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:: year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(3): 101-112 Back to browse issues page
Analysis and Typology of Fortresses Bafran City (Nain)
Shahriar Nasekhan 1, Mehdi Soltani2, Mahmoud Setayesh Mehr
1- Assistance Professor, Department of Restoration and Conservation, Isfahan University of Art , s.nasekhian@aui.ac.ir
2- M.A. Graduated, Historic Buildings Conservation and Restoration, University of Shahid Beheshti
Abstract:   (5961 Views)
Abstract
The security has always been of the main human concerns. So, the human has always been looking for founding ways to reduce the effects of threatening factors himself. Since the country of Iran in the past have been exposed to a variety of military attacks by different nations and neighboring tribes, issue of defense in architecture and urbanization of Iran a lot of effect, that fortress, fence, tower, ditch, and… has been for this work. The fortresses have been military or civilian fortification that with using natural geographic features, and for maintain security, generally built in the mountains. Bafran is one of the historic cities of the Nain that located alongside ancient way Ray to Kerman. The fortresses as the most important representation of the defense system in past, were have a lot of variety. A number of these fortresses have been located outside the residential area and alongside the farms. The fortresses under study in this research is contains of Ghale Rig, Ghale Razi, Ghale Ali Abad, Ghale Sori, Ghale Hoseyn Abad, Ghale Yekeh Derakht, and Ghale Rostam. In this research has been used from the method of descriptive - analytical and interview with informed people in area. Because these fortresses haven’t been mention in historical written sources (history books, travelogues, and …), authors of this article have emphasized on field studies and observations. The results this research, indicates that fortresses of Bafran are includes three species: the fortresses of temporary residence in times of insecurity, fortresses surrounding the village, and fortresses of rulers. Among the fortresses under study in this research, Ghale Rostam, because of location and for physical and architectural features it, in the past defense system of Bafran has been role a more important.
Keywords: Defense Architecture, Typology, Fortresses in Plane, Bafran, Nain.

Introduction
Fortress has been a building that located on top of a mountain or a high place, and people at all times of the day reside in it. About abundant clayey fortress in the Iran plateau hasn’t been done much research; so, dating these fortresses aren’t easy, because each fortress has been used for several periods. The surveys have been shown about these fortresses, most of them are related to Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanid periods that have been used in the subsequent periods of Islamic era and even until now. These buildings have made for a variety of purposes; the smallest fortresses have been used for checkpoint or military post and the biggest them used for fortresses of military and defense and caravans (Siroux, 1979: 54). Based on available evidence, building of the fortress was common until the late Qajar period. After that, with the invention of advanced military weapons as: bomber, rocket, and …, the military fortresses were lost their significance. In Bafran city are number of fortresses that each fortress has own characteristics. So far no research has been done on these castles. In this research, Ghale Rostam maps were drawn by authors that these plans for first time are done from this fortress. The main questions of this research include the following: Which are the Bafran fortresses؟ How can categorize them? What are the architectural features of Ghale Rostam? And, why is Ghale Rostam more important than other fortresses in Bafran? 

Bafran fortresses
Ghale Rostam
This fortress is located in adjacent to Ghadamgah Imam Reza and on top of a hill and at a height of 25 meters from the earth’s surface. The plane of this fortress is rectangular and has a length of 48 meters and 20 centimeters and a width of 12 meters and 47 centimeters. Ghale Rostam with an interior space of 500 square meters, the fortress has been strong.

Ghale Sori, Ghale Razi, Ghale Rig, and Ghale Ali Abad
At the moment, Ghale Sori and Ghale Rig have been completely destroyed, and doesn’t exist possibility to study and field survey of these fortresses. From the Ghale Razi and Ghale Ali Abad are few remnants them.

Ghale Hoseyn Abad
This fortress is located in Hoseyn Abad field and outside the residential area, and in the northwest of Bafran city. Ghale Hoseyn Abad is to form of square and with four rounded towers in four corners.

Ghale Yeke Derakht
This fortress is located in Yeke Derakht field. Now, from Ghale Yeke Derakht is remain two north and northwest towers, and the rest of this building is demolished due to the passing of time and erosion. 

Conclusion
The Baferan fortresses to three types are divisible based on location and their function. Ghale Rostam has been the fortress of insecurity times, because this fortress is located on top of a hill and at a height of 25 meters from the earth’s surface. The Ghale Sori, Ghale Razi, Ghale Rig, and Ghale Ali Abad are located in around the village, and they have been expletory of protection of the village. The Ghale Hosein Abad and Ghale Yeke Derakht have been fortresses of rulers. These fortresses have been a form of square, and with thick and high walls, and with towers in four corners. Various residential and service spaces as rooms, warehouses, stables, and… in around of yard are considered from architectural features of these fortresses.
Keywords: Defense Architecture, Typology, Fortresses in Plane, Bafran, Nain.
Full-Text [PDF 871 kb]   (927 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/07/23 | Accepted: 2018/07/23 | Published: 2018/07/23
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Nasekhan S, Soltani M, Setayesh Mehr M. Analysis and Typology of Fortresses Bafran City (Nain). Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (3) :101-112
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