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:: year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2020, 4(13): 7-25 Back to browse issues page
Environmental Varible Role in the Formation of Bakun Sits of the High Zagros (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province)
Khosrow Ahmadi-Khoei1, Morteza Hessari 2, Alireza Khosrowzadeh3
1- Ph.D. Candidate in Archeology, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Conservation and Restoration, Isfahan University of Arts, Isfahan, Iran
2- Associate Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Conservation and Restoration, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran , mhessari@yahoo.de
3- Associate Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
Abstract:   (395 Views)
Abstract
In The studying of the settlement layout of an area, the environment and its contexts landscape is considered. most attention is toward to natural Geography and humans relations to locations and living in geographical region. The archaeological and geographical data, is used to analysis of settlement patterns of Bacun communities in the high Zagros. So, the main research questions is to: What factors impacted on the Location Patterns of the High zagros′s Bacun Sites? How is impacts of this Factors on the site numbers? There For, By considering of applicable nature of the subjects and the research mettods. The authors by plaing of theoretical  fram includs of theoretical basis and site visit, will be to study of survey and Excavation evidences. In total the bacon site numbers are 106 in this region. The main factors such as ASL-(altitude of sea level). Site distance to roads and waters water sources, accessibility to agriculture lands vegetation Types, Slope and its directions is considered as independent, and, Bacun site areas as Dependent variable. the relationship of variables are 1 to -1 in the correlation coefficient. the high correlation is showed by closeness to +1, and lowe correlation indicated by closeness to. If the correlation is -1, so the result is convers. The results shows that the variables such as site distance to roads, water supply and land use taype is more important than other variables in the formation of Bacun Sites. 
Keywords: Settlement Pattern, Bacun Period, High Zagros Region, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari.

Introduction
Always, the choice of settlementlocations depend to a large extent on environmental characteristics. In studying the arrangement of settlements in an area, the role of the environment and its contexts in a geographical landscape is important (Rostaei, 2010: 8). In this regard, one of the main goals of archaeological activities is to study how the interaction between human societies and environmental diversity, which ultimately led to habitation and location. Important environmental variables affect the location, distribution, sphere of influence, physical development and appearance of human settlements- (Dark, 1995: 134). Therefore, in spatial analysis, since “Landscape” represents the area of human interaction with the environment, the relationship between location and environmental characteristics is considered¬(Clarke, 1976: 119). In fact, by understanding the geographical space, the capacities and potentials present in the area have influenced the new type of settlement (migration, sedentism, or a combination of both). The high Zagros region, which overlaps the current political borders of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, is a defined area that we live in because of our habitat. The High Zagros, in fact, includes the highest part of the Zagros Mountains, and for this reason, it is called “High Zagros”(Darvishzadeh, 1991:175). This region is mountainous and about 76% of it is made up of mountains and hills; While only 24% of it consists of alluvial plains and valleys (Heidari et al, 2014:4). Leading research on this area, which has long been considered as a suitable place for nomadic communities, farmers and pastorals have always been considered by human communities:
The Main Questions Are: What factors impacted on the Location Patterns of the High zagros′s Bacun Sites? How is impacts of this Factors on the site numbers?
Research Method: In this regard, according to the practical nature of the subject and the studied components of the research method, after the theoretical design of the subject, which included reviewing the theoretical foundations and selecting and visiting the sites, to study the documents obtained from the studies and explore archaeological excavations were carried out.

Archaeological Evidence of Bacun Culture in the High Zagros
Due to the fact that most of the archeological activities in the high Zagros region have been focused on the survey; as a result, most of the data and documents are related to potteries. A total of 420 potterysherdsrelated to the Bacun period were identified and studied. Buffswares tempered by sand and fine sand are common, both wheelmade and handmade. This pottery is often in the form of a bowl with a circular bottom and has embellished ornaments with a compositional pattern in the form of wide stripes, circles patterned with dots around it, rounded lines, square textures, and ornaments. Intersecting with the lattice pattern and motif of the sun disk, they are black in color. These include one to three horizontal sections, half or a large section of the container.

Relation and Distribution of Sites to Environmental Variables
The study area has an undeniable role due to its special strategic location in the path of the well-known cultures of central and southern Zagros and their connection with both their position and role. These factors, along with the perspective of the region, play an effective role in creating the tissues of establishment in any period of time. On this basis, human societies have developed adaptive strategies in the habitat of various ecosystems. It is clear that the climate of the area under study is cold and humid with a variety of calcareous and shallow soils that are not so suitable for agriculture. These environmental and biological conditions prevailing in the region have led to the formation of a nomadic livelihood based on traditional livestock and agriculture. Unlike farmers, settlers whose location depends on livestock are not dependent on specific locations or environmental factors. They set up their own camps in places that, in addition to their own safety and that of livestock (against the sedents and predatory animals), had enough pastures for grazing. This new way of life has long been practiced in the highlands, and the area has been used seasonally by nomads. One of the most important shreds of evidence for proving this issue is the low correlation between environmental factors and areas, which indicates that the areas under consideration should be taken into light of the consideration. In the evaluation and study of settlements, altitude, distance, or proximity of sites to communication routes and water resources, the possibility of access to arable land, type of vegetation, slope, and slope direction are considered as independent variables, and the area of Bacun region as the dependent variables. Examining this number of sites, it was concluded that the altitude of 2000 to 2500 meters above sea level has been one of the most suitable elevations for the settlements of the Bacun Zagros; Because these heights have more fertile pastures than areas with lower altitudes at which, there is more evidence of migration in the area. It is clear that slopes less than 15 degrees are suitable for agricultural activities, and lands that have a high slope are in the form of pastures that are not usable for agriculture. This factor indicates that most of the ancient sites, which are located on higher slopes and have a relatively steep slope, did not matter to their inhabitants. This factor, along with the large distribution of cultural findings over a large area, indicates the temporary and seasonal use of these places, which can be related to nomadic communities. In addition, the slope direction factor indicates that no specific direction has been used. It seems that the use of different slope directions indicates temporary residences that have been used for nomads in the summer and the proper slope for their settlement has not been very important. The water and road factor indicates that most areas are close to water sources and roads. The study of land-use variables also shows that lands with poorer vegetation are smaller areas and vice versa. Even today, the distribution of villages is directly related to the type of uses. However, based on a superficial review, it is not possible to comment definitively in this regard, and more evidence is needed. However, it is understood that human beings in this region have long been dependent on places that can, in addition to suitable pasture, also provide the possibility of hunting or gathering food. 

Conclusion
High Zagros in different prehistoric and historic periods due to its strategic positioning and being located in the route of known cultures in central and southern Bacun, and the role of their relationship together,  enjoys an undeniable role and situation. These factors, together with the perspective of the region, play an effective role in creating the tissues of establishment in any period of time. On this basis, human societies have adaptive strategies in various bios. It is clear that the climate of the study area is cold and humid with a variety of calcareous and shallow soils that are not desirable for agriculture. These environmental and biological conditions throughout the region have led to the formation of a nomadic lifestyle based on a limited version of traditional livestock and agriculture. Unlike farmers, nomads, whose location depends on livestock, are not dependent on specific locations or environmental factors. They set up their own camps in places that, in addition to their own safety and that of livestock (against the sedents and predatory animals), had enough pastures for grazing. This type of lifestyle had existed from Bacun period in High Zagros and has been used by nomads in a seasonal manner. Among the most important documents to prove this, is the low correlation between environmental factors and landscaping that indicates that the areas under study have been used for short-term deployment. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the distribution of settlements in the study area in Bacun period, there is a relatively positive correlation between water sources, roads, and the function of the lands but this correlation is mediocre while in regression studies, other factors such as slope and distance to communication paths were also effective with low and medium effect. It is noteworthy that the intensity of the influence of these factors in relation to the Bacun periods of the high Zagros area using multiple linear regression analyzes is equal to 0.336. This number also strongly expresses the correlation between the set of environmental factors and the area of the sites. The results of the correlation and regression coefficients indicate that the distribution of the studied habitats is regulated in relation to the capabilities and constraints of the ecosystem, but its effects are limited.
Keywords: Settlement Pattern, Bacun Period, High Zagros Region, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari.
Full-Text [PDF 1174 kb]   (161 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2020/05/10 | Accepted: 2020/07/19 | Published: 2020/11/30
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Ahmadi-Khoei K, Hessari M, Khosrowzadeh A. Environmental Varible Role in the Formation of Bakun Sits of the High Zagros (Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province). Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2020; 4 (13) :7-25
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-444-en.html


year 4, Issue 13 (11-2020) Back to browse issues page
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