[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(4): 41-49 Back to browse issues page
Qala Ziwa: A Newfound Site with J Ware in Marivan
Morteza Zamani 1, Sirvan Mohammadi Ghasrian2, Ali Behnia3
1- M.A. Archaeology in Archaeological Research of Kurdistan University , Mote_1987@yahoo.com
2- Ph.D. Candidate Archaeology University of Tehran, and Member of Iranology Foundation Kurdistan Branch.
3- M.A. Administration of Cultural Heritage in Kurdistan Province.
Abstract:   (6690 Views)
Abstract
The first season of archaeological survey in Marivan by a team from University of Bu-Ali sina Hamedan was lead to identify some prehistoric sites from Middle Paleolithic to Chalcolithic period. As a result of in mentioned investigation prehistoric cultural sequence of the area from Middle Paleolithic to Middle Chalcolithic period (except Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic) have been identified. So, there was a main question about the absence of Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic period sites of Marivan area. Fortunately, during our recent archaeological survey in Marivan, we succeeded in discovering an interesting site (Qala Ziwa) which has traces Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic (J ware). In addition to Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic (J ware), some typical Dalma related pottery was also sampled from the site. Among mentioned potteries, we believe that most important period can be considered as Early Chalcolithic period. Against other regions of Western Iran particularly Central Zagros that many Early Chalcolithic period sites were identified, this area is really less known and obviously Qala Ziwa is one of the first Early Chalcolithic period site ever reported from Marivan area. This site has typical J ware and compared with similar Early Chalcolithic period sites in Central Zagros. This pottery has been related to the Western parts of Central Zagros like Mahidasht zone and discovering J ware in Marivan can added this area to the distribution zone of this culture also. As mentioned, surface survey of the site showing that Qala Ziwa has a complete sequence from Late Neolithic to Middle Chalcolithic period. So, excavation of the site in order to clarifying stratigraphy of the site would yield valuable information regarding too late six millennium B.C archaeological studies of Western Iran.
Keywords: Qala Ziwa, Late Neolithic, Early Chalcolithic, J Ware, Marivan.

Introduction
Looking to the geographical position of Marivan area, it became clear that this region is placed between 2 of the main archaeological zone of entire Western Iran (Central Zagros in South and Urmia lake basin in North). Prehistoric Archaeologist studies concentrated at those 2 mentioned zone and did not pay attention to the prehistoric sites (particularly Neolithic period) of studied (Marivan and adjacent areas). Fortunately, the situation has changed recently and a few Neolithic period sites have been reported not only in Marivan but at the areas like Bijar region (Motarjem & Sharifi, 2018). For the first time was identified 2 Neolithic sites in 2002 (Mohammadifar & Motarjem, 2003, 2015). Two Marivan Neolithic period sites (Tepe Hamaomin and Hamamorad) dating to early period of Neolithic (Mohammadifar & Motarjem, 2003, 2015) and as mentioned, there was not any information about Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic period sites of the area. Noted that as result of first archaeology survey of Marivan by Bu – Ali sina university expedition some sites from Middle Paleolithic to Middle Chalcolithic period (except Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic sites) reported. So, there was this important question that what happened after Early Neolithic period in Marivan region and why no Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic site was reported? Why there is such long gap time (more than 3 millinume) in this area? Discovering Qala Ziwa which contain cultural deposits from Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic is may fill this cultural gap obviously.

Methodology
The research methodology uses in this study is based on primary surface survey. Regarding to the importance of the site for late 6 millennium B.C archaeological studies, the site was surveyed carefully and from each periods typical pottery was sampled. As common in archaeological studies the sampled potteries have been sorted, photographed and analyzed. Our preliminary analyzes showing that this site has 3 different archaeological deposits: Late Neolithic (?), Early Chalcolithic, and early phase of Middle Chalcolithic period (Dalma phase). Any way future studies and even excavation would tell us more about this interesting site. 

Conclusion
Even as result human interference like agricultural activity the surface of the site was damaged, and it is not possible to sample data systematically, but distribution pattern of surface pottery was really interesting. As mentioned, surface pottery showing that the site would contain the deposits of 3 different archaeological periods:  Late Neolithic (?), Early Chalcolithic, and early phase of Middle Chalcolithic period (Dalma phase). The pottery of last period (Dalma phase) scattered at the highest level of Tepe, J ware was sampled in Middle part and   Late Neolithic shreds distributed at the lowest level of the site. Even such surface observation is not so trusted and archaeological excavation may show something different, but this pattern is really similar the stratigraphy of some Central Zagros sites like Seabed and Chogha Maran. In Chogha Maran the Early Chalcolithic deposits characterized by J ware lay on the virgin soil and Middle Chalcolithic is the upper one. In Siabid the most ancient cultural deposits belonging to Late Neolithic period which Early Chalcolithic (J ware) and Middle Chalcolithic are upper layers. But in some other site like recent excavated site like Tepe Qeshlagh in Bijar the situation is completely different. In Tepe Qeshlagh the most ancient layer is Late Neolithic deposit which upper layer is Dalma phase. But as mentioned in Tepe Qala Ziwa and some other Central Zagros sites, J ware would place between Late Neolithic layer and early phase of Middle Chalcolithic period (Dalma period). All mentioned document demonstrated that this new discovered site can be compare with Central Zagros region and particularly Western part like Mahidasht zone. As mentioned there was not any information about Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic period of this area of Western Iran and Qala Ziwa is one of the first discovered site of this period. Obviously, future archaeological survey and excavation would yield remarkable information about archaeology of late six millennium B.C of Western Iran. 
Keywords: Qala Ziwa, Late Neolithic, Early Chalcolithic, J Ware, Marivan.
Full-Text [PDF 785 kb]   (699 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/12/7 | Accepted: 2018/12/7 | Published: 2018/12/7
References
1. - موچشی، امیرساعد (1390). «بررسی الگوهای استقراری محوطه‌های دوران مس‌وسنگ شرق استان کردستان (حوزۀ آبگیر رودخانۀ قزل‌اوزن)». رسالۀ دکتری باستانشناسی، دانشگاه تهران (منتشرنشده).
2. - زارعی، محمد‌ابراهیم؛ محمدی‌قصریان، سیروان؛ و عبدالله‌پور، محمد (1396). «بررسی باستان‌شناختی تپه گریاشان سنندج». مجلۀ پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران. شمارۀ 12. صص: 23-9.
3. - علی‌بیگی، سجاد (1394). «گزارش بررسی دشت سرپل ذهاب». مرکز اسناد ادارۀ کل میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری استان کرمانشاه (منتشرنشده).
4. - مترجم، عباس و شریفی، مهناز (1397). «فرآیند گذار از سنت‌های فرهنگی نوسنگی جدید به مس‌سنگی قدیم در پسکرانه‌های شرق زاگرس مرکزی». پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران. دورۀ هشتم. شمارۀ 16. بهار 1397. صص: 102-83.
5. - مترجم، عباس؛ و محمدی‌فر، یعقوب (1381). «طرح بررسی و شناسایی و مستندسازی آثار باستانی شهرستان هرسین». آرشیو میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری بیستون (منتشرنشده).
6. - محمدی‌فر، یعقوب؛ و مترجم، عباس (1382). «طرح بررسی و شناسایی و مستندسازی آثار باستانی شهرستان صحنه». آرشیو میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری بیستون (منتشرنشده).
7. - محمدی‌فر، یعقوب؛ و مترجم، عباس (1381). «بررسی باستان‌شناسی شهرستان مریوان»، مرکز اسناد ادارۀ کل میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری استان کردستان (منتشرنشده).
8. - محمدی‌فر، یعقوب؛ و مترجم، عباس (1394). «مریوان، از دورۀ پارینه‌سنگی میانه تا دورۀ مس‌سنگی براساس بررسی‌های باستان‌شناسی». مفاخر میراث‌فرهنگی ایران: جشن‌نامۀ دکتر صادق ملک‌شهمیرزادی. به‌کوشش: مرتضی حصاری، تهران: پژوهشگاه میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری و دانشگاه هنر اصفهان. صص: 10-3.
9. - محمدی‌قصریان، سیروان (1393). «تپۀ نازلیان». مجموعه مقاله‌های باستان‌شناسی در بیستون. به‌کوشش: حسین راعی و مژگان خانمرادی، تهران: نشر ایران‌نگار.
11. - Abedi, A.; Khatib ahahidi, H.; Chataigner, C. H.; Niknami, K,; Eskandari, N.; Kazempour, M.; Pirmohammadi, A.; Hoseinzadeh, J. & Ebrahimi, GH. (2014). Excavation at Kul Tepe of (Hadishahr), North-Western Iran, 2010: First Preliminary Report, Ancient Near Eastern Studies 51: 33-165.
12. - Levine, L. D & McDonald, M. A. (1977). “The Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods in the Mahidasht”. IRAN 15. pp: 39–50.
13. - Levine, L. D & Young, Jr., T. C. (1987). “A summary of the ceramic assemblages of the Central Western Zagros from the Middle Neolithic to the late third millennium B.C.”. In: Pr´ehistoire de la M´esopotamie: La M´esopotamie pr´ehistorique et l’exploration r´ecente du Djebel Hamrin, E´ ditions de la Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Pari., pp: 15–53.
14. - Matthews, R. (2000). The Early Prehistory of Mesopotamia 500,000 to 4500 B.C. Brepols Publishers n.v., Turnhout, Belgium.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Zamani M, Mohammadi Ghasrian S, Behnia A. Qala Ziwa: A Newfound Site with J Ware in Marivan. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (4) :41-49
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-89-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
year 2, Issue 4 (9-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.17 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4361