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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 1(2): 59-75 Back to browse issues page
Comparative Study of the Golden Coronet of Azerbaijan Museum
Ali Navid Gabalu1, Seyed Mehdi Hosseyni Nia 2
1- Ph.D. Candidate, Archeology, University of Mohageg Ardabili.
2- Ph.D. Candidate, Archeology, University of Mohageg Ardabili. , mehdihosseyni5518@gmail.com
Abstract:   (7465 Views)
Abstract
The subject of this study is analysis and comparison golden coronet obtained from Khalkhal county in Azerbaijan museum, that from obtained illegal excavation. Because of that hasn’t done research on this object, so, research for specifying function, manufacturing technique, comparison, relative dating, and analysis of symbolic motifs, is seems necessary. This article has done to form of comparative study, and is from type of qualitative research. Also, Information gathering in this research has done to two methods of library and field work (exact observation of trace and providing scheme and photo). This article is to form of analytical – descriptive and comparison of motifs with other artistic findings. In this article has done drawing motifs with computer software. Then, their decoration motifs have been investigated and comparison with other finds. Results of this research indicate that in create this coronet, beliefs and idealogy of artists has had much influence. In fact, these motifs have been to form of rites and sign from the gods, that by artists on the ceramics and sometimes on jewelries have been created; they have been with these works took of gods support. According to studies this coronet in terms of manufacturing technique, decoration technique, and results of analysis comparison of motifs with other similar traces as: golden necklaces and tusks of Zivieh, golden rhyton of Lorestan, golden rhyton of Marlik, and coronet of Hasanlo; golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum has been dating between late second millennium and early first millennium BC. So, two main questions of this research are as follows: How could analyze the decoration technique and comparison this coronet with other simila r traces? And, comparison of typology this coronet with other traces, shows this trace to what is related period? 
Keywords: Coronet, Typical Motifs, Tree of the Life, Antelope.

Introduction
Jewelry and especially golden jewelry has always been regarded as the economic capital of human societies, and special place in economic and cultural exchanges. Undoubtedly, besides creativity of Iranian artists, several factors have been contributed to the formation and construction of jewels, and desired objects have been position for appearance of the beliefs of past tribes. Cultural and economic interactions in inter-regional and trans-regional areas, environmental factors, cultural, economic, and industrial and technological advances, have been from the factors of effective the formation of styles different types of jewelry in past periods. It’s obvious that every nation has collection of legends and myths, that they are indicative their opinions, thoughts and beliefs. Golden coronet obtained from Khalkhal area, isn’t excluded from this general rule, and created motifs on this coronet can help to identify and better understand of ideas, and beliefs of people northwest Iran in late second millennium and early first millennium BC. So, authors in this study have been studied the coronet of Azerbaijan museum and analyzed relationship with the beliefs of people in this period. Therefore, main questions of this research are: 1- What does show the analysis and comparison of motifs with similar samples? 2- According to analysis of similar samples from other areas, what is the period this coronet? Assuming coronet motifs have been ritual; so, these motifs have likely been created by artists on pottery and sometimes on jewelry during the second and first millennium BC. They have been by doing this, supported by the gods. Thus, authors in this research have done analysis, semiotics, and aesthetics of golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum.

Golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum and semiotics of motifs it
Golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum is including decorative jewelry. According to appearance this trace, function it can be decorative coronet, or, it has probably used in ritual and religious ceremonies. This coronet is from made gold, and in form of crescent rectangle. Its length 22 CM and width 5 CM, and at the end of both sides it, two hooks to form of crescent (for hold on head) have been placed. The technique of making this decorative coronet is handmade, that on it has been created motifs with engraving technique. It should be mentioned, no type of inscription or text hasn’t been used on this trace. In center of this decorative coronet, has been painted Tree of the Life, that in both sides this Tree of the Life, 8 numbers of antelope to form of symmetry (head and neck of all them are bent towards down, and all of them are painted in one form) can be seen. At the bottom section in this trace and back of the motif of antelope, are embossed two lines of vertical and parallel, that inside them three equilateral triangles have been raising and embossed to form of tiny.

Comparison of coronet motifs with similar samples
Although can’t be seen sample quite similar with this coronet, but motifs this coronet in terms of style of making and decoration with seals, metal traces, and mud traces such as the golden rhytons inside and outside of Iran, is comparable. The objects of Tapeh Marlik related to about 1200 BC, antelope motif and Tree of the Life motif in golden rhyton of Lorestan related to between centuries seven to four, golden necklaces of Zivieh in Iron Age III, bronze coffins of Birmingham museum related to century of seven, and ivory box of tomb of 45 in Assyria, other are traces that golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum is with similar to them.

Conclusion
Findings of this research indicate that in inventing and utilization of antelope motifs, especially in coronet discovered from Khalkhal, beliefs and idealogy of ethnoes that are created them has had much influence. Considering that each of the ancient tribes, they saw the antelope as one of the beneficial elements of nature, horn of this animal has been from signs of the gods in ancient Iran and Mesopotamia. So, between antelope with curved horns and crescent moon has been a relationship. Because, among the ancient tribes have been moon of rain symbol and sun of drought symbol; so it seam, horns of this animal have been symbol of moon and rain. According to the submitted content, it seems, golden coronet of Azerbaijan museum have probably been related to late of second millennium to century of seven BC.
Keywords: Coronet, Typical Motifs, Tree of the Life, Antelope.
Full-Text [PDF 974 kb]   (1742 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2018/05/9 | Accepted: 2018/05/9 | Published: 2018/05/9
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Navid Gabalu A, Hosseyni Nia S M. Comparative Study of the Golden Coronet of Azerbaijan Museum. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 1 (2) :59-75
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