[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(3): 113-132 Back to browse issues page
The Comparative Study of Lusterware Style of Kashan and Raqqa
Nasrin Beyk Mohammadi 1, Seyd Hashem Hosseyni2, Sepideh Moradi Mohtasham3
1- Ph.D. Candidate, Archeology, Isfahan University of Art , beigmohammadi_nasrin@yahoo.com
2- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Neyshabur
3- M.A. Candidate, Archeology, University of BU-Ali Sina
Abstract:   (9374 Views)
Abstract
In the 5th and 7th centuries A.H., was created great transformation in all arts, industry, and sciences (including pottery art). Seljuk potteries, were restored the glaze technique, so can be attributed lusterware style to them. Kashan at the beginning of the seventh century A.H. was one of the major centers of pottery and for several decades produced wares that they had fine technique. Almost contemporary with Iran, Raqqa in Syria under rule of Ayyubid, was became one of the major centers for the production of pottery and artwork. The traces of Raqqa and Kashan are so similar, so that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish them. The purpose of this article, identify similarities and differences is between two styles of pottery of Kashan and Raqqa, and eventually, identify of interaction is between these two styles. In this regard, in this study, we have tried to answer the following questions: What are the similarities and differences between these two styles of pottery? Which of these two styles of pottery is older? The research method in this article is based on method of descriptive – analytical, and from library resources has been used to explain the subject. By reviewing the traces of lusterware style of Kashan and Raqqa can achieve some kind of fusion style that is influenced by the art of pottery of Iran. So, pottery style of Kashan has been older and potters of Kashan have been able to many of techniques and decorative art themselves transferred to Raqqa.
Keywords: Seljuk, Ayyubid, Lusterware, style of Kashan, style of Raqqa.

Introduction
In Seljuk period (fifth and sixth century A.H.) significant progress in all arts, especially pottery art was happened. In this period, all known pottery techniques were used: engraving, relief-work, latticework, gilding, and enameling. The traces with decoration of luster glaze are one of the innovations of this era. The attractiveness this type of glaze, was creation of golden and metallic polished in potteries without use of the gold. The Ayyubid period in Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean, not only in the field of conquest and war, but also from the point of culturally was effective. They created new styles in the arts, but their rule was short. The Ayyubid pottery is known more with Raqqa pottery. By studying the traces of pottery this period, we could be identified combination style that has been under the influence of pottery art of Iran and Egypt. Almost contemporary with Iran, Raqqa in Syria under rule of Ayyubid, was became one of the major centers for the production of pottery and artwork. The traces of Raqqa and Kashan are so similar, so that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish them. In this study, we have tried to answer the following questions: What are the similarities and differences between these two styles of pottery? Which of these two styles of pottery is older? The research method in this article is based on method of descriptive – analytical, and from library resources has been used to explain the subject.

Research findings
Kashan at the beginning of thirteenth century A.D. was one of the major centers of pottery. This city for several decades has produced crocks of very delicate. In Kashan was produced group of slip-painted ware that including are types of bowls, trays, and decanters. Second group from Kashan pottery is lusterware that including: bowls, trays, decanters, vases, jars, and wall tiles. On the tiles of Iran in Seljuk period has been used different decorations such as human and animal and foliage, and effect of painting art and book designing can be seen in all of them. In lusterware style of Kashan less than blue color has been used in glaze. All portions of pottery are decorated with painting of women’s pictures, girls, arabesque motifs, and Farsi and Arabic inscriptions. Generally, the pottery of Kashan in Seljuk period can be classified in the following types: bowl, dish, drinking bowls such as jar, decanter, ewer, and also types of dishes with human and animal forms, and Star-shaped tiles.
Raqqa in Seljuk period was only center outside of Iran that created significant amount from pottery and art tiles that in terms of technique were distinctive. In Raqqa has been made pottery with relief decoration (Barbotin), unglazed, muddy relief decoration, and with green and blue glazes. relief decoration, with green and blue glazes. Another technique, painting with Azure and Cyan colors on glazed liners. These crockeries were decorated with lusterware technique. The decorations of Raqqa pottery are divided into two main groups: first group, main designs that are usually human or animal; and second group, decorative motifs that have done in the background. Raqqa pottery is classified into the following types: bowl, dish, jar, and decanter. 

Conclusion
In the Seljuk period beautiful products of Kashan pottery have been exported to throughout the Islamic world and this has led to the expansion of Kashan pottery. On the other hand, pottery of Raqqa style (that as an inseparable art of the Ayyubid period that was formed in the city of Raqqa and on the Euphrates coast) was similar with pottery style of Seljuk period. The traces of Raqqa and Kashan are so similar, so that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish them. However, the construction of lusterware before the Iran in Egypt and Iraq has been common and arrived in Iran through Iraq, but peak of the production of this pottery has been in Seljuk period and in Iran. According to this, the possibility of the migration of Kashan artists to the Raqqa or neighboring countries could be true.
Keywords: Seljuk, Ayyubid, Lusterware, style of Kashan, style of Raqqa.
Full-Text [PDF 1315 kb]   (2784 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/07/23 | Accepted: 2018/07/23 | Published: 2018/07/23
References
1. - اتینگهاوزن، ریچارد و گرابر، الگ (1387). هنر و معماری اسلامی1. ترجمۀ دکتر یعقوب آژند، تهران: انتشارات سمت.
2. - اکبری، تیمور (1392). «تحلیل باستان‌شناختی از سفال‌های زرین‌فام کاشان». همایش ملی باستان‌شناسی ایران، دستاوردها، فرصت‌ها و آسیب‌ها، دانشگاه هنر بیرجند.
3. - البهنسی، عفیف (1378). هنر اسلامی. ترجمۀ محمود پور‌آقاسی، تهران: انتشارات سورۀ مهر.
4. - اوزون‌چارشی‌لی، اسماعیل‌حقی (١٣٦٨). تاریخ عثمانی. جلد اول، از تشکیل دولت عثمانی تافتح استانبول. ترجمۀ ایرج نوبخت، تهران: نشر کیهان.
5. - بویل، جی. آ (1390). تاریخ ایران کمبریج. جلد ٥. ترجمۀ حسن انوشه، تهران: انتشارات امیرکبیر.
6. - پوپ، آرتور اپهام (1389). شاهکارهای هنر ایران. ترجمۀ پرویز ناتل‌خانلری، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
7. - خلیلی، ناصر و گروبه، ارنست (۱۳۸۴). سفال اسلامی. جلد 7. ترجمۀ فرناز حائری، تهران: انتشارات کارنگ.
8. - دانشمند، شهلا (1367). «بررسی نقوش دورۀ سلجوقی». پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارتباط‌تصویری. دانشگاه تهران.
9. - رایس، دیوید تالبوت (1386). هنر اسلامی. ترجمۀ ماه‌ملک بهار، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
10. - رفیعی، لیلی (1378). سفال ایران از دوران پیش‌از‌تاریخ تا عصر‌حاضر. تهران: انتشارات یساولی.
11. - سعادت‌میرقدیم، سیده‎نرگس و چیت‌سازیان، امیرحسین (1392). «تعامل شعر با تکنیک‎های ساخت سفالینه‌های دورۀ اسلامی کاشان». پژوهش‌نامه کاشان، شمارۀ 10. صص: 145-122.
12. - عرب‌بیگی، ابولفضل و اکبری، عباس (1395). «منشأ نقوش کاشی‌های کاخ قباد‌آباد ترکیه با نگاهی تطبیقی به آثار ایران و سوریه». فصلنامۀ نگره، شمارۀ 39. صص: 59-46.
13. - قاسمی، مریم، براتی، بهاره و زارعی، احسان (1394). «انواع آرایه‌های تزئینی در سفال‌های ایوبیان، مطالعۀ موردی: سفال‌های رقه موجود در موزۀ متروپلیتن». دو فصلنامۀ سفالینه، شماره 3. صص: 50-39.
14. - کامبخش‌فرد، سیف‌الله (1379). سفال و سفالگری در ایران از نوسنگی تا دوران معاصر، تهران: نشر ققنوس.
15. - گروبه، ارنست (1384). سفال اسلامی. ترجمۀ فرناز حائری، تهران: انتشارات کارنگ.
16. - نیکخواه، هانیه و شیخ‌مهدی، علی (1389). «رهیافتی به سیاست‌های فرهنگی ایلخانان در سدۀ سیزدهم/ هفتم در واکاوی نقوش سفال‌های زرین‌فام ایران». دو فصلنامه مطالعات هنر اسلامی، پاییز و زمستان 1389. شمارۀ سیزدهم. صص: 129-109.
17. - واتسون، الیور (1382). سفال زرین‌فام ایران. ترجمۀ شکوه ذاکری، تهران: نشر سروش.
19. - Akbari, T. (2013). “Archaeological Analysis from Lusterware of Kashan”, National archaeological conference of Iran, achievements, opportunities, and injuries, Iran, Birjand: Art University.
20. - Albehensi, A. (1999). Islamic Art, Translate by Mahmood Por Aghasi, Tehran: Press of Soreh Mehr.
21. - Arab Beygi, A. & Akbari, A. (2016). “The origin of the motifs on Kubad Abad Palace’s tiles in Turkey with a comparative study of Iranian and Syrian works”, Negereh Journal, Vol. 11, No. 39, P.P. 46-59.
22. - Bloom, J. (1975). Reqqa Ceramics of the freer Gallery of Art, Washington D.C, Michigan: Ann Arbor University of Michigan.
23. - Boil, G. A. (2011). The Cambridge History of Iran, Translate by: Hasan Anosheh, Tehran: Press of Amir Kabir.
24. - Charshili, O. & Hagi, E. (1990). Ottoman History, Translate by: Iraj Nobakht, Tehran: Keyhan press.
25. - Chatfield Pier, G. (1909). Pottery of the Near East, G. P. Putnams Sons, New York and London, The Knickerbocker press.
26. - Daneshmand, S. (1989). “A Survey of Motifs of Seljuk Period”, M.A. Thesis, Tehran: Tehran University.
27. - Dimand, M. S. (1957). The Horace Havemayer Bequest of Iaslam Art, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin.
28. - Ettinghausen, R. & Grabar, O. (2008). The Art and Architectur of Islam (1), Translate by: Yaghoob Azhand, Tehran: Samt press.
29. - Gasemi, M. & Barati, B. & Zarei, E. (2015). “A variety of decorative artifacts in Ayyubid Pottery, Case Study: Raqqa Pottery in the Metropolitan Museum”, Sofalineh Journal, No. 3, P.P. 39-50.
30. - Grube, E. J. (1963). “Reqqa ceramics in der samlung des s (Metropolitan Museum in New York”, Journal of Kunst des Orient, Vol. 4, P.P. 43-78.
31. - Grube, E. J. (1995). Cobalt and Lustre the First Centuries of Islamic Pottery. London: Published by Oxford.
32. - Kambakh Fard, S. (2000). Pottery and Pottery-Making in Iran from Neolithic to Contemporary Period, Tehran: Gognos press.
33. - Khalili, N. & Grobe, E. (2005). Islamic Pottery, Translate by: Farnaz Heri, Tehran: Karang press.
34. - Madina, M. J. (2006). Raqqa Revisited Ceramics of Ayyubid Syria, The metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Yale University Press.
35. - Mason, R. B. (1995). “New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World”, Muqarnas, Vol. 12, P.P. 1-10.
36. - Nik Khah, H. & Khazai, M. & Hatam, G. A. & Nistani, J. (2011). “Reflection of Configuration of two Social Phenomena on luster Ceramics in Seljuk Era (The Appearance of Middle Class and Popular Art)”, Journal of Pejuhesh Nameh Anjoman-e Iraniye Tarikh, Vol. 3, No. 9, P.P. 107-125.
37. - Nik Khah, H. & Sheikh Mahdi, A. (2010). “The Study of Cultural Policies Illkhanids in the Thirteenth Century in survey Motifs of Lusterware of Iran”, Journal of Islamic Art Studies, No.13, P.P. 109-129.
38. - Pope, A. O. (2010). Mesterpieces of Persian Art, Translate by: Parviz Natel Khanlari, Tehran: Press of Scientific and Cultural.
39. - Poulsen, V. (1957). Hama: Les verreries et poteries médiévales, Copenhague: Nationalmuseet.
40. - Rafii, L. (1999). The Pottery of Iran from Prehistoric Era to Contemporary Period, Tehran: Yasaveli press.
41. - Rice, D. T. (2007). Islamic Art, Translate by: Mah Malek Bahar, Tehran: Press of Scientific and Cultural.
42. - Saadat Mirghadim, S. N. & Chit Sazyan, A. H. (2013). “The Connection between Poetry and Kāshān’s Art of Pottery in Islamic Period”, Journal of Kashan Shenakht, No. 10, P.P. 122-145.
43. - Tabbaa, Y. (1987). “Bronze Shapes in Iranian Ceramics of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries”, Archnet Journal, Vol. 4. P.P. 98-113.
44. - Watson, O. (1975). “Persian Lustre ware from the 14th to the 19th Centuries”, LeMonde Iranien et L’Islam, Paris, Vol: 3, P. 46.
45. - Watson, O. (2003). Persian Luster ware, Translate by: Shokoh Zakeri, Tehran: Sorosh press.
46. - www.ashmolean.org
47. - www.britishmuseum.org
48. - www.brooklynmuseum.org
49. - www.ceramopolis.com
50. - www.chiristies.com
51. - www.collections.lacma.org
52. - www.fotografia.islamoriente.com
53. - www.freersackler.si.edu
54. - www.harvardartmuseums.org
55. - www.honolulumuseum.org
56. - www.imj.org.i
57. - www.metmuseum.org
58. - www.mfah.org
59. - www.sothebys.com
60. - www.vam.ac.uk/museum/art-design
61. - www.wikimedia.com
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Beyk Mohammadi N, Hosseyni S H, Moradi Mohtasham S. The Comparative Study of Lusterware Style of Kashan and Raqqa. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (3) :113-132
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-62-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.2 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4402