namely the Cerussite mines and how the coins were minted with copper and iron metals.
Keywords: Numismatics, PIXE Experiment, Tabaristan, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Economy.
The Naseri period currency system was extremely disorganized; actually, coins were considered local! Every city issued silver qirans with different purity grades, and their rate of exchange with gold tomans was not the same. In fact, a city’s common money was not the same value in other cities (Matthee et al., 1396: 281-282). Tabaristan had always been important in terms of commerce and economy with a high political position for Qajar rulers, but even Tabaristan was not different from other places concerning coin issuing: there were numerous local silver qirans issued there with different values from 1264 to 1288 AH.
Here, coins could be considered priceless archeological data and documents facilitating economic analysis because coins belong to that time and, like texts, were not meant to be read again later (Kianzadegan et al., 1398: 182). Accordingly, elemental analysis of this era’s coins using Archaeometry can offer important information regarding economic-political conditions which could lead to a better understanding of those ears atmosphere (Beck et al., 2004: 153-162). The present research aims at investigation of the Naser al-Din Shah coins issued in Tabaristan covering all issuing dates with the help of PIXE experiment: the results can help us analyze the level of commitment to the coin issuing central system and Tabaristan economic power in different times in comparison with other states and cities.
The coins used in the present research belong to the personal collection of Seyed Hasan Sadat Razavi (Hyderabad, India) which were lent to the authors. Naser al-Din Shah coins (belonging to Tabaristan) were issued inthe following dates: 1264-1266, 1269-1274, 1280-1283, and 1287-1288 AH. They include 17 coins issued in 17 different dates in general. Therefore, for each specific issuing date, one coin was selected; The total number of coins was 17, which were analyzed by Pixie method at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (Odisha, India).
Archaeometry studies, especially elemental analysis methods, are considered very useful in evaluating the coins carat (here: silver). Therefore, to answer these questions, 17 coins issued in Tabaristan at different times during 1264-1288 AH To do elemental decomposition by PIXE method, it was transferred to The Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar.
Based on PIXE experiment results, silver, copper, and iron were considered the main metals for analyzing the economic power of Tabaristan state in Naseri era; the purity grades have undergone drastic changes in 3 periods as follows:
1. 1264-1278 AH: silver (90.13%), copper (6.07%), and iron (1.99%)
2. 1280-1288 AH: silver (84.33%), copper (9.54%), and iron (4.45%)
The whole period average: silver (88.08%), copper (7.29%), and iron (2.86%)
Normally, less than 2 percent of the coins was naturally copper; if it is more than 2, it will not be considered natural, and for sure the mixture is done arbitrarily. The coins in the present research have 7.29 % copper which is a sign of intentional mixing done for alloying the coin metal.
The existence of iron, also, is due to surface contamination because of the place in which the coins were buried, but the present research coins contain a little amount of iron; the original coins were not buried at all and contain an average amount of 2.86 %. It is a sign of alloying for regulating the coins metal carat.
The silver purity grade of the coins issued in Tabaristan has decreased in two periods and has undergone changes but the silver carat of 88.08 % is extremely high in comparison with main mints in Mashhad (84%), Tabriz (82%), Tehran (90%), Isfahan (84%), and Shiraz (90%). It normally shows the economic power and flourishment of Tabaristan in Naseri era.
Moreover, the existence of 0.86% lead is a sign of using lead mines for silver, haste, and carelessness while extracting. Furthermore, lead mines are of two kinds: Cerussite and Galena. Cerussite mines contain 1.5 to 2 percent gold and Galena less than 2 percent. So, these coins contain an average of 0.31% gold which could be another sign of using Cerussite mines.
In this research, 17 coins belonging to 17 different periods have been elementally analyzed. As a result, the trend of silver purity grade changes for two periods of 1264-1278 AH and 1280-1288 AH is 90.13% and 84.33%: on the average, 88.08%. Therefore, its position was estimated among other mints in Mashhad (84%), Tabriz (82%), Tehran (90%), Isfahan (84%), and Shiraz (90%). Finally, it was clear that copper and iron were added (7.29% and 2.86%, respectively, on the average) in order to reduce the coins silver purity grade. Also, the existence of lead and gold (0.86% and 0.31%, respectively, on the average) is a sign of hasty extraction of silver and using Cerussite mines.
Shahpoor Ghojoghinezhad, Ali Baseri, Mahmood Seyed, Vahid Rashidvash,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
Among the Turkmen, shamanism is the ape tic method based on ancient ethnic beliefs, which is still a common notion that has gradually been merged with religious beliefs and symbols of shamanism with religious fusion have continued to this day. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the basic concepts of symbols that originated from the beliefs, rituals and rituals of the Turkmen tribes of their primitive religions. Information the findings were collected by field method and direct observation using the main library resources. The main findings of the research are based on the symbols and signs of shamanism, as the ancient beliefs and rituals of the Turkmen tribes. Fairy readers are considered to be the main and last survivors of shamans among the Turkmen tribes each of the fairy readers has an army of goblins at their disposal and command this study tries to answer basic questions such as key elements in shamanism, the place of shamanism in the Turkmen belief system and the historical – cultural origins of shamanism in Turkmen culture.
Keywords: Symbolic Anthropology, Anthropology of Religion, Shamanism, Turkmen.
Undoubtedly, among contemporary thinkers in the field of symbolic anthropology, Clifford Greets is one of the most famous anthropologists in the field, due to his particular approach to culture and his new approach to the humanities and social sciences. Geertz’s position beyond anthropological boundaries as an interdisciplinary figure in the social sciences. His theoretical approach to anthropology is broadly symbolic and combines philosophical, anthropological, and even linguistic theories.
Analysis of religious behaviors and practices is one of the central issues in the field of anthropology of religion. How behaviors and actions can be studied objectively and realistically and as a phenomenon is one of the serious issues in the anthropology of religion. This issue led to extensive developments in the theorizing of the humanities and social sciences in relation to cultural and religious phenomena in the second half of the twentieth century AD.
In general, in the 60s and 70s of the twentieth century, symbolic and interpretive anthropology with its own approach to culture, was confronted with material tendencies, such as materialism or cultural positivism.
In this view, cultural phenomena move from the belief that culture is a set of meanings that are understood and received trough symbols and signs, and to understand it, one must first go to the analysis of these symbols.
It is Clifford Geertz who has emphasized such as model as a method in anthropology. He has been able to bring about extensive changes in the definition of culture with an interpretive methodological approach.
Based on observation and return to the field of social sciences, he created a new model of interpretation and semiotics in the anthropology of religion. (fakoh. 1386: 108).
Shamans Treatment Method
Shaman and shamanism are among the most important topics in the anthropology of religion. Shamanism is not a new subject, but every research on religion is devoted to it. What distinguishes the shaman from other wizards is that the shamans are not magicians but physicians and sages, but the main feature that distinguishes them from other wizards and priests is the serious attention of the shamans to the semantic space. So all shamans are healing wizards, but not every witch is a shaman. In fact, a semantic space has caused the school of shamanism to enter the field mysticism. The very important point is that the last feature that allows a person to be a shaman is to enter the world of semantic space. Until the shamans reach the strict rituals and succeed in these stages, and after entering the world of semantic space.
Otherwise they will not find the entrance to the world of shamans the importance of semantic space in shamanism lies in the fact that all functions of the shaman are related to semantic space in one sense. In this way the shaman can communicate with the helpers and guardian spirits of the gods for diseases, wander the soul, stealing the soul or conquering it and ask them for help in pact, shamans are also witches, sages and sorcerers.
Like all doctors, he is able to heal ad, like all wizards, he can do extraordinary things. (Eliade, 1382: 129).
Field Findings of the Research
Until about a hundred years ago, before the gathering of the Turkmen tribes, a ceremony fairy readers was held inside the pergola, the mobile residence of the Turkmen tribes. The fire was always lit in the middle of it, and the fairy readers melted his sword or spatulas in it, struck the patient’s feet or body to drive the evil forces or infidel demons out of the patient’s body and soul.
In general, in the ritual of fairy reading sick sword is a symbol of removing or purifying the sick from the forces of evil and impurity. The semantic space and the connection with the spirits can be seen as two continuous stages, just like shamanism in the fairy reading ceremony.
Using musical instruments, performing rhythmic movements and spinning are the most important ways for fairy reading to enter the world of semantic space.
The fairy reading ceremony begins with apart (signer and musician) of Turkmen music playing the strings and singing some pieces of music that is specific to the fairy reading ritual. Perry first begins to shake her shoulders with rhythm and song. Then the rhythm of his movements becomes faster and turns into fast movements of the head and body and jumping.
This instrument immerses the rhythmic movements of the fairy singer in the semantic state of the space, and when this state reaches its speak, sometimes with a rope. Which hangs from the ceiling of the booth or room begins to rotate.
In this case, the somatic space reaches its peak and the fairy redder communicates with the world of Al and ghosts, in other words, he flies. Hunting or traveling in the form of an animal south is another feature of the ritual of fairy reading.
In the ritual f reading the fairy, the ram animal is a symbol in which the fairy singer travels to the world of ghosts and fairies, in other words, mixes with the spirit of the ram animal and goes hunting. Here the ram symbolizes the spirit of the protective spirit of the fairy.
In another stage of the fairy – reading ceremony, the fairy – singer, who is like a ram, pulls her horn and ties the patient’s hand and attacks him like a ram. At this point, Perry juam attacks the room with his head like a ram. He attacks goblins like a ram. According to him, goblins or black goblins attack in the form of ram movements.
Although the fairy does not make himself a ram, he travels and hunts in the form of an animal spirit. In most of the surviving lithographs of shamanism, although images of some animals can be seen, but images of many rams have been found that indicate its importance to shamans.
In Turkmen shamanism beliefs, spirits are divided into two categories, male and female. Female spirits are very powerful and dangerous and cause many ailments and diseases. According to the Turkmens, Al is a female soul, very beautiful and strong, tall and with long hair. Apparently, the male type is considered a benevolent spirit.
In addition to jinn and fairies, fairy readers also communicate with Al. in terms of fairy readers, the genie is a liar. Al does not lie; he tells the truth. The jinn have no sign of themselves but Al has a sign.
This sign is usually placed on the body of a fairy or patient (Nadimi, 1378: 63).
From Peri juan’s point of view, music has two important and special functions for him.
The main function of music, from the fairy reader’s point of view, is to control the forces that harass him. After the shaman stage begins, these pressures continue under normal circumstances and in everyday life to control these forces, the Pari khan go to the Bakhshies and ask the Bakhshies to sing Turkmen music in a friendly a private meeting to relax.
In ancient times, were sung and Khan agars narrated his to rical events. Turkish shamans always treated the sick along with the khanyagars and shamanic ceremonies have probably been accompanied by music performances since ancient times.
In the ritual of fairy reading as a remnant of shamanism, performing music is an important step in entering the world of semantic space fairy reading music brings inner peace to the Pairy, the patient and the audience.
Thus, fairy reading music has two main functions; first, the background of the semantic space and prepares the inner world of the Pairy reader, second, it stimulates the inner feelings of the patient and those present to perform the ceremony, and in general, prepares the space for the performance of the ceremony.
Gholamreza Rahmani, Mehdi Hosseini,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
The idea and inspiration of an artist derived from the life experiences which artist gained from the interaction and exchange with the society and surroundings. This society is also affected by the conditions and incidents that have universal influence on societies in local and regional levels. Based on this flow of influences, the paintings can be recognized as the pictorial history of every society which can present the historical conditions and social specifications of the time and place the paintings created. This becomes more important when the work of art is custom-made or aimed at announcing and displaying authority or a state-political statement. Studying the Qajar royal wall paintings from the sociological point of view, will open up a door to the current culture of the society and the ideology of that era. Due to so many reasons these wall paintings are the most important in the artistic works of the Qajar period. The great variety and diversity in the subjects, color palettes, and theme, the compilation of tradition and modernism in the style all represent signs of a desire to achieve a great goal, which is the same as the influence and authority of the sovereignty. The complexities of the social and political conditions of the Qajar dynasty on the one hand and the correlation between the artistic movements and these conditions on the other hand, make the solid studying and analyzing the wall paintings of this period , regardless of the social and political influence of this historical period, difficult or even in vain.In this research, after presenting the definitions related to historical sociology and studying the relation between the histo-sociology and studying the works of arts, effective factors in the study of the wall paintings of the Qajar period are discussed. As the first factor, the social class of the painters and patrons of these paintings is discussed. The painters categorized based on their work, style and also the type of artwork they create. Based on the fact that these paintings were designed and implemented for the purpose of transmitting a certain message, the next factor was the audience of this type of paintings, according to which the language and composition of the design and images were determined. After examining these components, the influence of royal wall paintings of Qajar in historical sociology is discussed on the basis of social and political specifications of that time. The purpose of this discussion is not to consider these spesifications and factors in a general overwiew, but to study the role of different factors in the process of formation of the royal paintings of this period. This research is based on descriptive-analytical and comparative approach and using library studies and observations of works, investigates the wall paintings of the Qajar period in terms of structural and visual elements, identifying different aspects of them. The impact of historical sociology and its relationship with the wall paintings of the Qajar period is considered as the main objective of the research. The main question in this study is whether the Qajar royal wall paintings represent the social and political relations at the national and international levels of the Qajar era. The impressive influence of the political, social and historical conditions on the Qajar royal wall paintings as a result of this research has made it possible for these wall paintings to be valid and credible clues and documents in the studies of sociology of this historical period in Iran.
Studying Qajar painting helps importantly to identify and study the art and culture of Qajar dynasty. Existence of lots of paintings, diversity of designs, color and subject, combining tradition and modernism were factors for selecting this dynasty to investigate. As the painting is the visual history of each era, sociology studying of painting in this dynasty will make one to understand common culture and thinking of people in that society.
Keywords: Art Sociology, Historical Art Sociology, Qajar Art, Royal Wall Paintings, Pictorial History.
Nasrollah Ebrahimi, Mostafa Dehpahlavan, Kurosh Mohammadkhani,
year 4, Issue 11 (6-2020)
The discovery of three outstanding Achaemenid buildings in Borazdjan Plain territory, such as “Charkhab”, “Sang-Siyah” and “Bardak-Siyah”, unveiled a new domain in the archaeological study of the Persian Gulf hinterlands and in the Achaemenid era. Excavation in the surrounding areas of these three buildings in two courses in the years of the decades 1350s and 1380s, led to the expsition of their different parts and architectural details. The presence of remarkable Achaemenid architectural elements including the central columned hall, lateral pillared porches and stone column pedestals, as well as the locality situations of the palaces on the plain and peripheral areas of the permanent “Dalaki” and “Shapur” and the seasonal “Ardu”rivers, made new theories possible about the quality and the reason of choosing the location and the erection of a government edifice in the Achaemenid era, while putting forward some general questions about the spatial structure of each palace. Because of the roughcast excavations, our information about the spatial extent of the unearthed collections is quite incomplete. In “Charkhab” site, for being in the vicinity of the seasonal “Ardu” river, there has been more than 1.5 meters of sedimentation which makes it difficult to access Achaemenid findings. So we decided to use new archaeological methods especially archeo-geophysical survey to study around the site and then continue the excavation around the palace according to the results obtained. So, in the first step, the western and north-western fronts with the extent of 13 hectares were surveyed archeo-geophysically using a magnetometric method and according to the outputs and the final produced map and the scatteration of exposed anomalies, some locations were determined for trenches and excavation. According to the maps obtained through magnetometry, some trenches were selected in zones where the abundance of anomalies was evident. In total, two trenches CH II and CH III, each with the dimension of 10×10 were excavated, while most findings were obtained from an Achaemenid leyer in trench CH III in the depth of 153 cm, where items such as baked bricks with the dimension 32×32×8 with bitumen mortar similar to those of Charkhab Palace, gate-pivot stones and pillar foundations worked with raw stone, pieces of cream colored pedestal stones and the most important of all, pieces of cornoture with horizontal strings similar to that of “Bardak-Siyah” Palace and the specific palace of Cyrus at Pasargadae, can be mentioned
Keywords: Borazjan, Charkhab Palace, Archaeogeophysical Survey, Magnetometry, Excavation of Charkhab Site.
Describing the importance of the Persian Gulf and its geopolitical role in the Achaemenid period, Herodotus describes the actions of “Scyllax Cariandi” and the order of Darius II to identify a sea route from the Indus River in India to Egypt, which was used by Indians and Iranians (Herodoutus, 1828: 289).
In addition, other well-known historians and geographers of the early Christian centuries, such as Strabo, Arian, and Ptolemy, mentioned the Persian Gulf with titles such as “Persicon Kitas” and “Sinus Persicus”.
The commercial prosperity of its shores is described in interaction with the West and the East. (Bayat, 1988: 28).
Generally speaking, it can be inferred that the northern shores of the Persian Gulf inspecial, were of great importance during the Achaemenid period and later, and the construction of magnificent architectural works and government landmarks have not been unexpected.
The discovery of the remains of three outstanding Achaemenid landmarks in Borazjan plain titled “Charkhab”, “Sang-e Siah” and “Bardak-Siah”, opened a new chapter in the archaeological studies of the Persian Gulf and the Achaemenid history as well.
Excavation of these buildings during two seasons in the 1350s and 1380s, led to the discovery of various sections and their architectural components.
Considering the presence of prominent elements of Achaemenid architecture, including the central columned hall, the side columned porches and stone pillars, along with the location of these palaces in the plains and the banks of Dalki and Shapur rivers and the seasonal Ardo valley, it has been tried to provide a definitive answer to existing questions and hypotheses based on current studies in this article.
Asking general questions about the spatial structure of each of these palaces, provided new insights into how and why to choose a location and build a government building during the Achaemenid period.
An important question in this field is whether these palaces were only used as summer accommodation facilities or they have been used as government seats.
Hypotheses in this study, basically suggest that the development of maritime trade, offshore communication routes, as well as suitable environmental structures and facilities, have led to the Achaemenid settlements in Borazjan plain.
Achaemenid palaces discovered in Borazjan plain are part of the urban structures in that period. Some Achaemenid relics discovered, such as the Charkhab Palace, might have been left incomplete due to improper site selection and unsuitable location.
Architectural structures and spatial analyzes of the sites discovered in the Borazjan plain, are probably modeled on the architecture of the earlier Achaemenid culture in Pasargadae.
Studies of the surroundings of these sites show that there are other spaces related to the palaces. Based on geophysical studies as well as archaeological surveys around the sites, it can be imagined that these palaces were a collection. Further information on this subject, needs further archeological excavations and research.
One of the most important Achaemenid buildings on the northern hinterlands of the Persian Gulf is Charkhab Palace, which was accidentally discovered in 1350, during the bulldozing operations of water transfer pipeline from Borazjan to Bushehr, through the date palm groves on the western suburb outskirts of Borazjan and in the so-called “Charkhab area”.
After preliminary investigations and the similarity of the discovered structure with the stone columns used in Pasargadae, it was decided to explore the place of discovery. The result of this excavation led to the appearance of different parts of the remains of a magnificent Achaemenid building (Sarfaraz, 1350 and 1351; Ebrahimi, 1391). Simultaneously with the excavation of Charkhab site and following the public reports that similar relics were found close a nearby village called Jatut / Jatal; Sarfaraz was able to discover another building on the banks of Dalaki River called Sang-e Siyah, about nine kilometers north of Charkhab.
This site was excavated in 1977 by Ismail (Ehsan) Yaghmaei (Yaghmaei, 2005: 9-11; 2018: 191-196; Ebrahimi, 2012).
During the exploration of the Sang-e Siyah remains and in the surrounding areas and palm groves, the excavations led to the discovery of another building called “Bardak Siyah” which means “the black stone”, among the palm groves of Dorudgah village.
Yaghmaei explored the building and continued his excavations during the winter and the spring of 1978 (Yaghmaei, 2005; 1397; Ebrahimi, 2012).
In the 2001s, with the resumption of archeological activities in Bushehr province, the Charkhab building, which had been buried under the flood deposits after the first exploration period, was excavated again by Sarfaraz in five consecutive seasons.
In addition to the sections that were appeared earlier, some other new parts of the building became visible again. (Sarfaraz, 2001; 2003; 2004; 2005; 2006).
Due to unfinished excavations, our knowledge of the spatial extent of these collections is very limited.
In the Charkhab area, the settled sediments are more than 1.5 meters high, due to its proximity to the Ardo seasonal river. This has made it difficult to obtain necessary findings from the Achaemenid period.
The study of archeogeophysics today, plays a crucial role in identifying the points and structures of ancient layers.
Using this methodology, saves time and also achieves the desired results much faster, much easier and much more accurately.
Therefore, we decided to use these new archeological methods, especially archaeogeophysical surveys, to conduct research around this area, and based on the results of these studies, to continue exploring around the palace.
Therefore, in the first place, the western and northwestern fronts of the palace, with an area of 13 hectares, were examined by magnetometric archeogeophysics, which revealed the dispersion of anomalies according to the output and finalized maps, and places for trenches and excavations were determined.
According to magnetic output maps, trenches were selected in areas where the abundance of anomalies was apparent.
Totally, two trenches ChII and ChIII with dimensions of 10 x 10 were excavated and most findings were obtained in trench ChIII at a depth of 153 cm and in an Achaemenid layer.
In the cultural findings of the recent excavation in Charkhab, paddy parts of the columns with cream-colored strings are important.
Examples found in Bardak Siyah and Sang-e Siyah, are also comparable to the example of the private palace of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae.
These paddy parts are quite different from the paddy parts obtained in Charkhab Palace (ChI), which are round and black without any carvings.
It seems that this collection (ChIII) is similar in architectural elements to those of Bardak Siyah and Sang-e Siyah palaces and those of the private palace of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae.
The cream-colored base stone of the gateway as well as the foundations of the columns found in the ChIII trench are similar to those of Charkhab(ChI) and Bardak Siyah palaces.
The bricks obtained with the dimensions of 33 x 33 x 8 cm and bitumen mortar in this trench are comparable to those found in the palaces discovered in Borazjan.
Given the architectural elements obtained, it is possible that this complex had been built earlier than the Charkhab Palace (ChI) itself.
Undoubtedly, more studies and more extensive research are needed to answer all the hypotheses and questions.
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)
Khozestan and Ilam, the two geographically important provinces have always been under consideration by all reigning powers of all history in Iran. The attention was not limited to one or two governments and the fortune was with them even written history due to the suitable geographical situation and the shared borders with Mesopotamia. Because of political, religious, ethnic, etc. reasons, the power epicenter stayed out of the southwestern part of Iran’s plateau in the time of Sassanid and Achaemenian for example. Sassanid, over four centuries of power in a vast area in west of Asia, had an especial interest toward the Persian territory. Significant cities of the time, such as Estakhr, Goor and Shaporkhoreh were established in this very region. The extra ordinary number of reliefs, common wealth buildings and fire temples (Chartaqi/ groin vaulted buildings) existing in the area is a witness to Persia’s distinct status. In this paper, based on historical and geographical documents and writings (inscribed between the 3rd to 9th centuries), groin vaulted buildings (Chartaqi) and many fire temples of this area, the mentioned attention has been taken under study. The research method is historical descriptive and through studying the literature and archeological documents (groin vaulted fire temples) and the study on the progress of groin vault buildings from south to north approaching the ancient Mesopotamian borders, and the references in most of historical documents to numerous fire temples of the area, it can be concluded that this piece of land had the equal value of the whole country to Sassanid and this field needs more excavation as far as the Sassanid are concerned.
Keywords: Sassanid, Groin Vaults, Fire Temples, Khozestan, Ilam, Peshtkooh in Lorestan.
The biggest part of attention of the ruling perspective, spending huge budget of improvement, building magnificent cities, designing and building roads and buildings in Sassanid era, was devoted to the central territory, meaning Fars province. Founding big cities such as Goor (Firuz Abad), Shapurkhoreh (Bishapur next to Kazerun) and Estakhr signifies that the special attention being paid from the administrations to this area. Their predecessors, Achaemenian, had made their home and place to stay in Persepolis and Pasargadae. The area under study was taken to consideration with following Achaemenian but such causes such as keeping the throne away from western borders to maintain more safety, keeping more control over Persian Gulf and religious, racial and tribal motives were the main reasons of this attitude.
In the following study, the two sites of Khozestan and Ilam are scrutinized geographically and archeologically because of being situated in the same geographical crest. Although two zones of Islam Abad Qarb and Gilan Qarb, both located in Kermanshah province were forgone in order to establish a locale. Examination criterion has been set due to political divisions of the country. The study time expand is the Sassanid period and the population expand is the groin vaulted buildings (Chartaqi) as a practically religious structure.
The Fire Temples and Groin Vaulted Buildings in Khozestan
Sim Band Chartaqi: situated in north east of Masjed Soleiman and on the road to Shahid Abbaspour dam.
Keikavus Chartaqi: located in North West of Behbahan within 20 kilometers distance in a village of the same name. The exterior and interior (dome) had been about 12 meters in height. The building’s height is about 10.5 meters and the walls’ thickness –being made of stone and mortar- is 2.40 meters.
Kherabad Fire Temple: situated in east of Behbahan by 15 kilometers, it is overlooking the vast field of Behbahan. The bridge over the river is not visible from the distance.
The Fire Temples and Groin Vaulted Buildings in Ilam
Dare Shahr Chartaqi: In Seimareh valley, west of the archeological site which the locals call Plaster hills which is the progressive form of ancient buildings. (Lakpour, 2005: 86-127)
Julian Chartaqi: The remains of the ancient city, known as Julian in the mountain sides of Abdanan, one of the southern cities in Ilam.
Siahgal Ivan Fire Temple: It is located with a distance of 25 kilometers away from Ivan in Zarfeh, near the river Gangir and among the farming fields of the local people.
Moshgab (Sarableh) Fire Temple: in the ancient city of Sirvan or Shirvan in Moshkan Sarableh within 3 kilometers distance of Sarableh city.
Molab Chartaqi: This building which has been registered recently, is located in the east of Molab viledge with 5 meters in height.
Qajar fire temple in Dare shahr: This is one of the ruined buildings of Ilam which Wandburg introduced for the first time in 1977 in an article called the Chartaqi in Poshtkoh Lorestan in Iranica Antiqua and covered some more groined vaulted buildings of the region as well.
Tablkhaneh Chartaqi or Naqarkhaneh or Posh Erisht: This is built in a manner that the angels are oriented to agree with the compass. In 20 meters distance of the north east, the remains of some platforms are visible which can be signs of fire temples and holy fire.
Mayee Mah Chartaqi: Pashtil, is what remains probably from a compliment to a chartaqi. The dome and ceiling are almost gone and very little of the columns are left.
Koshk Qanifar Chartaqi: This one, also called Chahar Kaleh or Chahar pa is located within the distance of 12 kilometers Imamzadeh peer. It is in the form of square with the upper side of the dome, completely destroyed is currently now with 3 meters of height. The total height is about 7 meters.
Mehr-Varpeel Fire Temple: This construction was analyzed and studied in 1969 by Wanderburg during the fifth archeological excavations. It is situated on top of a hill, in 8 kilometer distance to the south of Mehr village.
Changineh Fire Temple: It is located in the center of a village in 22 kilometers of south east of Ilam, called Chahnjiha. It is not a complete square and each side has a dimension of its own.
Se-pa Fire Temple: Wonderburg studied Ivan from Sartang to Daruneh in his studies in 1970 and found a fire temple called Sepaa.
The present study has been conducted and compiled base on a rather lengthy report on historical data and the remained buildings with groin vaults from the Sassanid period known by many writings as fire temples. The aim and purpose was to change directions in Sassanid studies from Fars province to other directions. West of Iran, especially the southern parts as centers of gravity for the Sassanid with other reigning classes of the west and this area was constantly and seriously threatened by them. The Sassanid could not ignore nor neglect the destructions from the west and insult on its total authority. Thus, the use of religious buildings and related ones was taken into consideration as a serious measure. This is just but some of the existing monuments left in the area and the more western provinces such as Kermanshah are added, the more significance is added to the area during the Sassanid period.
But the west and south west, located in the western borders of the kingdom, also enjoyed an imperative and strategic state as well. The area that is today called the provinces of Khozestan and Ilam in south west and Kermanshah in the west witnessed a great deal of constant upheaval between Iran and West (Greece and Rome) in a manner that just with the two kingdoms of “ASHKANI” and Rome in this area the conflict lasted about 300 years. That is why they (the Sassanid) could not ignore this very area. Constructing the fire temple in Izeh which is mentioned in a lot of historical and geographical documents is one significant example of such. If from the southwest crest to northwest, one can be taken into consideration and study, the Chartaqi built in Poshtkoh in Lorestan to Iran and Dare Shahr, to south and Khozestan, denotes the geopolitical importance of the region for Sassanid.
Yassin Sedghi, Iraj Beheshti, Akbar Abedi, Nasir Eskandari, Farahangiz Sabuhi Sani,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)
The site of Narjuiyeh III is located on the eastern natural mounds of the Narjuiyeh village, from the west overlooking Halil River. Scattering of the fourth millennium BC, especially typical Aliabad type are visible on these mounds. Traces of illegal excavation are also available as pits and holes all over the site. Aliabad ceramics are pottery dating back to the fourth millennium BC (Chalcolithic) in the southeast of the Iranian plateau, first excavated and reported by Caldwell from Aliabad in Bardsir of Kerman, and then have been found and reported from fourth millennium layers of Tell Iblis (Iblis IV) which eventually became known as Aliabad Culture (Caldwell, 1967). Ali-Abad culture potteries (Chalcolithic age) dates back to the 4th millennium BC in southeast of Iran which the distribution of its potteries include the regions of Kerman, Balouchistan and Pakistan. Aliabad pottery in the south-east of the Iranian plateau is one of the most important and prominent pottery types in the Chalcolithic period (Eskandari and Mollasalehi, 2017), which for more detail understanding about this culture in addition to archaeological studies, requires scientific archaeometric analysis and methods; therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate, study and further understand the fourth millennium BC pottery of Aliabad culture from Jiroft’s Narjuiyeh III site and understanding the expansion of this culture by using structural and technical studies of pottery of this period. At the same time, it has been attempted to use the method of mineralogy (petrography) to get information about how to process the paste, clay type and used temper, conditions, heating and temperature of baking in the furnace, as well as the understanding of the origin of pottery of this area. Archaeological studies show that Aliabad culture in the southeast of the Iranian plateau was the dominant culture of the region in the fourth millennium BC. In this study, it has been attempted to obtain mineralogical information regarding pottery (Aliabad pottery) using library and thin section petrography studies. The polarized binocular microscope JamesSwift made in the United Kingdom at the Petrographic Laboratory of the Institute for Restoration and Conservation was used for microscopic study of the studied pottery.
Archaeometry, Petrography, Aliabad Culture, Narjuiyeh in Jiroft, Southeast of Iran.
From the textural point of view, the pottery was divided into two main categories of fine-grained and coarse-grained specimens. In fine-grained specimens, the components are less than 0.5 mm in size, and the components are finely crystallized in the texture of pottery. A group of pottery has immature silty texture. In the texture of these potteries, there are fragments of different sizes next to each other, and there is some clutter and disarrangement to the size of the minerals in the pottery. In terms of composition, all available pottery has the same composition and their difference are in the percentage of pieces in the pottery texture and their size. In all available ceramics, there are several minerals, including quartz, in the form of monocrystalline (monocrystalline) and polycrystalline, which are more abundant in monocrystalline form. This mineral has angular to semicircular margins indicating that quartz fragments have been added as secondary to the primary source. In some samples, minor amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene and amphibole with mica are observed. Mica minerals are mostly muscovite grains that are orange-colored, but sometimes orange-yellow muscovite grains can also be seen in the samples. This reaction is due to the change in the optical properties of the grains at a temperature of approximately 1000 degrees Celsius, which can be partially detected the temperature the pottery tolerated on during the heating process. In some samples igneous rock, chert and quartz rock fragments were used as fillers. In some pottery, calcite minerals can also be observed and used to detect its temperature range. Therefore, it can be concluded that due to the geology of the region and the presence of calcium carbonate in the sedimentary deposits of the region, the absence of calcite mineralization in some samples indicates that the temperature of the ceramics is higher than 800 °C, and in calcite-clay ceramics, the baking temperature of the clay is less than 800 °C (Reedy 2008; Riederer 2004). The two N9 and N7 specimens differ in composition from the other specimens. In these two samples calcite minerals are associated with the clay texture, whereas in the other samples this is not the case.
Based on the petrographic study of the pottery, it can be deduced that the source of the pottery studied was identical and their source material was from the same region in Kerman. However, the origin of manufacture and extracting of soil mines cannot be determined definitely, because the geology of the Kerman region is very large and vast especially the studied areas are in volcanic formations, which, the mineralogical composition and sequence of some of them are granite, granodiorite to quartz. Metamorphic, plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, and mica minerals and igneous and metamorphic rocks are within the geological family of the area, which exactly similar compounds can be found with the minerals in the pottery. There are also three different groups for these pottery: 1) Pottery with homogeneous texture. In this type of pottery, fragments and minerals are seen floating and scattering in the texture. 2) Pottery in the texture in addition to clay and fine minerals, phyllosilicate minerals (mica) exist in combination with the texture. 3) In these ceramics the combination of the texture of mineral carbonate calcium (calcite) together with the clay texture is visible, a situation not seen in the other samples. This indicates that the pottery used has different manufacturing techniques, therefore, several pottery makers have been involved in preparation and procurement of early paste and clay of the pottery. Pottery samples N5, N6, N7, N8 and N9 contain calcite minerals. It can be suggesting that the baking temperature of these pottery was less than 800 degrees Celsius. In the samples containing muscovite minerals, some of the grains show changes from orange to yellow, indicating that these ceramics have been sustain a temperature of approximately 950-1000 °C. Based on the results and even the buff-orange color of the ceramics, it should be noted that the analyzed pottery were baked in an oxidation condition and in a closed furnace. The type of baking and precision used in baking the pottery in high quality, especially the 4th millennium BC pottery, is very high, indicating that the technique used in baking pottery was also very professional. Some ceramics, such as (N1, N8, N9) have porphyry texture and in their texture quartz mineral, chert stone and igneous rock have been used as filler and temper. In most cases, the edges of quartz minerals are edged and sharp, which, indicates the use of primary soil and its paste processing and resultant of grinding of core and ore extractive mining because all fragments and sherds have sharp and angular angles as well. It should also be noted that there is no evidence of the use of organic materials as temper in pottery making.
Marzieh Abbaszadeh, Bita Sodaei,
year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020)
today, the non-destructive geophysical methods such as Magnetometry used to detect the archaeological discoveries without harmful environmental effects that only use natural properties of the subsurface material. The 80 hectares Urartian Bastam Castle is one of three large castles in Urartu in northwestern Iran. Therefore, determining the actual boundaries of the castle can determine its location in the east of the empire. This study aims to better understand Urartian sites using new knowledge and new methods of studying archeology without the slightest interference with the site. Using magnetic methods, the study identified the subsurface structures of the ancient site of Qala-e- Bastam. For this purpose, magnetic data in a rectangular square grid were regularly collected in the desired range and after the necessary corrections of the data, topography and map of magnetic anomalies were prepared. The results show that there are regular and high-density architectural structures in the residential area. Architectural spaces have expanded in a West-East direction and along each other, and large and medium stone pieces with mud mortar have been used in the construction of architectural spaces. On the south side of the lower part of the castle, the remains of ash layers as well as the sidewalk floor can be seen, which indicates the existence of settlement layers in this area of the castle. On the western side of the castle and along the Aghchai River, part of the remnants of the water canal can be seen. This indicates that the people who occupied the castle, used the Aghchai River to provide their water needs. The castle was built by constructing a water canal made of stone and mortar.
Keywords: Urartu, Bastam Castle, Magnetics Method, Residential Area.
The kingdom Urartu were destroyed around the middle of the 7th century BC, during or shortly after the reign Rusa Argisti. Rusa Argisti the last king of Urartu of any importance, had started a building and cultivation program not experienced in Urartu since the days of king Menua. It is visible in places like Karmir Blur, Basam Casle, Kerfkalesi/ Adilcevaz or Ayanis. Rusa Argisti’s empire many have covered Eastern Anatolia, large parts of Armenia, all of Iranian Western Azarbijan and large parts of Eastern Azarbijan.
Research and exploration of the remaining relics from the past has special importance in identifying the date, history and the identify of a country. Development and advancement of human knowledge have offered new methods for detection archaeological sites that by using them without the need for excavation and destruction of antiquities can be found useful information. Archaeologist need to investigate and explore the archaeological sites in order to find some evidence of human being living in ancient time, but we know the fact that exploring is destructive. On the other hand, exploration necessitates high expensive, and need many human sources. Now a day, a variety of sciences have helped archaeologist’s in discovering past cultures. These sciences that are formed by combining different sciences with archaeology are called inter disciplinary sciences. Archaeogeophysics is one of these sciences that is formed as a combination of geophysics and archaeology. Population growth and subsequently development of villages and cities, industrial life improvements and developments in agriculture has caused an increasing threat against cultured heritage. Anyhow doing swift investigations in order to obtain the pas cultures before industrial advances is an urgent need. One of the ways, that can help archaeologists in this way is archaeological prospecting. On the other hand, as archaeological prospecting methods are called drilling without drill, by using these methods archaeologists are able to obtain the needed data from below he earths surface without causing any destruction and mess in the site. Also these methods assist archaeologists in determining the priority of exploring location before a wide spread exploration. Using methods reduces he expense of archaeological actives and archaeologists can explore an archaeological spending a very short time and low expenses.
In this paper to investigate the subsurface structures of an architecture at the Urartian site of Bastam Castle in northwestern in Iran. The magnetic data were used. In order to this work, the magnetic data measured in a regular grid in the desired area and then after do corrections such as instrument drift correction, free air and slab Bougure, latitude and terrain corrections on gravity data and the daily correction, and reduction to pole (RTP) correction on the magnetic data, magnetic anomalies map were obtained.
Questions Research: 1.Using the magnetometer method can be identified the structure of architectural complexity in residential area of Bastam Castle? 2. what was architectural structure in the eastern part in of Bastam castle?
Aim Research: This research was aimed to identify and investigate the subsurface structures of architecture in residential and eastern part of the Bastam Castle archaeological site in Azarbaiejan, the magnetic data were used.Using magnetic methods, the study identified the subsurface structures of the ancient site of Qala-e- Bastam. For this purpose, magnetic data in a rectangular square grid were regularly collected in the desired range and after the necessary corrections of the data, topography and map of magnetic anomalies were prepared.
Method Research: A magnetometer measures the fine divergences in the terrestrial magnetic field causes e.g. by subsurface walls or archaeological structures. These divergences are diagrammed in grayscale pictures. For the present researches, in order to execute geomagnetic prospections, fields need to be defined, measured and staked off. Each of these fields are then walked off and measured with magnetometer in lines with as offset of.2.5 m to each other. After measuring, the data were exported, corrected, processed and converted in grayscale pictures with the software Magneto by Sensys. These grayscale pictures were hen exported as georeferenced geotif’s and were collected in QGIS, an open source GIS. In the same QGIS-project all data like the measurements were collected and put together to one project.
The results show that there are regular and high-density architectural structures in the residential area. Architectural spaces have expanded in a West-East direction and along each other, and large and medium stone pieces with mud mortar have been used in the construction of architectural spaces. On the south side of the lower part of the castle, the remains of ash layers as well as the sidewalk floor can be seen, which indicates the existence of settlement layers in this area of the castle. On the western side of the castle and along the Aghchai River, part of the remnants of the water canal can be seen. This indicates that the people who occupied the castle, used the Aghchai River to provide their water needs. The castle was built by constructing a water canal made of stone and mortar.
As expected, the grayscale piture of the geomagnetic prospection shows wall structures in almost every filed, except the fields in the far north of the research area. The geomantic prospection completes the visible structures and show not only single walls or pars of walls, but furthermore connects single walls to complete ground plots of different houses. In some cases, even doors and therefore the way the houses were used visible in the grayscale picture of the geomagnetic prospection. Over the whole area, small but also bigger disturbances are visible.
Mehdi Razani, Shahrokh Shahrsabzi, Masoud Bagherzadeh-Kasiri, Seyed Mohammad-Amin Emami,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Due to the extent of the empire’s territory, the remains of the Achaemenid stone pillars have been registered in different parts of Iran. The remains of this architectural style can be seen in the monumental set of Pasargadae, Persepolis., Naqsh-e Rostam, Lidoma and Tomb-e Bot in Fars Province, the remains of Shush in Khuzestan Province, and stone works of Ecbatana in Hamedan, Rivi Palace in Northern Khorasan Province, and Achaemenid palaces in Borazjan region in Bushehr province. The rock mining of these monuments was recognized as local. However, in Boushehr Province, two ancient mines of Pouzepalangi Rahdar and Tang-e Gir of Borazjan Region have been named. The maximum extraction and application of the crème color stones from the Puze- Palangi mine were registered from the palaces of the Borazjan Region. However, for the geological structure of the black-gray stone of Acamenian palace in Charkhab of Borazjan, samples of this type of stone were extracted from Charkhab palace. These samples were compared with the gray-black samples of the Bardak-e Siah and Sang-e Siah Palaces of Borazjan. With the petrographic studies of thin sections obtained from the palaces and chemical analysis of XRD and XRF, the structural process of the gray-black samples of the Achaemenid palaces of the Borazjan region entered a new stage. The results of the petrography studies indicate that the gray-black stone samples of Charkhab palace corresponded to the sample of Sang-e Siah Palace and Badak-e Siah, considering the microsprite and sprite background, and the few amount micrite as well as the layered structure. Also, the analysis of the analytical samples of XRD and CRF of these stones indicates that the samples of Charkhab Palance and Sang-e Siah are the same. Given that no trace was found in the mining for the gray-black stones in Boushehr Province so far, it can be then claimed that these stones were extracted from a non-local mine.
Keywords: Borazjan, Charkhab Palace, Bardak-e Siah Palace, Sang-e Siah Palace, Petrography, XRD, XRF.
The coasts of the Persian Gulf, especially the ports of Bushehr and Borazjan in the golden age of Elam, i.e., the late 2nd millennium BC, has been one of the important centers of trade and the interface between the sea route of Shush and India. The fertile and tropical areas of Dashtestan were among the areas where the Achaemenid dominated shores and benefited from the proximity to the sea. They provided places for themselves in these areas so that they could spend the winter there. The building of Charkhab Palace in Borazjan is known as the winter palace of Achaemenid Cyrus due to its great similarity with the private palace of Cyrus in Pasargadae.
Research Questions and Hypotheses: The main questions of research are as follows: What is the structure of black-gray stones used in the Achaemenid architecture of Borazjan palaces? What is the structural relationship between black-gray stone in the Achaemenid palaces of Borazjan (Charkhab, Bardak-e Siah and Sang-e Siah)? Based on current studies, what opinion can be expressed about the mines of Borazjan Achaemenid palaces?
Research Method: Petrography and analytical methods of XRF and XRF were used to the geological structure of the gray-black stones of the stone pillars of Charkhab Palace in Borazjan. In the meantime, using the research method thin-walled structure to observe the minerals and adopting the samples were done with the OLYMPUS BX51 polarizing light transmission microscope, made in Japan, with the capability of filtering light in the XPL mode of the analyzer and emitting polarized light. XRD experiments to identify and detect the crystalline phases forming in the study samples and qualitative and semi-quantitative determination of crystals by powder method (with Cu) target radiation lamp with a maximum potential difference of 40 KV and maximum current intensity of 30 mA, fixed sample and Needle detector) was performed on three samples of historical palace stones in Bim Gostar Taban laboratory in Tehran. The results were analyzed by High Score Plus software. XRF experiments were performed to identify and quantify the constituent elements of study samples of Achaemenid palaces by powder method and with the model device: PW1410 Manufactured by PHILIPS Netherlands in Bim Gostar Taban laboratory in Tehran on the same three samples.
Borazjan city is located 67 km from Bushehr and 226 km from Shiraz. Due to the discovery of a piece of a stone pillar base when digging a water canal in Borazjan in 9171, the General Directorate of Archaeological Research of Iran assigned Dr. Ali Akbar Sarfaraz to explore the site in which this work was discovered. Dr.Ali Akbar Sarafraz was the head of the Iranian Archaeological Board in Bishapour at that time. Therefore, archeological operations began in this ancient area, and at the end of the one season of the excavation, the main form and structure of the columned hall were manifested. In a study entitled “Spatial analysis of the Achaemenid palaces in Borazjan” the appearance, location, and objects obtained from these sites have been discussed.
The gray-black stone of all three Achaemenid palaces of Charkhab (CH1, CH2, and CH3), Bardak-e Siah (BS1), and Sang-e Siag of Borazjan (SS1) are calcareous and boiled in contact with 0.1 normal hydrochloric acids. These carbonate rocks have a microsparite texture to sparite, and are micrite to a small amount, and have few quartz grains.
XRD Analysis of Gray-Black Stone Samples of Achaemenid Palaces in Borazjan Region
The spectrum of gray-black stones of the Achaemenid palaces of the Borazjan region, which includes the samples of Charkhab Borazjan (CH3), Bardak-e-Siah (BS1), and Sang-e-Siah (SS1), the matching of the spectra of the same limestone is observed. However, based on the peak intensity of calcite in the samples of Charkhab Palace (CH3) and Sang-e Siah (SS1), which shows 11000, are placed in one group. Also, the sample (BS1) with a peak intensity of calcite over 14000 is observed separated from the group.
In the analysis of the black-grey stones of the Achaemenid palaces, the sample of grey-black stones of palaces has been compared as only the samples of palaces are available. Also, the possible mine of the black-grey stones has not been reported in Boushher Province so far. Accordingly, the oxide of the main elements, such as SiO2, CaO, P2O5, TiO2, and MgO, represents particular values in the table. These values are approximately close to each other in the sample of the grey-black stones of the Achaemenid palaces. Therefore, they are considered an appropriate indicator of similarity. Graphs of oxide values of SiO2, P2O5, TiO2, CaO, and MgO of the samples are consistent. Also, the accordance of the oxide values of the mentioned elements, the values of the secondary elements (in terms of ppm) of the gray-black stones of Charkhab (CH3), Bardak-e Siah (BS1), and Sang-e Siah (SS1) rocks are observed.
Analysis and Discussion
Using the laboratory and scientific methods and comparing the results of this paper with the results of the papers on Pasargadae and Persepolis, the relationship between the sources of extraction of gray-black stones of the complex of Achaemenid monuments in Borazjan Region of the Fars province mines, Majdabad mountain mine in particular, around the Perspolis and Sarpaniran and Ahmadbegi Mines in Pasargadae is rejected. The presence of several large pieces carved from this type of stone in the east of the Achaemenid palace of Charkhab Borazjan confirms that Charkhab palace was in the process of construction. However, these stones which have been left on the ground two hundred meters east of the palace, are reasons for the existence of a stone-cutting workshop of Charkhab palace or another building that has not been excavated yet.
Studies on the gray-black rocks of Achaemenid palaces show that mining traces or mine exposure of this kind of stone have not been seen or reported in the region. Therefore, it seems that these mines were not local, and the stones were supplied from other sources. Also, the hypothesis based on that the grey-black stone mines might have been local depends on the more extensive field studies in the future.
Hossein Behroozipour, Khashayar Ghazizadeh,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Throughout Iran’s history, there have been governments, however large and small, of local rulers and rulers that have been the source of significant influences in the history of our country’s art and civilization. These local rulers are not well-known throughout history, among them the local government of Al Inju and then al-Muzaffar. After the collapse of the Ilkhanid dynasty in Iran, the regions of Kerman, Yazd, and Fars were presented with a competition between the two families claiming al-Inju and Al-Muzaffar. However, the period of the local rule of Al Inju and Al-Muzaffar is bed into significant artistic and cultural developments, which can be seen in Shiraz’s orthography. This is because the remaining copies of the book-layout of Al-Inju and al-Muzaffar are proving to this claim. The question is: What effects has Shiraz’s painting school had on the Iranian Painting art during Al-Inju and Al-Muzaffar? The method of this research is descriptive-analytical with library data collection. Case studies are paintings of Shahnameh version 733 AH in the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg and Shahnameh 731 AH in the Topkapi Museum of Istanbul, Turkey, and Shahnameh Qavam al-Din Hasan 741 AH, all belonging to the Al Inju period, as well as paintings of the 771AH Shahnameh, exists in the Topkapi Library of Istanbul in Turkey, as well as the Khamseh Nezami version, in the late 8th century related to the Al-Muzaffar period in the National Library of Paris. Studying the characteristics based on formal, structural, and themes of Shiraz Artography during the Period of Al-Inju and Al-Mozaffar, the effects of Shiraz Painting School on the art of painting are distinguished. Based on the results of this research, al-Inju’s paintings were under the effect of the tradition of old Iranian painting (reminiscent of Sassanid graffiti) and visualization of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and it’s martial scenes, and the use of specific tables for writing parts (calligraphy), the illustration of lyrical systems in the Period of Al-Muzaffar, the application of brilliant colors in the painting of Al Inju and Al-Muzaffar have had a tremendous impact on Iranian Painting in the later era.
Keywords: Shiraz School of Painting, Painting, Local Government, Al-Inju, Al-Muzaffar.
The Inju family were the descendants of the subordinate leaders of the Ilkhans, and after the death of Abu Sa’id in 1335 AD/ 735 AH, they became independent and from that date till 1353 AD/ 753 AH, they ruled Persia until they were banished by the Muzaffar dynasty, who were the rulers of Yazd.
The Al-Muzaffar dynasty ruled the whole southwest of Iran until 1393 AD/ 795 AH. They were taken down by Timur. By studying the history of the rule of these two local governments in Shiraz, it can be seen that Abu Ishaq Inju and Shah Shoja Mozaffar were both supporters of Hafez and perhaps that is why they hired skilled painters to illustrate books (Gary, 2005: 56). The art of painting in Shiraz was specially and seamlessly formed during the Alainjou period and showed a special type of painting that had exactly the characteristics of Iranian Painting and was far from outside influences or felt less salient. “Shiraz’s cultural prosperity continued during the Mozaffarian era (remember that Hafez’s poetry prospered at that time)” (Pakbaz, 2005, p. 69). Shiraz’s art continued to change with cultural perceptions during the reign of Al-Muzaffar, and until the early ninth century, it produced works worth mentioning. Shiraz’s art continued to change with cultural perceptions during the reign of Al-Muzaffar, and until the early ninth century, it produced precious works.
Research Method: The research in this article was performed in a descriptive-analytical manner and the documentary method (library) was used in the collection of research material and images. This research benefited from the historical books of writers from different periods about the history of Alyanjo and Al-Muzaffar, as well as the illustrated manuscripts of that period in Shiraz. Because their paintings are portrayed in a crude and precipitous style and reminiscent of the popular painting art. In the paintings of the Shiraz school, the main topic is “human” and other elements were used as a role and only as decoration and fill the empty spaces in the picture. Moreover, other elements such as the use of tables and a kind of harmonious and delicate coloring can be seen in most of the work of this school (Tavousi, 1390: 16).
From the beginning of the eighth century, workshops in Shiraz began to illustrate literary texts, particularly the Shahnameh. Indeed, to confront the Ilkhans and consolidate their position, they continued a policy of celebrating Iran’s ancient history. Consequently, Chinese art which was common in Tabriz had the least influence on Shiraz painting. Thus, along with innovators such as Ahmad Musa and Shams al-Din, the Shiraz school continued the tradition of Iranian painting (Pakbaz, 2005:68). The most common feature of all Aligno school manuscripts is the copious use of red and yellow, ochre, or gold. Lively and dynamic design, free movement of pen and brush to express members and the exaggerated use of stems and plant flowers are other important features of these paintings.
The art of painting at the Al-Muzaffar School took on a different style than the usual illustrations of Shiraz Alainjo, which not only influenced the works of southern Iran during the first half of the fifteenth century AD but also Indian works. The elegance of this painting contrasts with the composition of Alinejo’s paintings (Titley, 1983: 41). These drawings and compositions of the Al-Muzaffar School were transferred to other art centers through libraries that were illustrated in Shiraz in the eighth century (Blair et al., 2014: 137).
The peculiarities of Mozaffarian’s painting were: round hills, high horizon, scrubland earth, large statues with large heads and bearded faces, delicate design, and sometimes rough craftsmanship. A small part of the overall picture specializes in the blue sky, and the natural landscape is described by several classic patterns. Humans and animals are out there, but they seem more important. In general, compositional elements are increasingly conceptual and symbolical (Pakbaz, 2005: 69).
The way Shiraz school was presented in the periods of Al-Inju and Al-Muzaffar is the continuation of ancient Iranian art and its innovations. These two schools, with their elementary painting and innovations, continued the tradition of book-painting and painting in the 5th and 6th centuries AD, which evolved over the next two centuries and became the dominant special characteristic of painting.
The style of special book-painting of Shiraz’s school of painting during Al-Inju and Al-Muzaffar can be searched in illustrated versions of Shahnameh.
The characteristics of the painting of this era can be divided into three categories: formal, structural, and themes. Shiraz illustrators presented their past cultural and artistic heritage and the extension of Iranian artistic taste before Islam (Parthian and Sassanid graffiti and carvings) as well as attention to the original literature. Like illustrated Shahnameh, the visualization of martial arts scenes was also placed on the agenda of the artists during Al Inju and Al-Muzaffar.
The effect of this theme feature can be seen in schools of later periods, such as Behzad’s painting of Bahram’s battle with dragons in Herat school during the Timurid period. Natural effects and landscape in the form of a formal feature in the al-Muzaffar period painting were much more than al-Inju’s painting. These natural manifestations continue and diversify in the schools of painting in later periods. During the period of Al-Jalayer, the Jalayeri school, these formal features can be seen in the paintings of Junaid Shirazi (see Humay and Homayoun) in the illustrated version of Khajavi Kermani Divan, and also in the illustrated version of Khamseh Nezami (Khosrow and Shirin), and also noticeable during the Turkman period in Tabriz. Illustrators of the Al Inju era attached great importance to the image of humans and animals in paintings, which can be considered as a special feature of Iranian painting in the scene of Bahram battle against dragons by Behzad in Herat school during the Timurid period, as well as tthe scene of the pillar removal by Imam Ali in the School of Turkmens in Shiraz (See Humay and Homayoun), Khajavi Kermani’s Divan in the Period of Al-Jalayer, and Khosrow and Shirin’s paintings in the Turkmanan School of Tabriz.
Afrooz Tahmasebi, Shahriar Nasekhian,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
Interventions related to the use of historic buildings, in addition of rehabilitation, are known in other different terms including revitalization, empowerment, adaptive reuse, etc. However, so far, ther is no research has been done on these terms of interventions by Iranian academics, and this multiplicity of intervention terms and, at the same time, lack of clarity in the concepts, differences between them and their international equivalent terms, has caused confusion among the researchers. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these concepts and other concepts related to reuse historic assets and to determine their relation to each other. In this regard, while studying prerequisites and requirements of functional interventions, different approaches to the subject at the international and national levels are surveyed and the different types of functional interventions in these buildings are analyzed and compared. In order to do the abovementioned, the analytical-descriptive method was used in the first part. In the next section of the article, a comparative study based on logical reasoning has been used to examine the relationship between different reuse interventions. From the findings of this study, it can be noted that the major differences between the various terms in the scope of reuse interventions are due to two major issues of “different word formation in translation” and “belonging to different time and place coordinates”, while they have common underlying concepts and all emphasize on the “role of existence a use in a building in its sustainable conservation”, “the necessity of adapting new uses with cultural significance, values and authenticity of the historic monuments” and “adequately meet to the needs of contemporary life in these buildings.
Keywords: Compatible, Resuscitation, Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Compatible Reuse.
So far, few studies have been done on this topic in domestic research in Iran, so that there is no consensus in many of issues in this field especially on terms. Thus, we certainly need to do extensive and in-depth research in this regard, but its prerequisite is to study on the basic concepts of the subject; Knowing that what issues have been considered in the interventions in international literature?
The main purpose of this article is to explain the concepts of this field, in this regard, addressing the reasons and requirements of functional interventions by looking at international documents and charters is on the agenda; Then the different approaches in this field in international and domestic literature are explained and finally the main field of the article is to identify the types of functional interventions through comparative comparison.
Addressing this issue, in addition to the fact that the existence of function in a building ensures the survival and conservation of the building, is also important in terms of sustainable development and environmental issues. Also, considering that while functional interventions can provide protection for the historic building, it may also cause irreversible damage to them, it is vital to determine the necessities and sensitivities for the conservation of historic buildings in this process.
The present article specifically seeks to answer the questions about concepts of different types of functional interventions, their relationship between each other and their different uses. Also, it is going to clarify what is the relationship between the domestic terms of interventions and their international equivalents?
The present article is a basic research that seeks to expand the knowledge on the subject of “rehabilitation” by explaining and analyzing some of the concepts, resulting from library studies. In this regard, first the different aspects of functional interventions have been explained by “analytical-descriptive” method and then by using “comparative comparison” method, the different types of domestic and international definitions provided for functional interventions have been defined and compared.
The following results are obtained from reviewing and comparing the definitions provided for functional interventions and based on studies:
Despite the fact that in most translated literature, the term “Rehabilitation” is equated with “Tavanbakhshi” or “tavanmandsazi”, but considering the common use of the word “Ehya” in Iranian academic and professional circles for this type of intervention, it should be accepted that the term “Ehya” is the proper translation for this kind of intervention; but it seems that because “Ehya” has been used for the urban intervention of “revitalization” at the same time in many academic papers, it made some scholars to find out a new equivalent for the “rehabilitation”. Overall, it can be said that although in recent years translating the term “rehabilitation” into different equivalents has caused confusion and has produced different literature; but comparing the definitions reveals that all these terms are different equivalents for the term “rehabilitation”.
Regarding the relationship of “rehabilitation” and “adaptive reuse”, some such as “Deathridge” (2012: 5) argue that in “adaptive reuse” the use of the buildings definitely change to new uses, while a “building may be rehabilitated to its former purpose or adapted to a new use”, therefore “all adaptive reuse is rehabilitation, but not all rehabilitation is adaptive reuse.” However, not all researchers believe this, and a comparison of the definitions provided for these terms, which despite all their differences, all have the same concepts which emphasizes “adaptation of buildings to appropriate and compatible use”, shows that these measures are no different but they simply belong to different times and places.
Regarding other relevant interventions, it can be said that changing the term does not necessarily change the action; as “Douglas” (2006: 1) believed “There are many other different terms that are used to describe interventions to a building that go beyond maintenance. Words such as ‘refurbishment’ or ‘rehabilitation’ and ‘renovation’ or ‘restoration’ are occasionally taken as being synonymous with one another, even by some in the construction industry.” Also in this case “Markus” (1979) noted that “in the world of building the terms “rehabilitation”, “conversion”, “remodelling”, “restoration”, “reinstatement” and so forth are unhappily confused.” (ibid) In addition, Wilkinson (2014: 4) confirms this claim and adds terms such as ‘retrofitting’, ‘modernisation’, ‘re-lifing’, and ‘recycling’ to the abovementioned.
Some of these words in different places are considered equivalent to a specific concept due to their common use; “Refurbishment”, for example, has gained widespread use in the UK as the most popular term to describe a wide range of adaptation work; however in the USA “Remodelling” is commonly employed as an all-encompassing expression for these works. Also “occasionally some ‘building adaptation’ terms are used together. Certain construction companies, for example, advertise their services as ‘specializing in renovating and refurbishing old homes’. Other contractors use the expression ‘extensions and renovations’.” (Douglas, 2006: 1-2).
Overall, as mentioned, there is several terms for functional interventions in historic assets in Iran, which although the multiplicity of these terms has confused researchers, but further study of their meanings shows that the focus of all these measures is on adapting the buildings to the appropriate and compatible use regarding to cultural significance, authenticity and values of the building; and the formation of different terms has been more due to the two issues of “different word choice in translation” and “belonging to different spatial and temporal situations”. In this regard, it can be said that in domestic literature in Iran, “Ehya”, which is equivalent to “Rehabilitation”, is the main keyword on which the specialized literature is based, but “adaptive reuse” is also a newer term which originates from the USA and Canada and gradually has spread around the world and today is one of the main keywords in this field. “Adaptation” is also a term which includes all interventions related to the functional interventions of historic buildings. In general, it seems that the agreement of the scientific and executive community of the country on the term “Ehya” and the formation of institutions and documents on the basis of this term, requires that focusing on this concept, handle the disagreements to be able to expand its aspects and essentials in the future researches.
Sharareh-Sadat Mirsafdari, Yaghub Mohammadifar,
year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020)
The development of interdisciplinary sciences and the need for researchers to review scientific topics have led to the issue of “reuse of data” in archeology. Before any discussion, it is necessary to examine the challenges and theoretical foundations in this field, because uninformed use and without considering the indigenous needs of the country’s archaeological knowledge in these discussions will lead to opposite results and create consumerism and orientation in producing scientific results. This research has been done by the descriptive-analytical method and in this field from documents and library resources as well as observing the results of invalid scientific databases in the field of archaeological data studies from Digital Science Direct database, and a review of Open Context and CdocRM databases. Also, the results have been published on the T-Dar website. After reviewing and studying effective methods to identify effective strategies for reusing information and using digital tools in this field, finally, three main areas in data re-reading have been identified including standardization, metadata design, and texture documentation by digital tools. These strategies can be effective by combining their capabilities in the process of data reuse and have an intrinsic value according to the standardization frameworks of the obtained information and do not depend on factors such as information provision tools or the foundation itself. For this purpose, in the stages of field studies, classification, laboratory studies, and storing information in databases, scientific principles in this field must be carefully applied so that the information can be reused; Therefore, two main questions are raised in this research. 1) What key issues should be considered in the discussion of data reuse? 2) How can digital tools be useful in meeting the challenge of data reuse? We explored key areas in the reuse of archaeologists’ data and the role of large institutions in this area and introduced digital capabilities to address these challenges.
Keywords: Digital Archeology, Standardization, Metadata, Texture, Digital Documentation.
One of the main purposes of designing and using databases in archeology is to reuse data. One of the essential fields in the standardization of topics in our country is the integration of words and terms. For example, in many sources, words such as coarse, rough pottery, as well as red and orange peas, etc. are used, and many researchers use different words instead of each other. Many other basic concepts such as laboratory studies, theoretical studies, and conclusions, etc. also need to use the relevant standard frameworks so that this information can be used and evaluated in other studies.
Proper management and study of digital methods that can be used in archeology is also an important and fundamental issue. There are different study methods and the information obtained from them are reusable provided that the implementation of the standards in different stages is obtained. The rules of regulatory bodies governing archeology are also changing, with many countries now banning the exchange of antiquities and other finds, even for research purposes. Therefore, the use of digital documentation for archaeological research will be important because not only the destroyed sites must be documented, but also the “archaeological data” in their remaining countries of origin should be analyzed accordingly.
The information obtained from theoretical and practical research will be monolingual by executive standards that can be understood by researchers at different times and places and can be reused and shared. CIADCC Aram (International Committee for the Conceptual Reference Model of Documentation) has presented the most famous and well-known model of the formal theoretical foundations of archeology. The CID DocC Aram conceptual reference model is a theoretical and practical tool for sharing information on cultural heritage. This model can help researchers, professionals, and the public to answer complex archaeological questions in a diverse and scattered data set. Also, some groups have created vocabulary, controlled, and revised vocabulary (readable by computers), complementing descriptive topics, and their properties are quietly defined by CIADCC. The terms reviewed and controlled have also recently been published by the British Museum as open information and facilitate large-scale access to information from archaeological data classification and typology systems.
The first question that arises for re-users of this information is the method of collecting archaeological data. In some cases, different methods in a particular research field based on the objectives of the research are understandable. The characteristics of a research field, such as the period of study or the nature of an area, affect the research design, data collection methods, and research strategies. Due to field activities in caves and urban areas, each requires a specific method of drilling, but in many cases, this change of method depends on the excavator, and this makes it difficult for researchers to re-read the data in museums or repositories. Objects, on the other hand, are meaningless on their own, regardless of the texture from which they are derived. The nature of archaeological studies is such that after collecting and studying the data, they lose the interpretation of their original meaning, either by returning to the site or keeping them in museums or reservoirs and they have no original value and cannot be “existent” alone. Without the context in which the archaeological data was located, it is impossible to analyze and study them, and they are only describable in terms of similarities and structure.
Another feature of databases is the inclusion of metadata next to the original information. Providing information that details the subject matter of an object or concept and helps to understand data, object or concept, metadata supports and explains the main information.
Archaeologists use the research data of others in different ways: 1) the method of sharing person to person 2) sharing through the museum archives and more recently 3) digital databases and it depends on factors such as the scientific ability of the person who obtained the information, the area from which the information was obtained, and whether the information was the result of scientific work or unauthorized excavations.
Digital archaeologists use different technologies in their work. These technologies fall into four main categories: 1) information databases and the Internet, which is known as the main platform for digital activities, and the results of other sections are uploaded to publish and reuse data. 2) Software, which plays an important role in analysis and archaeological information and their results are transmittable to databases. 3) Digital documents that provide researchers with the ability to store virtually and objectively transfer information. 4) Physical and chemical studies and analyzes. To share and reuse data, our most important tool will be the database. Also, to preserve the texture and insert appropriate metadata, we need digital documentation as well as software. Also, to insert appropriate metadata, we need to use chemical and physical analysis.
The application of new archaeological perspectives to previous studies or the reuse of data is a challenge that enable archaeologist to review and share information in the field of interdisciplinary studies. In this regard, the three main areas of standardization, metadata, and context should be considered and planned. Proper use of standards in the study, analysis, and uploading processes and compliance with contractual criteria, make the impact of the person, tools and other issues less. Be confident and valuable. To understand the relationship between the three tools introduced with the steps of the practical study process in archeology, Model 1 is presented. This model shows which steps the tools should be used. It should also be noted that each of these components is associated with other options (Model 2).
The need to use standardization as an executive framework in the field of metadata is part of the information integration process, and the documentation of its context is part of the metadata. Digital archeology and its tools can solve this challenge based on guidelines, criteria and standards, and theoretical foundations as a procedure in preparing metadata to solve the problem of backup information. Datasets with theoretical foundations based on local needs as well as vocabulary control should go through this path as well. Using three main contexts in re-reading information as complementary concepts can facilitate the study process. There is a practical example of this relationship in the approach of some large organizations in the field of data management. The British Archaeological Information Service (ADS) has launched major plans to develop theoretical foundations and standardize basic information such as dating and metadata (which includes contextual information) to provide free access to standardize information and metadata. Researchers can check the accuracy and validity of information in a database based on their knowledge. The free Orchid Database has been created to identify researchers, using the Orchid Web API to display biographical information and publish information about participants in data collection. The Free Database provides new data on the expertise and credibility of data-gathering archaeologists. This organization presents these metadata in the form of a specific standard framework. Another manifestation of the interaction of these fields in databases is due to their functional nature, include standardization and use of metadata.