[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(4): 69-84 Back to browse issues page
The Influence Area of Culture and Cultural Interactions of the Scythian Tribes in Eurasia
Reza Rezalou 1, Yahya Ayremlou2, Pasha Pashazadeh3, Shima Azizi4
1- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili , reza_rezaloo@yahoo.com
2- Ph.D. Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.
3- Ph.D. Candidate Archaeology, Islamic Azad University Miyaneh Branch.
4- M.A. Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.
Abstract:   (6957 Views)
Abstract
Migrant Scythian tribes were occupied many parts of the Eurasia following a move to the West in the first millennium B.C. The Scythian people were among the last Aryan tribes who, after the migration of other indo-European tribes, emerged from their mainland (Southern Russia) at the end of the Eighth century, and dispersed in Northern Central and Southern Siberia, the North of the Caspian Sea and its Western boundary, in the vast plains of the Caucasus Mountains. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence area and cultural interactions of these ethnic groups in sixteen geographical zones of the Eurasia, from east to West. The present study in a historical method, with a qualitative approach and based on archaeological reports have studied dispersion of the Scythian type artifacts in the West Mongolia, Tuva region, the Altai region, Central Asia, Iran, South Caucasus, North Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Crimea, southern Ukraine and South-East Europe, Egypt, Greece, West Mediterranean, Central and Western Europe. Because of the extent of the study area, in this research has been tried to be mentioned to the main of the Scythian areas in the each zone and its materials, so that be shown a detailed view of the extent of this culture in Eurasia. The present research has been carried out according to these main questions: How is the extent area of the Scythian culture? What is the type of their materials in each of these areas? The results point to the vastness of this culture in a wide area of geography. The culture has been able to influence many cultural and geographical areas and attract the cultures of many tribes, in the short time. In many of the areas studied, there are similar findings from this culture.
Keywords: Eurasia, Scythian Tribes, Scythian Cultural, Scythian Burial.

Intrudoction
When a tribe enter to an alien land as an immigrant or an invader, it develops its culture as an effective factor over time. Although immigrant or invading peoples may not pursue such a goal, undeniable impacts and cultural relations, as a factor in stimulating such processes, will accelerate. They seek to dominate human resources in the every part of the world, and change the cultural, political, and social equations of the conquered regions and, after consolidating their presence, propagate purposely their culture. In the meantime, due to cultural interactions, the art of these immigrant or invading generations also affects. This impact has been associated with war in most cases, and the outcome of such a struggle is the creation of a cohesive culture in a wide range. The more these wars continue and wider, the greater the culture of dominant folk; in this process, the power of the invading force is a major factor. The generators of homogeneity in this area act in the most common and similar cases. In other words, the cultural attributes of a people in two distant geographic districts show similar characteristics. The development of the culture of the Scychian peoples in a widespread zone, and in a short time, has almost followed such a mechanism. Scythian people at the beginning of the first millennium B.C in their movement were to the west, Central Asia, North and South Caucasus, the north of the Black Sea, East Europe, Northwest of Iran, East Anatolia, Mesopotamia and the vicinity of Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea and they left their cultural features in these areas. In these movement they, they left many traces such as unique burials, special techniques for decorating ornamental objects. The course of the movement and how they deal with the ruling powers in these regions, including Urartu, Med, Mana and Asshur, in historical sources have been described.

Discussion
Basically, what is attributed to the Scythian people, is specific cultural material that specific to them. In terms of burial data, the horse has been a special place in the sacred burial ground, so that this can be seen in most of the ancient Scythian sites. In terms of burial data, the existence of objects such as triangular and flat iron and bronze arrowheads (often with a reverse barb) interesting cheekpieces with three holes in the middle of them for passage of rope that in most cases they end up with animals such as horses, eagles and rams, iron and bronze bits for harness, special styles for decorating objects (that known as animal styles, stickers and Other war material specifically) are show the art and culture of the Scythian peoples in Eurasia. The materials of the Scythian tripes have been found in the west of Mongolia from Beiram Kurgan: In Tuva region from Aimyrlig, Arglykty and Shurmak-Tei Kurgans; in Altai zone from Pazirik, Ust-Kuyum, Kurtu II and Katanda Kurgans; in central Asia the Scythian material have been found from Tasmola, Chilikta valley, Irtysh, Alakul, Uigarak and Tagisken Kurgans. in Iran have been found from Khoram Abad cemetery, in the south of Caucasus from Kar Mirblur, Musa Yeri, Chitan Dagh, in the north of Caucasus from Kelermess, Kostromaskaya, Ulski, Voronezhskaya, Ust-Labinskaya and Elizavetovskaya, in Mesopotamia from Assur, Musel, Karkmish and Al Mina. Also, the materials of the Scythian tripes have been in Asia Minor from Alaja Huyuk, Kernes dagh, Pazarli, Yazili Kaya, Gurdion and Hesarlik, in Krimeh from Temir-Gora, Perekop Isthmus, Talayevskii, Bosporus, Zolotoi, in the south of Ukrain and southeast of Europ from Elizavetinskaya, Chertomlyk, Solokha, Melitopol and Gaimanova mogila Kurgans, in Egypt from Tel Defaneh, Nakratis, Elfantin, Teps, in Greece from Aten, Atika, Delfi and Missen, in central Europ from Zwolaki, Zakrzow, Chelm, Morawy, Miyniec and Villach sites, in the west of Mediterranean from Megara Hibela, Katania and Motye sites and in the west of Europ from Brussels and France.

Conclosion
The remarkable expansion of the culture of the Scythian peoples over a wide geographical range during the few hundred years has made it one of the rarest ancient cultures. These nomadic peoples (wherever they could) have been left their cultural influence. In the areas where they entered, the most important work of their ancestors, the magnificent burials, is reminiscent, and in other areas, under their influence, the Scythian culture in the artistic objects of manifestation has been transported from the land to another country. So, the extent of damage to the their culture have been in east area Mongolia, in west with France in Europe, in north with Russia, and the southernmost part in Shush and Marvdasht.
Keywords: Eurasia, Scythian Tribes, Scythian Cultural, Scythian Burial.
Full-Text [PDF 590 kb]   (1299 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/12/7 | Accepted: 2018/12/7 | Published: 2018/12/7
References
1. - بهزادی، رقیه (1384). قوم‌های کهن در قفقاز، ماورای قفقاز، بین‌النهرین و هلال حاصلخیز. تهران: طهوری.
2. - بهزادی، رقیه (1386). قوم‌های کهن در آسیای مرکزی و فلات ایران. تهران: طهوری.
3. - تالبوت‌رایس، تامارا (1388). سکاها. ترجمۀ رقیه بهزادی، تهران: طهوری.
4. - رضالو، رضا (1391). “گزارش نهایی اولین فصل کاوش در گورستان خرم‌آباد مشگین‌شهر»، تهران: پژوهشکدۀ باستان‌شناسی. (منتشرنشده).
5. - رضالو، رضا و آیرملو، یحیی (1393). “آئین تدفین اسب در میان اقوام سکایی»، مطالعۀ موردی گورستان خرم‌آباد مشگین شهر، جامعه‌شناسی تاریخی. دورۀ 6. شمارۀ 3. صص: ‌144-113.
6. - رضالو، رضا و آیرملو، یحیی (1394). “شواهد باستان‌شناختی جدید از حضور تاریخی اقوام سکایی در ایران»، پژوهش‌های تاریخی، سال هفتم، شمارۀ 4. صص: 32-17.
7. - سولیمیرسکی، تادئوتس (1390). سامارت‌ها. ترجمۀ رقیه بهزادی، تهران: طهوری.
8. - فیروزمندی، بهمن و لباف‌خانیکی، میثم (1385). “ساختار اجتماعی جوامع سکایی با نگرش به شیوه‌های تدفین”. مجله دانشکدۀ ادبیات علوم‌انسانی. شمارۀ 6، صص: 91-67.
9. - فیروزمندی، بهمن و نیک‌گفتار، احمد (1387). “کورگان‌های سکایی»، پژوهش‌های تاریخی، شمارۀ 3. صص: 174-149.
11. - Abayev, V. I. (1956). “Scythian Way of Life and the Reform of Zoroaster,” Oriental Archives, 26, 1.
12. - Adontz, N. (1946). Histoire d'Arminie, Paris.
13. - Akhinzhanov, S.M.; Ermolaeva, A.C.; Maksimova, A.G.; Samashev, Z.S.; Taimagambyetov, Sh.K. & Trifonov, U. I. (1987). Arkheologicheskie pamyatniki v zone zatopleniya ShuVbinskoi, GES (Archaeological Sites in the Area Flooded by the Shulbin Hydroelectric Station, GES). Alma-Ata.
14. - Akishev, K. A. (1963). Kul'tura sakov doliny reki Hi // Drevnyaya kuVtura sakov i usunei doliny r. Hi. (The Culture of the Saka of the Hi River Valley," The Ancient Culture of the Saka and Usun of the Hi River Valley). Alma-Ata.
15. - Andrae, W. (1913). Die Festung von Assur. Leipzig.
16. - Artamonov, M. (1966). Sokrovishcha Skifskikh Kuganov Sobranii Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha-Pragu-Lenin grad from Great Soviet Encycolopedia, Vol.29, 1982.
17. - Bailey, H.W. (2009). Indo-scythian Studies Being Khotanese Texts, Cambridge Univ Press.
18. - Barnett, R. D. (1956). “The treasure of Ziwie”. Iraq, vol.18, pp: 111-118.
19. - Bessonova, S. S. & Skorii, S.A. (1986). Pogrebenie skifskove voina iz Aktashskovo mogil' nika v Vostochnom Krymu II SA, 4 (Burial of the Scythian Warrior from the Aktash Cemetery in Eastern Crimea, SA 4).
20. - Bidzilia, V. (1975). “Gaimanovo Mogila”. In: Grate Soviet Encycolopedia, A.M Prokhorov (ed), Vol. 6, New York & London: Collier Macmillan Publishers.
21. - Bittel, K. & H. G. Guterbock (1935). Bogazkoy, Berlin.
22. - Blinkenberg, C. (1931). Lindos, Fouilles de I'Acropole 1902-1914, Vol. I, Berlin.
23. - Brandenstein, W. (1954). “Bemerkungenz ur Volkertafeli n der Genesis”. In: Sprachgeschichteun d Wortbedeutung: Fe stschrift D ebrunner, 57-82.
24. - Brashinsky, I.B. & K.K., Marchenko. (1980). Elizavetovskoe gorodishche na Donu-poselenie gorodskovo tipa // SA, 1 (Elizavetovoe Fortified Settlement on the Don-Town Type Settlement, SA 1).
25. - Broneer, O. (1935). “Excavations on the North Slope of the Acropolis in Athens I933-1934”. Hesperia, vol. IV.
26. - Budge, E. (1884). Preceeding of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. Vol. VI, London.
27. - Contenau, G. & Ghirshman, R. (1935). Fouiles du tepe Giyan: pres de Nehavand 1931 Ed 1932, Musee du Louver, Paris.
28. - Curtis, J., Nigel Tallis & Béatrice André-Salvini (2005). Forgotten Empire: the World of Ancient Persia. Berkeley: University of California.
29. - Dandamaev, M. A. (1989). A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire, Leiden: EJ Brill.
30. - De Morgan J. (1889). Mission Scientifique au Caucase. Vol. I, Paris.
31. - De Morgan, J. (1905). “Trouvaille de la Colonne de Briques. Delegation en Perse”. Memoires, 2-e Serie, Vol. VII.
32. - Dodwell, E. (1819). A Classical and Topographical Tour Through Greece, Vol. II, London.
33. - Dorpfeld, W. (1902). Troja und Ilion, Athen.
34. - Dyson, R. H. (1964). “In the city of the golden bowl: new excavations at Hasanlu”. in: Persian Azerbaijan, The Illustrated London News 12th September 1964, pp: 372–4.
35. - Emilie Haspels, C. H. (1951). La cite de Midas: Phrygie. Vol. III, Paris.
36. - Farrokh, K. (2007). Shadows in the Desert, Ancient Persia at War, Oxford: Osprey Publ.
37. - Flinders Petrie, W. M. (1888). Tanis, Part II, Nebesheh (AM) and Defenneh (Tahpanhes), London.
38. - Flinders Petrie, W. M. (1909). Memphis II. The Palace of Apries. London.
39. - Gershevitch, I. (1985). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
40. - Ghirshman, R. (1939). Fouilres de Sialk pres des Kashan 1933, 1934 & 1937, Vol II, Paris.
41. - Ghirshman, R. (1954). “The Village Perse-Achemenide l”. Memoires de la Mission Archeologique en Iran, Vol. XXXVI, Paris.
42. - Ghirshman, R. (1964). Persia from the origins to Alexander the Great, London.
43. - Geldner, K. F. (1884). Drei Yasht aus dem Zendavesta übersetzt und erklärt. Stuttgart.
44. - Godard, A. (1950). Le tresor de Ziwiye. Haarlem. Jettmar, K. 1967. Art of the steppes. London.
45. - Goff, C. (1978). “Excavation at Baba Jan: The Pottey and Metal for Levels III and II”. Iran, Vol. XVI. pp 29-66.
46. - Gryaznov, M.P. (1980). Arzhan: Tsarskii kurgan ranneskifskovo vremeni (Arzhan: The Tsar Kurgan of the Early Scythian Time). Leningrad.
47. - Hampe, R. & Jantzen, U. (1937). “Bericht fiber die Ausgrabungen in Olympia 1936/1937”, Jahrbuch d. Deut-schen Archdologischen Institutes, Vol. 52.
48. - Hawkes, C. F. C. (1948). “From Bronze Age to Iron Age: Middle Europe, Italy, and the North and West”. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, Vol. XIV.
49. - Herodotus (2009). The Histories, Transl. by George Rawlinson, Vol 4, London: Digireads.
50. - Ivanovskii, A. A. (1911). Po Zakavkazyu 2. Materialy Po Arkheoogii Kavkaza, Vol. VI, Moscow.
51. - Jequier, G. (1900). “Travaux de l'hiver 1898-1899”. Delegation en Perse. Mesmoires ie Serie, Vol. I: 115-141.
52. - Kantor, j. H. (1960). “A fragment of a gold applique from Ziwie and some remarks on the artistic traditions of Armenia and Iran during the early first millennium B.C”. JNES, volume 19, pp. 1-14.
53. - Kleemann, O. (1954). Die dreizflugeligenP feilspitzen in Frankreich. Mainz.
54. - Koldewey, R. (1913). Das wiedererstehende Babylon, Leipzig.
55. - Konig, F. W. (1934). “Aeteste Geschitchte der Meder und Persen”. Der alte Orient, 33 Band, Heft 3.
56. - Korpusova, V. N. (1980). Raspisnaya rodossko-ioniiskaya oinokhoya iz kurgana u s. Filatovka v Krymu // VDI, 2 (“Painted Rodossko-Ionian Oinoche from the Kurgan Near the Village Filatovka in the Crimea,” VDI 2).
57. - Korte, G. (1904). Gordion: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen im Jahre 1900. Xahrbuchd, Deutschen Arch, Institutes, Erganzungsheft V, Berlin.
58. - Kosay, H. Z. (1941). Les fouilles de Pazarli, Ankara.
59. - Kubarev, V.D. (1979). Drevnie izbayaniya Altaya (olennie kamni)، (The Ancient Statue of the Altai [Deer Stones]). Novosibirsk.
60. - Kuftin B. A. (1941). ArklheologicheskieR askopki v Trialeti, Vol. I, Tbilisi.
61. - Lindenschmit, L. (1860). Die vaterldndischen Altertiimer der Fiirstl. Hollenzoller' schen Samznnlungen, Mainz.
62. - Luschan, F. V. (1879). “Uber dreikantige Pfeilspitzen aus Bronze”. MAG, Vol. VIII, Wien.
63. - Mantsevich, A. R. (1957). Riton Talaevskovo kurgana // Istoriya i arkheologiya drevnevo Kryma (“The Rhython of the Talaev Kurgan,” History and Archaeology of Ancient Crimea). Kiev.
64. - Minns, E.H. (2003). “Scythians”, In J.Hastings (ed), Encycolopedia of Religion Aaand Eethics, London & New York: T&T Clark.
65. - Molodin, V.L & Petrin, V.T. (1985). Razvedka v Gornom Altae // Atai v epokhu kamnya i rannevo v metalla (“Search in the Mountainous Altai,” Altai in the Stone and Early Metal Epoch). Barnaul.
66. - Murphy, E.J. (2000). “Mummification and Boby Processing: Evidence from the Iron Age in southern Siberia”, In kurgans, Ritual sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronz and Iron Age, Jeannine Davis-Kirnbel rt al (eds), Oxford: Archeopress, pp.279-292.
67. - Murzayev, E. M. (1952). MongoVskaya narodnaya respublika (fiziko-geograficheskoe opisanie)، (Mongol Peoples Republic [Physical-Geographical Description]). Moskva.
68. - Nosek, S. (1952). Neurowie w swietle archeologii, Przeglad Zackodni, Vol. VIII. Poznan.
69. - Olkhovsky, V. S. (1995). “Scythian Culture in the Crimea”. in: Nomads of the Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age, Edite by Davis Kimball, J. & Bashilove, V.A and yablonsky, L.T., Zinat press: Berkeley.
70. - Perdrizet, P. (1908). Fouilles de Delphes, Vol. V, Paris.
71. - Phillips, E. D. (1972). “The Scythian Domination in Western Asia: It’s Record in History, Scripture and Archaeology”. World Archaeology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 129-138.
72. - Piotrovsky, B. B. (1950). Karmir Blur. Vol. i. Moscow. Piotrovsky, B. B. Karmir Blur. Vol. II. Moscow.
73. - Piotrowicz, L. (1929). “L'invasion des Scythes en Asie anterieure au VII siecle avant J-C”. Eos. 32, 473-508.
74. - Polak J. E. (1884). “Uber prahistorische und ethnographische Objekte aus Persien”. MAG, Vol. XIV, Wien.
75. - Porda, E. (1965). The Art of Ancient Iran, New York.
76. - Reinecke, F. (1941). “Eine dreikantige Bronzepfeilspitze aus Oberfranken", Germania, Vol. 25.
77. - Rostovtzeff, M. (1925). Skifiya i Bospor (Scythia and Bosporus). Leningrad.
78. - Rostovtzeff, M. (1922). Iranians and Greeks in South Russia, Oxford.
79. - Rostovtzeff. M & Hon, D. L. (1969). Iranians & Greeks in South Russia, New York: Russell & Russell.
80. - Rudenko, S. I. (1970). Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd.
81. - Schliemann, H. (1878). Mycener. London.
82. - Schmidt E. F. (1932). The Alishar Hiijyk. Seasons of 1928 and 1929, Part I, Chicago.
83. - Schmidt, E. F. (1939). The Treasury of Persepolis. Chicago.
84. - Schmidt, E.F. (1929). “Test Excavations in the City of Kerkenes Dagh”. The American yournal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. Vol. 45.
85. - Sulimirski, T. (1945). “Scythian Antiquities in Central Europe”, Antiquaries Journal, Vol. XXV, London.
86. - Vishnevskaya, O.A. (1990). Tsentral'nii Kazakhstan // Moshkova, M.G. (Otv. red.) Stepi Aziatskoi chasti S.S.S.R. b. Skifo-Sarmatskoe Vremya (“Central Kazakhstan,”Steppes of the Asian Part of the USSR in Scytho-Sarmatian Time. Archaeology of the USSR, ed. M.G. Moshkova). Moskva.
87. - Volkov, V. V. (1967). Bronzovyi i rannii zheleznii vek Severnoi Mongolii (Bronze and Early Iron Age of Northern Mongolia). Ulan-Bator.
88. - Von der Osten, H. & Martin, R. A. (1933). Discoveries in Anatolia 1930-31, Communications of the Oriental Institute, Chicago.
89. - Walters, H. B. (1899). Catalogue of the Bronzes, Greek, Roman and Etruscan in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. British Museum, London.
90. - Wesendonk, O. G. (1923). Archaologisches aus dem Kaukasus, Archdologischer Anzezger, Vol. 40.
91. - Wilkinson C. K. (1975). Ivories from Ziwiye, Abbeg-Stiftung Bern, Switzerland.
92. - Woolley, C. L. (1914). A North Syrian Cemetery of the Persian Period, Liverpool.
93. - Woolley, C. L. (1921). Carchemish, Part II, London.
94. - Woolley, C. L. (1933). “Excavations at Al Mina Sueidia”. journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. LVIII, pp. 18-47.
95. - Yablonsky, L.T. (1995). “The Material Culture of the Saka and Historical Reconstruction”. In: Nomads of the Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age. Edite by Davis Kimball, J. & Bashilove, V.A and yablonsky, L.T., Zinat press: Berkeley.
96. - Yakovenko, E.V. (1972). Kurgan na Temir-gore // SA, 3 (“A Kurgan on the Temir Mountain,” SA 3).
97. - Yusupov, Kh. Yu. (1986). Drevnosti Uzboya (Antiquities ofUzboy). Ashkhabad.
98. - Zadneprovsky, Yu. A. (1992). Rannie kochevniki Ketmen' -Tyube, Fergany i Alaya // Moshkova, M.G. (Otv. red.) Stepnaya polosa aziatskoi chasti S.S.S.R. v skifo-sarmatskoe vremya. Arkheologiya S.S.S.R. (“Early Nomads of Ketmen'-Tyube, Fergana and Alay,” Steppe Zone of the Asian Part of the USSR in the Scytho-Sarmatian Time. Archaeology of the USSR, ed. M.G. Moshkova). Moskva.
99. - Zielonka, B. (1952) “Miscellanea kujawskie, Z”. Otchlani Wieko'w, Vol. XXI, Poznani.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rezalou R, Ayremlou Y, Pashazadeh P, Azizi S. The Influence Area of Culture and Cultural Interactions of the Scythian Tribes in Eurasia. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (4) :69-84
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-91-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.93 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4361