year 6, Issue 19 (5-2022)                   Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2022, 6(19): 135-156 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- M.A. in Architecture, Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts of Bushehr Province, Bushehr, Iran. ,
2- Expert of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts of Bushehr Province, Bushehr, Iran.
3- Archeology PhD student, Faculty of Social Sciences, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran.
Abstract:   (836 Views)
The customs buildings complex at the Persian Gulf in Bushehr Province was built at the end of the Qajar era and the beginning of the Pahlavi era. These buildings are very similar. All these buildings are architecturally built in the same way. All these buildings have two floors and match each other. The architecture of these buildings is derived from the architectural style of the second half of the 18th century and 19th century of the West. This style entered Iran’s architecture as a symbol of modernity and strongly influenced Iranian architecture. It has to be mentioned that this influence was much greater in the last years of the Qajar era compared to its first years. By using the historical research method and library studies, it is tried to collect the necessary data about the research subject and obtain adequate understanding of the customs and telegraph offices in Bushehr Province. 
Keywords: Telegraph Offices, Customs, Bushehr Province, Qajar Era.

Bushehr was considered one of the important commercial and cultural centers since ancient times, which would connect the Elamites with the Mesopotamia on one hand and the Melos in present-day India with Oman and the Mesopotamia on the other hand, and this is emphasized in linguistic sources apart from archaeological data. (Hesari et al., 2011; 247) There are some ruins of an Elamite port that are found in a place called Reyshahr, near Bushehr, where an inscription of Šutruk-Nahhunte was discovered and read. This city is probably Liyan Elamite, and it seems that until the 15th century BC, it was under the control of the Elamites and it was a city dependent on Anshan, rather than Khuzestan. Even its name has an Elamite root, and the word NIM is placed in front of the name of this city. Based on the texts of Ur III, Steinkeller has dated Liyan to Bushehr of the late 3rd and 2nd millennium BC and has suggested that Anshan had a direct route to Mesopotamia through this port (Steinkeller, 1982: 252). The new history of trades in Bushehr began with the kingdom of Nader Shah Afshar, which has played a special role in the last two centuries of Iran. By the order of Nader Shah, the main boundary of Bushehr was built by Sheykh Naser Abu Mehiri. (Hamidi, 2010: 50), but the overall structure of Bushehr today was formed in the Qajar era (Ranjabr et al., 2010: 24). In the 18th century, Bushehr was considered as the most important commercial port of Iran in open waters. (Dashti, 2001: 117). The presence of customs in Bushehr Province during the Qajar era caused most of the major countries of the world, including England, Russia, Germany, France, etc., to have a political representative office in this city. This city became the southern gate of Iran for the exchange of political ideas and cultural relations. During the Qajar era, the English telegraph line extended from London to India. This line in Bushehr Province extended to Fars Province, and the line was transmitted from different countries, including Iran, either on land or sea cables. 

Research Introduction 
The main objective of this research is to study the reason for the exitance of customs in Bushehr and the telegraph houses and studying their architecture. The research question is: why are there several customs and telegraph houses in Bushehr? And what are their architectural characteristics? 

Bushehr Custom Building 
The first modern custom building of Bushehr Province, known as Chehar Borj (Four-Tower) is in Bushehr City. This custom was built and established during Naser al-Din Shah Qajar era, by Mo’in-O-Tojjar-e Bushehri at his expense with the plans of the Belgians. This mansion was known as Four-Tower at the time of its building and it was the center of the governance of Persian Gulf ports and islands during the Qajar era. Whenever the governer of Bushehr would come to Bushehr City for the governance of the city from Tehran or Shiraz, they would settle in this place. This building was designed by Joseph Naus, known as Belgian Monsieur Naus. (Fig. 1-8)

Bulkheyr Custom 
This building is a two-floor building facing the sea. The eastern and western façades of the building are similar. The two floors match each other and share the same façade. There are three rooms on each floor and all three rooms are connected to each other. There is a small room on the north side which might have been a pantry. There are stairwells on the northern and southern sides of the building. (Fig. 9-14)

Dayer Custom 
This building is a two-floor building facing the sea. The eastern and western façades of the building are similar. The two floors match each other and share the same façade. There are three rooms on each floor and all three rooms are connected to each other. There is a small room on the north side which might have been a pantry. There are stairwells on the northern and southern sides of the building. (Fig. 15-19)
Kangan Custom 
This building has two stories and both stories are similar and they both match each other. The balcony with its beautiful round columns has led to prominence of the building. There has been a stair well in the south part of the building that would connect the second floor to the roof. There is an office, a lobby and a kitchen on each floor. There are squares on the top of each door that were used for lighting. (Fig. 20)

Mohammad ‘Ameri Custom
The unique feature of this building is its shape and design, which was built uniformly on the entire coast of the Persian Gulf. This building is one of the buildings of the Qajar customs whose remains are left, and it was used in the early Pahlavi era. (Fig. 21) 

Lavar-e Saheli Custom 
This building is built in two floors and has an entrance that opens to the west. The two floors are built in the same shape and match each other. There has been a staircase in the south of the building that connected the upper floor and the roof. (Fig. 22) 

Bushehr Telegraph Office 
The telegraph office was initially in Jabri neighborhood and then it is moved to Haft Bangleh in Bahmani neighborhood. The marine transmission cable line extended from Haft Bangle to Karachi in India. The last telegraph and post office in that time was located in Kuti neighborhood near British Consulate behind Shahdokht school, that is ruined now. During Naser al-Din Shah era, telegraph offices were only established by the British and they were managed by British presidents and Iranian employees. 

Undeniably, architecture changes during any era according to the lifestyle of people in any country. From the middle of the Qajar era, with the change of intellectual resources and thoughts ruling the society, as well as the awareness of the progress, different needs were felt compared to the past. They saw meeting these needs and the solutions in following the Western methods. The establishment of Dār ul-Funun, sending students to Europe, hiring foreign teachers and publishing newspapers, triggered a change in social and political attitudes during the Qajar era. The atmosphere ruling the architecture of Qajar era also followed the same attitude. From the middle of Naser al-Din Shah era, the confrontation between tradition and modernity gradually led to the victory of modernity, and architecture lost its old forms and found on a western form. It seems that the frequent trips of the Qajar kings to Europe left a significant impact in the field of architecture. The kings and princes wanted to implement the western architectural design in their land. Western examples also quickly became popular among the people and all over Iran. This architecture is characterized by the protruding and columned main entrance and grand ceremonial stairs, and the rooms are built in two wings on the first and second floors. The customs buildings in Bushehr Province were built at the end of the Qajar era and the beginning of the Pahlavi era, and they were among the first buildings in Bushehr Province that appeared with a different architecture, and their design is not derived from the architecture of that period, but it is influenced by the architecture of the West, and due to extensive connections of Bushehr with other countries, the role of foreign architects has been prominent in this province. Care should be taken in order to preserve valuable buildings such as these customs building which were studied in this article, so that they are not destructed.
Article number: 7
Full-Text [PDF 2098 kb]   (136 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Interdisciplinary
Received: 2021/10/24 | Accepted: 2022/01/31 | Published: 2022/05/31

1. - استفان‌رای، گرمون، (1378). چالش برای قدرت و ثروت در جنوب ایران (1750-1850). ترجمۀ حسن زنگنه، تهران: انتشارات همسایه.
2. - اعتصام، ایرج، (1374). «بررسی تطبیقی معماری و شهرسازی معاصر ایران و اروپا». مجموعه مقالات کنگرۀ تاریخ معماری و شهرسازی ایران، جلد سوم، تهران: سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی کشور، صص: 110-89.
3. - افشارسیستانی، ایرج، (1378). پژوهشی در نام شهرهای ایران. تهران: روزنه.
4. - امیرخانی، غلامرضا، (1399). «بررسی تحولات گمرک بوشهر در سال‌های ۱۳۲۰ تا ۱۳۲۲ ه‍.ق.، بر پایۀ یادداشت‌های منتشرنشدۀ لامبرت مولیتور». پژوهش‌های علوم تاریخی، دورۀ 12، شمارۀ 4، پیاپی 24، صص: 17-1.
5. - پروندۀ ثبتی گمرک بوشهر، (1396). میراث‌فرهنگی بوشهر. شمارۀ ثبت: 31800.
6. - پروندۀ ثبتی گمرک بوالخیر، (1398). میراث‌فرهنگی بوشهر. شمارۀ ثبت: 32892.
7. - پروندۀ ثبتی گمرک دیر، (1398). میراث‌فرهنگی بوشهر. شمارۀ ثبت: 32891.
8. - حصاری، مرتضی؛ علی‌یاری، احمد؛ و ایروانی‌قدیم، فرشید، (1391). «کنکاشی بر نقش موقعیت دولت‌شهرهای فدرال ایلامی بر تجارت آبی خلیج‌فارس». در: مجموعه مقالات هشتمین همایش ملی خلیج‌فارس، به‌کوشش عباس نامجو و احمد پوراحمد، تهران: انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی، صص: 263-247.
9. - حقیقی، خلیل؛ و حاجیان‌پور، حمید، (1395). «تلگراف‌خانه‌ بوشهر و استعمار انگلستان». فصلنامۀ تاریخ روابط خارجی، دورۀ 17، شمارۀ 67. صص: 113-87.
10. - حمیدی، سیدجعفر، (1389). استان زیبای بوشهر. بوشهر: انتشارات بوشهر.
11. - حشمتی، احمدرضا؛ و دولت‌آبادی، فریبرز، (1399). «مقدمه‌ای بر شناخت معماری کاخ‌های تهران در دورۀ قاجار». مجلۀ مطالعات باستان‌شناسی پارسه، شمارۀ 14، صص: 183-167.
12. - خلیفه‌زاده، علیرضا؛ و علیصوفی، علیرضا، (1399). «بررسی علل شکل‌گیری بنادر بوشهر، دیلم و ریگ در دوره صفوی». مجلۀ مطالعات تاریخ اسلام، شمارۀ 44، صص: 64-33.
13. - دشتی، رضا، (1380). تاریخ اقتصادی-اجتماعی بوشهر در دوره قاجاریه با تکیه بر نقش تجار و تجارت. تهران: انتشارات پازینه.
14. رنجبر، احسان؛ پورجعفر، محمدرضا؛ و خلیجی، کیوان، (1389). «خلاقیت‌های طراحی اقلیمی متناسب با جریان باد در بافت قدیم بوشهر». نشریه باغ‌نظر، دورۀ 7، شمارۀ 13، صص: 34-17.
15. - زعیمی، غلام‌رضا، (1392). «ایجاد تلگراف‌خانه و کنسولگری انگلستان در بنادر و جزایر هرمزگان». نشریۀ پژوهش‌نامۀ فرهنگی هرمزگان، شمارۀ 6 و 7. صص: 113-95.
16. - زمرشیدی، حسین، (1387). طاق و قوس در معماری ایران. تهران: نشر شرکت عمران و بهسازی شهری ایران.
17. - سعادت، محمدحسین، (1375). تاریخ بوشهر. تصحیح: عبدالرسول خیراندیش و عمادالدین شیخ‌الحکمایی، تهران: میراث مکتوب.
18. - سعیدی‌نیا، حبیب‌الله، (1388). «تحولات تاریخی گمرک ایران و رونق اقتصادی در دورۀ قاجاریه». نشریۀ تاریخ ایران، دورۀ 63، شمارۀ 5، صص: 127-103.
19. - سعیدی‌نیا، حبیب‌الله، (1389). گمرک بوشهر و نقش آن در تجارت خلیج‌فارس در دورۀ قاجار.‌ تدوین: علی‌اصغر قهرمانی، بوشهر: دانشگاه خلیج‌فارس.
20. - شیرین‌کام، فریدون؛ و فرجام‌نیا، ایمان، (1396). سرگذشت پنجاه کنشگر اقتصادی ایران. تهران: فرهنگ صبا.
21. - علی‌زاده‌مقدم، بدرالسادات؛ و هاشمی‌پور، ظهراب، (1397). «بررسی نقش ارامنه در گمرک بوشهر در دورۀ قاجار براساس اسناد این دورۀ (1210 تا 1332 ه‍.ق./1795 تا 1914 م.)». پژوهش‌های تاریخی، دورۀ 54، شمارۀ 4، پیاپی 40، صص: 37-20.
22. - غلام‌زاده‌جفره، فراز، (1392). معماری بوشهر در دورۀ زند و قاجار. بوشهر: آبادیوم
23. - فتحی، محمد، (1354). سیری در قلمرو گمرک ایران از سیستان تا خوزستان.‌ تهران: انتشارات خرمی.
24. - لسترنج، گای، (1337). جغرافیای تاریخی سرزمین‌های خلافت شرقی. ترجمۀ محمود عرفان، تهران: بنگاه ترجمه و نشر کتاب.
25. - لوریمر، ر. ر.، (1379). راهنمای خلیج‌فارس، تاریخ و جغرافیای بوشهر. ترجمۀ سیدمحمدحسن نبوی، شیراز: انتشارات نوید.
26. - مارکوات، یوزف، (1383). ایرانشهر در جغرافیای بطلمیوس. ترجمۀ مریم میراحمدی، تهران: طهوری.
27. - مستوفی، عبدالله، (1371). شرح زندگانی من. تهران: زوار.
28. - مشایخی، عبدالکریم، (1386). خلیج‌فارس و بوشهر روابط سیاسی و اقتصادی ایران و اروپا.‌ تهران: انتشارات مؤسسۀ مطالعات تاریخ ایران و بنیاد ایران‌شناسی شعبۀ استان بوشهر.
29. - مولایی‌هشجین، مهسا، (1396). «بررسی تأثیر معماری نئوکلاسیک اروپا در ساختمان‌های دورۀ قاجار نمونۀ موردی شهر بوشهر». همایش ملی پژوهش‌های نوین در معماری با رویکرد تعامل انسان و محیط‌زیست، رشت.
30. - نصیری‌انصاری، محمود، (1350). سیری در معماری ایران. تهران: هنرسرای عالی.
31. - یزدانی، افشین، (1398). «جغرافیای تاریخی جزایر: هرمز، قشم، هنگام، تنب بزرگ، فارو، کیش، هندورابی، و لاون در خلیج‌فارس براساس سفرنامه نئارخوس». در: مجموعه مقالات میراث‌فرهنگی خلیج فارس، گردآورنده مرتضی حصاری، تهران: پژوهشگاه میراث‌فرهنگی و گردشگری؛ معاونت میراث‌فرهنگی، صص: 70-51.
32. - یزدانی، افشین؛ و فیروزمندی شیره‌جین، بهمن، (1395). «تموکن، تئوکه و تخمکه، نام‌هایی برای بندرگاهی هخامنشی بر کرانۀ شمالی خلیج‌فارس؛ فرصت‌ها و چالش‌های همخوانی مدارک نوشتاری و باستان‌شناسی». مجلۀ مطالعات باستان‌شناسی، دورۀ 8، شمارۀ 11، صص: 223-205.
34. - Afshar Sistani. I., (1999). Research in the name of Iranian cities. Tehran, Rozane.
35. - Alizadeh Moghadam, B. & Hashemipoor, Z., (2019). “Studying of the Role of Armenians in Boushehr Customs during the Qajar period based on the Documents of that Period (1210-1332 AH/1795-1914AD)”. Journal of Historical Research, Vol. 40. Pp: 19-37.
36. - Amirkhani, G., (2021). “A Survey of Bushehr Customs and Its changes (1902 – 1904), Based on Unpublished Notes by Lambert Molitor”. Historical Science Studies. Vol. 24, Pp: 1-17.
37. - Customs registration file of Deir, (2019). Bushehr Cultural Heritage. Registration Number: 32891.
38. - Customs registration file, Bualkhair, (2019). Bushehr Cultural Heritage. Registration Number: 32892.
39. - Customs registration file, Bushehr, (2017). Bushehr Cultural Heritage. Registration Number: 31800.
40. - Dashti, R., (2001). Socio-economic history of Bushehr in the Qajar period based on the role of traders and trade. Pazine, Tehran.
41. - Etesam, I., (1995). “Comparative study of architecture and contemporary urban planning of Iran and Europe”. Proceedings of the Congress of History of Architecture and Urban Planning of Iran, Vol 3, Mcth, Pp: 89-110
42. - Fathi, M., (1975). A tour of the Iranian customs territory from Sistan to Khuzestan. Tehran: Khorami Publications.
43. - Gholamzade Jafre, F., (2013). Bushehr architecture in Zand and Qajar period. Bushehr: Abadium
44. - Grummon, S. R., (1985). The Rise and Fall of The Arab Shaykhdom of Bushire: 1750-1850 (Iran, Persian Gulf). The Johns Hopkins University Publishing.
45. - Haghighi, K. & Hajianpour, H., (2016). “Bushehr Telegraph House and British Colonization”. Foreign Relations History Quarterly, Vol. 67, Pp: 87-113.
46. - Hamidi, S. J., (2010). The beautiful province of Bushehr. Bushehr.
47. - Heshmati, A. R. & Dolatabadi, F., (2021). “An Introduction To Understanding the Architecture of Tehran Palaces in the Qajar Period”. Pareseh Journal of Archaeological Studies, No. 14, Pp: 167-183.
48. - Hessari, M.; Irvani Ghadim, F. & Aliyari, A., (2012). “Research into the role of the position of the Elamite federal city-states on the water trade of the Persian Gulf”. In: 8th Proceedings of the Persian Gulf National Conference, Namjoo And Pourahmad (eds). Jahad Daneshghahi, Pp: 247-263.
49. - Khalifezade, A. & Alisoufi, A., (2020). “Investigating Causes of Emergence of Bushehr, Deylam and Rig Ports during Safavid Period”. Quarterly Journal of Historical Studies of Islam, Vol. 44, Pp: 33-64.
50. - Le-Strange, G., (1958). The lands of the eastern caliphate.
51. - Lorimer, J, G., (1915). Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Oman, and Central Arabi. Calcutta.
52. - Markwart, J., (1901). Ērānšahr nach der Geographie des Ps. Moses Xorenac‘i. Mit historisch-kritischem Kommentar und historischen und topographischen Excursen. Gessellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen
53. - Mashyekhi, A., (1987). Persian Gulf and Bushehr Political and economic relations between Iran and Europe. Institute of Iranian History Studies and Iranology Foundation, Bushehr Branch.
54. - Molaei Hashjin, M., (2017). “Study of the Impact of European Neoclassical Architecture on Qajar Period Buildings in the Case Study of Bushehr”. National Conference on New Research in Architecture with the Interaction of Man and Environment, Rasht.
55. - Mostofi, A., (1992). My biography. Tehran: Zavar.
56. - Nasiri Ansari, M., (1971). A tour of Iranian architecture. Tehran: Excellent Art Gallery.
57. - Parsaee, M.; Parva, M. & Karimi, B., (2015). “Space and Place Concepts Analysis based on Semiology Approach in Residential Architecture, the Case Study of Traditional City of Bushehr, Iran”. Housing and Building National Research Center, HBRC Journal N. 11, Pp: 368-383.
58. - Pezzard, M., (1914). Mission a Bender Bouchir. Paris: Geuthner.
59. - Ranjbar, E.; Pourjafar, M. & Khaliji, K., (2010). “Innovations In Climatic Designing Due to The Wind Flowing Through The Old Bushehr”. Bagh-e Nazar, Vol. 13, Pp: 17-34.
60. - Saadat, M. H., (1996). History of Bushehr, edited by Abdul Rasool Khairandish and Emad al-Din Sheikh al-Hakmaei. Miras-e Maktoob, Tehran.
61. - Saidinia, H., (2010). “The Evolution of Iran’s Customs in Relation to Its Economic Development in the Qajar Era”. Journal of Iran History, Vol. 5, Pp: 103-128.
62. - Saidinia, H., (2011). Bushehr Customs and its role in Persian Gulf trade in the Qajar period. Bushehr.
63. - Sedaqat, F. & Akbarzadeh, M., (2016). “The Principles and Platform of Climatic Design of the Bushehr Architecture”. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, No. 5(2). Pp: 66-75.
64. - Steinkeller, P., (1982). “The question of Marhasi: a contribution to the historical geography of Iran in the third millennium B.C.”. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, Vol. 72, Issue: 2, Pp: 237-265.
65. - Shirinkam, F. & Farjamnia, I ., (2017). The story of fifty economic activists in Iran. Saba, Tehran.
66. - Yazdani, A. & Firouzmandi Shirehjin, B., (2016) “Tam(uk)ka(n), Taoke, Tah(u)makah & Tahukka; the Names for an Achaemenid Port on the Northern Coast of the Persian Gulf; A Challenges for Conformity between Textual and Archaeological Documents”. Journal of Archaeological Studies, Vol. 13, Pp: 205-223.
67. - Yazdani, A., (2020). “Historical geography of the islands: Hormoz, Qeshm, Hengam, Tonb Bozorg, Faro, Kish, Hindurabi, and Lavan in the Persian Gulf based on the travelogue of Nearchus”. The Cultural Heritage of the Persian Gulf, Hessari, M., (Ed). ICHT. Pp: 51-70.
68. - Zaiemi, G., (2013). “The Establishment of English Telegraph Office and Consulate in Hormozgan’s Ports and Islands”. Journal of Hormozghan Cultural Research Review. Vol. 6 & 7, Pp: 127-149.
69. - Zamarshidi, H., (2008). Arch and arch in Iranian architecture. Mrud. Tehran.

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.