[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(3): 53-66 Back to browse issues page
A Review of Gender and Estimate of Age the Human Skeleton (Case Study: The Human Skeleton of Korijan of Kabudarahang in Hegmataneh Museum)
Esmail Rahmani 1, Ebrahim Nasiri2, Younes Abolgasemi3
1- M.A. in Archeology, Administration of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Hamedan province , asi.evaki@gmail.com
2- Professor, Department of Anatomy, Bu-Ali Sina University
3- Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Bu-Ali Sina University
Abstract:   (4200 Views)
Abstract
Study of human skeletons are gives researchers very valuable information about ancient people (especially, skeletons that in archeological excavations are obtained). In studies of osteology are considered different aspects of bone morphology after classification and typology. In this type of study, quickly gender determination and estimate of skeletons age is done from the appearance of bones without performing complex experiments in the lab. In the male and female skeletons are clear differences. These differences are based on standard indicators. The human skeletons of Korijan from a historical site was obtained, that after the recovering actions and maintaining the physical structure it in the first situation, necessity of studies of gender determination and estimate of skeleton age was considered. In the first view, maybe questions about gender determination and estimate of skeleton are looked completely clear or very complex. The review this point that human skeleton of Korijan have been related to men or women, or this skeleton is in the age of the elderly or adult; proof or refutation of these hypotheses was needed to use scientific approaches and use of measurable and experimental variables. The sciences of biology, physical anthropology, and osteology are close relationship with each other, and these sciences through this relationship are help great help to answer these questions and hypotheses. In this research, has been used from the combination of the species classification method (typology) and branch classification (that this method more is used biological studies and osteology). In these methods, skeletal data has been evaluated in equal of indices and variables in category of similar species. Use of the library resources, is another part of studies of this research.
Keywords: Gender, Age, Human Skeleton of Korijan, Hegmataneh Museum.

Introduction
After the discovery of ancient grave in Korijan, in the first step, was done identification of bones and tissue fixation them, and the skeleton was moved to the Hegmataneh Museum with scientific methods. After restoration of the skeleton, was done gender determination and estimate of skeletons age. Many archaeologists are refitting the social structure of ancient societies based on traces from the excavation of ancient sites and cemeteries are obtained. In this research, based on bio data with species classification method (typology) has been studied apparent differences of male and female skeletons. The male and female skeletons are a lot of obvious and hidden features that can be categorized. These features are different with each other; and experts from these different features are used to classify human skeletons. Main research questions: What features should be used in the classification of the skeleton under study? And, how should these features assessed? In relation to estimate of skeleton age, in addition to use the species classification method (typology) and branch classification, also evaluation pattern of the skeleton age has been consideration. The purpose of this research, provide of the standard criteria for gender determination and estimate of skeletons age is done from the appearance of bones without performing complex experiments in the lab. In this research, has been used from the combination of the species classification method (typology) and branch classification (that this method more is used biological studies and osteology). In these methods, skeletal data has been evaluated in equal of indices and variables in category of similar species. Use of the library resources, is another part of studies of this research.

Research findings
During the trenching for limitation of Korijan Tepe in South of Kabudarahang in 2002 year was obtained the human skeleton of Korijan, and for further studies to Hegmataneh Museum was moved. The male and female skeletons are a lot of obvious and hidden features that can be categorized. For this purpose, pelvis bones are most important part. The importance of pelvis bone is for distinguish of gender, and this Because of the difference in performance it between men and women. In general, the female pelvis is wider than the male pelvis. Thin pelvis is more suitable for movement. In addition to the pelvic bone, skull bones and then bones of hip, arm, collarbone, shoulder, and wishbone for distinguish of gender are important. Size and general strength of other skeletal areas as a sub-index are noteworthy. 
Furthermore, by reviewing the skeleton, we can be estimate of skeletons age. The various methods that are use usually for estimate of age in the time of death in adult skeletons, as follows: Closure of the skull sutures, shape of ends of the ribs, shape of the articular surfaces, shape of the symphysis pubis, and checking the condition and covering of the teeth. In general, the age of human is determined: to 2 years from the milk tooth, from 2 to 6 years old from bone points, from 6 to 12 years old through permanent teeth, from the age of 12 to 25 from the junction of epiphysis to diaphysis, and from the age of 30 from the skull sutures and condition of the teeth.

Conclusion
Although, today is genetic laboratory methods for recognize the men and women skeletons, but these methods are expensive and time consuming. Adaptive method and typology used in osteology of Korijan skeleton and with knowledge of male and female skeletal differences, the most appropriate approach is to achieve the desired information. Ancient grave of Korijan was includes a squatting burial. In this research, that has been done based on osteology studies, gender of skeleton was detected woman, and its approximate age based on the skull and lower jaw, was adult human.
Keywords: Gender, Age, Human Skeleton of Korijan, Hegmataneh Museum.
Full-Text [PDF 1095 kb]   (4554 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/07/23 | Accepted: 2018/07/23 | Published: 2018/07/23
References
1. - ایوکی، اسماعیل (1383). «گزارش مرمتی اشیاء سفالی و اسکلت انسانی کوریجان». اداره‌ کل میراث‌فرهنگی استان همدان (منتشرنشده).
2. - رمضانی، مریم. اکبری، محمدتقی. منتظرالمهدی، مصطفی. زارع، شهره. نیکنامی، مهدی و لسانی، نغمه (1396). «تعیین توالی DNA میتوکندری (mnDNA) بقایای اسکلتی دورۀ ایلام میانه محوطۀ باستانی هفت‌تپه». مطالعات باستان‌شناسی. سال 9. شمارۀ 2. پاییز و زمستان، صص: 86-73.
3. - شیخ‌شعاعی، فهیمه و نیکنامی، کمال‌الدین (1395). «چرایی و چگونگی تعیین تفاوت‌های جنسیتی در رژیم غذایی باستانی با استفاده از آنالیزهای ایزوتوپی». مطالعات باستان‌شناسی. سال 8. شمارۀ 1. بهار و تابستان، صص: 89-77.
4. - قمری‌فتیده، محمد (1392). «باستان‌شناسی مولکولی (ژنتیک‌باستان‌شناسی) و لزوم استفاده از روش‌ها و رویکردهای آن در ایران». همایش ملی باستان‌شناسی ایران؛ دستاورد ها، فرصت‌ها و آسیب‌ها. دانشکدۀ هنر، دانشگاه بیرجند.
5. - مایز، سایمون (1381). باستان‌شناسی استخوان‌های انسان. ترجمۀ مازیار اشرافیان‌بناب، تهران: پژوهشکدۀ باستان‌شناسی سازمان میراث‌فرهنگی کشور (پژوهشگاه).
6. - ناس، سریندار (1368). مقدمه‌ای بر مردم‌شناسی پزشکی حقوقی. ترجمۀ علیرضا قبادی، راضیه زرین‌فرد و مهناز شریفیان، تهران: نشر کارآگاه، پژوهشکدۀ مردم‌شناسی و پژوهشگاه سازمان‌ میراث‌فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری.
8. - Eyvaki, E. (2004). “Report of Restoration of Terra Cotta and Human Skeleton Korijan”, archive administration of cultural heritage in Hamedan Province (unpublished).
9. - Gamari Ftideh, M. (2013). “Molecular archeology and The Necessity of Using Its Methods and Approaches in Iran”, The 3rd National Conference on Archaeology of Iran, Iran: Art University of Birjand.
10. - Hager, L. (1996). “Sex Differences in The Sciatic Notch of Great Apes and Modern Humans”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. No. 99(2). P.P. 287-300.
11. - Iscan, M. Y. & Loth, S. R. & Wright, R. K. (1984). “Metamorphosis at The Sternal Rib End: A New Method to Estimate Age at Death in White Males”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, No. 65, P.P.147-156.
12. - Lovejoy, C. O. & Meindle, R. S. & Pryzbeck, T. R. & Mensforth, R. P. (1985). “Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: A new method of determining adult age at death”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. No. 68, P.P. 15-28.
13. - Masset, C. (1989). “Age Estimation on The Basis of Cranial Sutures”, In Iscan (Eds) Age markers in the human skeleton, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, P.P. 71-103.
14. - Mays, S. (1998). The Archaeology of Human Bones, London: Routledge.
15. - Mays, S. (2002). The Archaeology of Human Bones, Translate by Maziar Ashrafiyan Bonab, Tehran: Press of Iranian Center for Archaeological Research.
16. - Meindl, R. S. & Lovejoy, C. O. & Mensforth, R. P. & Carlos, L. D. (1985). “Accuracy and Direction of Error in The Sexing of the Skeleton”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, No. 68 (1), P.P. 79-85.
17. - Molleson, T. & Cox, M. (1993). The spitalfields project Volum2: The anthropology, CBA Research report 86, Council for British Archaeology, New York.
18. - Nass, S. (1989). An Introduction to Forensic Anthropology, Translate by Alireza Gobadi, Tehran: Karagah press.
19. - Phenice, T. W. (1969). “A Newly Developed Visual Method of Sexing The os Pubis”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, No. 30 (2), P.P. 297-301.
20. - Ramezani, M. & Akbari, M. T. & Montazr Almahdi, M. & Zare, S. & Niknami, M. & Lesani, N. (2017). “Sequencing Mitochondrial DNA of Middle Elamite Skeletal Remains from HAFT TEPE”, Journal of Archeaological Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, P.P. 73-86.
21. - Renfrew, C. & Bahn, P. (2012). Archaeology, Theories, Methods and Practice, London: Thames and Hudson.
22. - Richards, L. C. & Miller, S. L. J. (1991). “Relationships between age and dental attrition in Australian aboriginals”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, No. 84 (2), P.P. 159-164.
23. - Sheikhshoaee, F. & Niknami, K. A. (2016). “Stable Isotope Analysis to Determining Gender Differences in Ancient Dietary Systems”, Journal of Archaeological Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, P.P. 77-89.
24. - Tague, R. G. (1995). “Variation in Pelvic Size Between Males and Females in Nonhuman Anthropoids”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. No. 97 (3), P.P. 213-233.
25. - Todd, T. W. (1920). “Age Changes in The Pubic Bone. I. The Male white pubis”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology. No. 3 (3), P.P. 285-334.
26. - Warwik, W. & Bannister, D. (1995). Gray`s Anatomy, 38th edition, London: Churchill Livingstone.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rahmani E, Nasiri E, Abolgasemi Y. A Review of Gender and Estimate of Age the Human Skeleton (Case Study: The Human Skeleton of Korijan of Kabudarahang in Hegmataneh Museum). Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (3) :53-66
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-58-en.html


year 2, Issue 3 (5-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.17 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4286