[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 1(2): 59-75 Back to browse issues page
Comparative Study of the Golden Coronet of Azerbaijan Museum
Ali Navid Gabalu1, Seyed Mehdi Hosseyni Nia2
1- Ph.D. Candidate, Archeology, University of Mohageg Ardabili.
2- Ph.D. Candidate, Archeology, University of Mohageg Ardabili. , mehdihosseyni5518@gmail.com
Abstract:   (8550 Views)
The subject of this study is analysis and comparison golden coronet obtained from Khalkhal county in Azerbaijan museum, that from obtained illegal excavation. Because of that hasn’t done research on this object, so, research for specifying function, manufacturing technique, comparison, relative dating, and analysis of symbolic motifs, is seems necessary. This article has done to form of comparative study, and is from type of qualitative research. Also, Information gathering in this research has done to two methods of library and field work (exact observation of trace and providing scheme and photo). This article is to form of analytical – descriptive and comparison of motifs with other artistic findings. In this article has done drawing motifs with computer software. Then, their decoration motifs have been investigated and comparison with other finds. Results of this research indicate that in create this coronet, beliefs and idealogy of artists has had much influence. In fact, these motifs have been to form of rites and sign from the gods, that by artists on the ceramics and sometimes on jewelries have been created; they have been with these works took of gods support. According to studies this coronet in terms of manufacturing technique, decoration technique, and results of analysis comparison of motifs with other similar traces as: golden necklaces and tusks of Zivieh, golden rhyton of Lorestan, golden rhyton of Marlik, and coronet of Hasanlo; golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum has been dating between late second millennium and early first millennium BC. So, two main questions of this research are as follows: How could analyze the decoration technique and comparison this coronet with other simila r traces? And, comparison of typology this coronet with other traces, shows this trace to what is related period? 
Keywords: Coronet, Typical Motifs, Tree of the Life, Antelope.

Jewelry and especially golden jewelry has always been regarded as the economic capital of human societies, and special place in economic and cultural exchanges. Undoubtedly, besides creativity of Iranian artists, several factors have been contributed to the formation and construction of jewels, and desired objects have been position for appearance of the beliefs of past tribes. Cultural and economic interactions in inter-regional and trans-regional areas, environmental factors, cultural, economic, and industrial and technological advances, have been from the factors of effective the formation of styles different types of jewelry in past periods. It’s obvious that every nation has collection of legends and myths, that they are indicative their opinions, thoughts and beliefs. Golden coronet obtained from Khalkhal area, isn’t excluded from this general rule, and created motifs on this coronet can help to identify and better understand of ideas, and beliefs of people northwest Iran in late second millennium and early first millennium BC. So, authors in this study have been studied the coronet of Azerbaijan museum and analyzed relationship with the beliefs of people in this period. Therefore, main questions of this research are: 1- What does show the analysis and comparison of motifs with similar samples? 2- According to analysis of similar samples from other areas, what is the period this coronet? Assuming coronet motifs have been ritual; so, these motifs have likely been created by artists on pottery and sometimes on jewelry during the second and first millennium BC. They have been by doing this, supported by the gods. Thus, authors in this research have done analysis, semiotics, and aesthetics of golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum.

Golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum and semiotics of motifs it
Golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum is including decorative jewelry. According to appearance this trace, function it can be decorative coronet, or, it has probably used in ritual and religious ceremonies. This coronet is from made gold, and in form of crescent rectangle. Its length 22 CM and width 5 CM, and at the end of both sides it, two hooks to form of crescent (for hold on head) have been placed. The technique of making this decorative coronet is handmade, that on it has been created motifs with engraving technique. It should be mentioned, no type of inscription or text hasn’t been used on this trace. In center of this decorative coronet, has been painted Tree of the Life, that in both sides this Tree of the Life, 8 numbers of antelope to form of symmetry (head and neck of all them are bent towards down, and all of them are painted in one form) can be seen. At the bottom section in this trace and back of the motif of antelope, are embossed two lines of vertical and parallel, that inside them three equilateral triangles have been raising and embossed to form of tiny.

Comparison of coronet motifs with similar samples
Although can’t be seen sample quite similar with this coronet, but motifs this coronet in terms of style of making and decoration with seals, metal traces, and mud traces such as the golden rhytons inside and outside of Iran, is comparable. The objects of Tapeh Marlik related to about 1200 BC, antelope motif and Tree of the Life motif in golden rhyton of Lorestan related to between centuries seven to four, golden necklaces of Zivieh in Iron Age III, bronze coffins of Birmingham museum related to century of seven, and ivory box of tomb of 45 in Assyria, other are traces that golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum is with similar to them.

Findings of this research indicate that in inventing and utilization of antelope motifs, especially in coronet discovered from Khalkhal, beliefs and idealogy of ethnoes that are created them has had much influence. Considering that each of the ancient tribes, they saw the antelope as one of the beneficial elements of nature, horn of this animal has been from signs of the gods in ancient Iran and Mesopotamia. So, between antelope with curved horns and crescent moon has been a relationship. Because, among the ancient tribes have been moon of rain symbol and sun of drought symbol; so it seam, horns of this animal have been symbol of moon and rain. According to the submitted content, it seems, golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum have probably been related to late of second millennium to century of seven BC.
Keywords: Coronet, Typical Motifs, Tree of the Life, Antelope.
Full-Text [PDF 974 kb]   (1859 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/05/9 | Accepted: 2018/05/9 | Published: 2018/05/9
1. - الیاده، میرچا (1385). رساله‌ در تاریخ ادیان. ترجمۀ جلال ستاری، تهران: انتشارات سروش. چاپ سوم.
2. - امیری‌حسینی، احمد (1387). «پژوهشی در زیورآلات منتشرنشده موزه ملی ایران». پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد باستان‌شناسی، دانشگاه تهران (منتشرنشده).
3. - بلک، جرمی و گرین، آنتونی (1383). فرهنگ‌نامه خدایان و دیوان بین‌النهرین، ترجمۀ پیمان متین، تهران: نشر امیرکبیر.
4. - بهار، مهرداد (1374). از اسطوره تا تاریخ، تهران: نشر چشمه.
5. - بهنام‌فر، محمد و زمانی‌پور، مریم (1391). «کوه و معانی نمادین آن در بین عواطف عارفانه و عاشقانۀ مولانا در مثنوی»، پژوهشنامۀ ادب غنایی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، سال دهم، شمارۀ 19، صص: 54-33.
6. - بهنود، مهسا؛ افضل‌طوسی، عفت‌السادات و موسوی‌لر، اشرف‌السادات (1395). «بررسی سیر تاریخی تحول نقش نگاره بزکوهی در دورۀ ساسانیان». نشریه جلوه هنر، دورۀ 10، شمارۀ 3، شمارۀ پیاپی 39، بهار 1395، صص: 89-55.
7. - پرادا، ادیت (1357). هنر ایران‌باستان. ترجمۀ یوسف مجیدزاده، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه ‌تهران.
8. - پوپ، آرتور آپهام، فلیس اکرمن (1387). سیری در هنر ایران از دوران پیش‌از‌تاریخ تا امروز. ترجمۀ سیروس پرهام، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
9. - حاکمی، علی و راد، محمود (1329). «کاوش‌های علمی در حسنلو». گزارش‌های باستان‌شناسی، جلد اول، تهران: مرکز باستان‌شناسی.
10. - دورانت، ویل (1370). تاریخ تمدن. جلد اول. ترجمۀ احمد آرام‌، تهران: انتشارات آموزش انقلاب‌اسلامی.
11. - عطایی، امید (1376). آفرینش خدایان: راز داستان‌های اوستایی. تهران: مؤسسۀ انتشارات عطایی.
12. - کوپر، جی، سی (1379). فرهنگ مصور هنرهای سنتی. ترجمۀ محمد بقاپور، تهران، نشر فرشاد.
13. - گیرشمن، رومن (1383). ایران از آغاز تا اسلام. ترجمۀ محمد معین، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
14. - مترجم، عباس (1375). «مطالعه و بررسی مهرهای مکشوفه در شمال و شمال غرب ایران و مقایسه آن‌ها با مهرهای فلات مرکزی در عصر آهن». پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد، باستان‌شناسی، تهران: دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس (منتشرنشده).
15. - معصومی، غلامرضا (1348). «ساغرهای مفرغی لرستان». مجلۀ بررسی‌های تاریخی، خرداد تا شهریور 1348، شمارۀ‌20 و 21، صص: 44-21.
16. - موچشی، امیرساعد (1388). «ارزیابی مجدّد گاه‌نگاری آثار زیویه». مجلۀ مطالعات باستان‌شناسی دانشگاه تهران. دورۀ 1، شمارۀ 2، صص: 141-121.
17. - مورتگات، آنتون (1392) هنر بین‌النهرین باستان: هنر کلاسیک خاور نزدیک. ترجمۀ زهرا باستی و محمدرحیم صراف، تهران: انتشارات سمت.
18. - میتفورد، میراندا بروس (1388). فرهنگ مصور نمادها و نشانه‌ها در جهان. ترجمۀ ابوالقاسم دادور و زهرا تاران، تهران: دانشگاه الزهرا.
19. - نگهبان، عزت‌الله. (1343). گزارش مقدماتی حفریات مارلیک. تهران، مرکز باستان‌شناسی.
20. - نگهبان، عزت‌الله. (1355). «جام افسانه زندگی مکشوفه در حفاری مارلیک»، مجلۀ دانشکده ادبیات دانشگاه تهران. شمارۀ 93 و 94. صص: 67-42.
21. - وحدتی‌نسب، علی‌اکبر (1384). «نگاهی به نقش‌مایه‌های جام زرین افسانۀ زندگی در مارلیک». مجلۀ باستان‌پژوهی. سال اول، شماره 1، صص: 51-39.
22. - هال، جیمز (1380). فرهنگ نگاره‌ای نمادها در هنر شرق و غرب. ترجمۀ رقیه بهزادی، تهران، انتشارات فرهنگ معاصر.
23. - یداللهی، سیما. (1376). «شناخت و تحلیل مقایسه‌ای زیورآلات فلزی عصر‌آهن ایران، 550-1500ق.م.». پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد باستان‌شناسی، تهران: دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس (منتشرنشده).
25. - Amiri Hosseyni, A. (2008). “Research in Jewelery unpublished the national museum of Iran”. M.A thesis, Tehran: University of Tehran (unpublished).
26. - Ataii, O. (1997). Creation of gods: secret of Avestan stories. Tehran: Ataii press.
27. - Bahar, M. (1995). From myth to history. Tehran: Cheshmeh press.
28. - Barnett, R. D. (1956). “The Treasure of Ziwiye”. Iraq 18, P.P. 111-116.
29. - Behnamfar, M. & Zamanipor, M. (2012). “Mountain and it symbolic meanings in between mystical and romantic emotions of Molana in Masnavi”. Journal of Pajhoheshnameh Adab Ghani, Vol. 10, No. 19, P.P. 33-54.
30. - Behnood, M. & Afzal Tosi, A. & Mosavilar, A. (2016). “Survey of historical process of evolution Motif Antelope in Sassanids period”. Journal of Jelveh Honar, Vol. 10, No. 39, P.P. 55-89.
31. - Blak, J. & Grin, A. (2004). Encyclopedia Gods and Divan of Mesopotamia. Translate by Peyman Matin. Tehran: Amir Kabir press.
32. - Calmeyer, p. (1982). “Mesopotamia and Iran im ein jahrtausend, in Nissen H.J. g RENGER j. (eds) Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn”. Berliner Beitrage zum Vorderen Orient. No. 1, P.P. 339-348.
33. - Charlesworth , M. F. (1980). “An ivory plaque from Ziviyeh”. Journal of Kand-o Kav, No. 3, P.P. 51-56.
34. - Cooper, J. C. (1968). Illustrated encyclopedia of traditional symbols. London: Thames and Hudson press.
35. - Cooper, J. C. (2000). Painted culture of traditional art. Translate by Mohamad Bagapor. Tehran: Farshad press.
36. - Crawford, V. E. (1961). “Ivories from the Earth”. Journal of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 3.
37. - Dnti, M. D. (2014). “The Hasanlugold bowl in context: all that glitters”. M.A thesis, Boston: Department of Archaeology (unpublished).
38. - Dorant, V. (1991). History of civilization. Translate by Ahmad Aram. Tehran: Amozesh Enghlab Islami press.
39. - Eliadeh, M. (2006). Treatise in religions history. Translate by Jalal Satari. Tehran: Sorosh press.
40. - Girshman, R. (2004). Iran from first to Islam. Translate by Mohamad Moiin. Tehran: Scientific and cultural press.
41. - Hakemi, A. & Rad, M. (1940). Scientific excavations in Hasanlu, in Archaeological Reports. Tehran: Center of Archeaology press.
42. - Hal, J. (2001). Painted culture of symbols and Art East & West. Translate by Rogayeh Behzadi. Tehran: Farhang Moaser press.
43. - Hermann, G. (1988). The Nimrud ivories. London: British Institute for the Study of Iraq Stable.
44. - Masomi, Gh. (1968). “Bronze goblets of Lorestan”. Journal of Historical Surveys, No. 20 & 21, P.P. 21-44.
45. - Maxwell Hyslop, R. (1972). “The art of granulation in early Iraninan jewellery”. 5th International Congress of Iranian Art & Archaeology. Munchen.
46. - Mitford, M. B. (2008). Painted culture of symbols and signs in the world. Translate by Abolghasem Dadvar & Zahra Taran. Tehran: University of Alzahra press.
47. - Mocheshi, A. S. (2008). “Reassessment chronology of traces Zivieh”. Journal of Motaleat Bastanshenasi, Vol. 1, No. 2, P.P. 121-141.
48. - Mortegag, A. (2013). Art of ancient Mesopotamia: Classical art of Middle East. Translate by Zahra Basti & Mohamad Rahim Sarraf. Tehran: Samt press.
49. - Motarjem. A. (1996). “Study of seals discovery in North and Northwest Iran and comparison them with seals of central plateau in Iron age”. M.A thesis, Tehran: University of Tarbiat Modares (unpublished).
50. - Negahban, A. (1965). Preliminary report excavations of Marlik. Tehran: Center of Archeaology press.
51. - Negahban, A. (1977). “Goblet of Afsaneh Zendegi, discovered in Marlik”. Journal of Faculty of Letters and Humanities of University of Tehran, No. 93 & 94, P.P. 42-67.
52. - Perada, E. (1979). Art of ancient Iran. Translate by Yosof Majidzadeh. Tehran: University of Tehran press.
53. - Pope, A. & Apham, F. A. (2008). A trip in Iranian art from prehistory to now. Translate by Siros Parham. Tehran: Scientific and cultural press.
54. - Vahdati Nasab, A. A. (2005). “Review of motifs golden goblet of Afsaneh Zendegi in Marlik”. Journal of Bastanpajhohi, Vol. 1, No. 1, P.P. 39-51.
55. - Winter, I. J. (1989). “The Hasanlu Gold Bowl; Thirty Years Later”. Vol. 31, No. 2-3.
56. - Yadollahi, S. (1997). “Cognition and analysis comparative of metal jewelry in Iron age Iran, 1500-550 BC”. M.A thesis, Tehran: University of Tarbiat Modares (unpublished).
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Navid Gabalu A, Hosseyni Nia S M. Comparative Study of the Golden Coronet of Azerbaijan Museum. Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018; 1 (2) :59-75
URL: http://journal.richt.ir/mbp/article-1-37-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
year 1, Issue 2 (3-2018) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.22 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4538