:: year 4, Issue 14 (2-2021) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2021, 4(14): 49-63 Back to browse issues page
Determine the Age and Gender of the Human Remains During the Late Bronze Age in the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh Site, Neyshabur
Mohammad Hossein Rezaei 1, Fatemeh Mousivand2, Hassan Basafa3, Seyed Farzad Seyed-Forootan4
1- Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Neishabour University, Neishabour, Iran. , mohammad.1561@yahoo.com
2- M.A. in Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Neishabour University, Neishabour, Iran.
3- Associate Professor, Department of Archeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Neishabour University, Neishabour, Iran.
4- Assistant Professor, Royan Biotechnology Center, Isfahan, Iran.
Abstract:   (2274 Views)
Abstract
The study of human remains derived from burial and non-burial contexts is one of the subcategories of Archaeometry. According to these studies, archaeological researchers, with the help of physiologists, have quantitative and quantitative aspects of the remnants of past humans, including age, Sex and the use of medical tests, especially pathology, diseases and causes of death. The topic of interdisciplinary studies in the Khorasan area, due to the lack of material evidence until the present decade, lacked any research, although the importance of Khorasan has always been mentioned in this cycle. In the last decade, according to the approach of researchers in this field, the subject of quantitative studies has flourished. In this regard, the human remains of three burials belonging to the late bronze age from the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh site were used to determine the age and gender of the samples, as well as to identify the ethnic race in the study of physical anthropology. In this research, human skeletons of the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh site were first cleaned up. Finally, with the participation of the Medical Society of Isfahan, the determination of age, gender and race was performed on the basis of morphology and anthropology. Then extracted DNA was isolated and dental samples were taken. The results of physical anthropology studies on the samples indicated that, the samples studied belong to the population of Shahrak-e-Firouzeh site, which is of age in both adolescents and adults (2 adolescents and 1 adult) and sexually belonging to two male and female groups. Men and women). In relation to the mortality rate and demographic average of the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh community, due to the low volume of samples, it cannot be clearly summoned, but according to the current samples and the number of burials, it shows the high rate of low-mortality in the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh Site. 
Keywords: Shahrak-e-Firouzeh, Age, Gender, Bronze Age, Environmental Damage.

Introduction
The study of human remains from burial and non-burial contexts can be considered in the following subcategories of Archaeometry. For these studies, archaeological researchers, with the help of the physiologists, have quantitative and quantitative aspects of the remnants of past humans, including Age, gender, and using medical tests, diseases and causes of death. The present study is one of the interdisciplinary studies in the field of physical and genetic anthropology in the cultural field of Khorasan. After the accidental discovery of the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh site during construction, in 2009, the first excavation season on this site was run by Hassan Basafa, and so far, four archaeological excavations have been conducted on this site. The ancient site of the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh in the northwest of Neyshabur with 36 ° 12 ‘longitude and 58 ° 47’ longitude, is located in the Firoozeh construction site on the eastern side of the river Farub Ruman. Among the cultural materials discovered on this ancient site (third and fourth seasons) are human burial remains buried in the Late Bronze Age. What this research seeks to answer is determining the age and gender, as well as the impact of the environment on the mortality rate of the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh community on the small scale, as well as the impact of post-sediment processes on samples.
The present study was conducted in two ways: library studies and laboratory studies in a descriptive and analytical manner and using the approaches of physical anthropology. In the style of library studies, information on the history of research on human remains has been gathered, and in analyzes and adoption of study methods. Also, in the section on human anthropometric studies, based on the evidence on the teeth, the suture on the skull, the size and texture of the femur bones, pelvic size and other evidence, it has been attempted that the age group, gender group, Skeleton height, samples of the campus Shahrak-e-Firouzeh site are evaluated. It should be noted that tests on the determination of age and gender on skeletal specimens have been carried out under the supervision of specialists in Isfahan Medical Sciences. Based on physical anthropology studies, the results are divided into two groups of adolescents and adults in terms of age and gender in both males and females, and also indicates the high mortality rate at the young age of the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh community, which can be The most important factors are the unsuitable environment conditions due to the impact of the hydrological effects of the river along the settlement.  

Identified Traces
The study samples of this study include two skulls and a complete skeleton in this section to examine how to determine the age and gender of these remnants. The first one, a skull is roughly average. The thickness of the existing bones, the shape of the lower jaw, the posterior bumps, the rigid bone tissue, the maximum length, width and height of the skull, as well as the shape of the forehead of the sample is steep, which according to these characteristics is the first example of a man’s skull. Considering the formation of the teeth type, especially the third molar, considering the low erosion of the crown of the teeth and the presence of enamel of the teeth, as well as the qualitative aspects of the skull joints, in particular the closure of the crown part of the seam which is characteristic of individuals 25 years and the closure of the section of the seam At the age of 35, the age of this sample can be determined between the ages of 25 and 34. 
The second specimen is a relatively small, medium-sized cranium found in a gravel gorge. The fineness of the skull bones, the shape of the lower jaw, the nasal blade, Peshafi’s flatness, the smooth tissue of the bones, the maximum length, the delicacy of the cavity bumps, the width and height of the skull, as well as the form of the forehead of the sample, directly and without the prominence of the cavity above, Paying attention to these features is the second example of a woman’s skull. Finally, by examining bone tissue, skull volume, elegance, flattening of the skull structure, non-prominence in the post-serous bone, ear hole, root canal examination, and the time of their formation, the last tooth formed in the jaws of the sample, which is the second lower molar, as well Maximum length, width, face width, forehead bone, can be attributed to a teenage girl between the ages of 11 and 16. The third example is the complete human skeleton that is obtained from burial with a hole structure. Examining the height index of the sample, as well as the fineness of the ribs, the destruction of the toes and the hand of the skeleton, as well as the failure to weld the joints of the hip, the age-specific sample belongs to a teenager of 11 to 16, but due to the lack of sufficient evidence for gender identification In this sample, the sex group has not been identified.

Conclusion
As mentioned in the text, the establishment of the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh Site is one-period site belonging to the final phase of the Bronze Age (2100 to 1500 BC), located next to one of the important rivers of Neyshabur Plain, called Farub Ruman, which originates from the Binalud Mountains. The gradual continuation of the accumulation of flood and alluvial layers over several years or decades on the surface of this establishment caused excessive moisture to penetrate the ancient bedding of the studied samples, as well as washing the surface of the surrounding area by flooding, also solving the harmful mineral elements, including salt It is found in Neyshabur Plains and other harmful mineral salts with alluvial layers, which caused the greatest damage after the sedimentation process on the studied specimens. In addition to high humidity, which causes the decay and degradation of most parts of the bone samples studied, the heavy flood layers on the substrate also cause compression of the anterior substrate and fracture of different bone sections. According to physiological anthropological studies, the samples belong to people from the Shahrak-e-Firouzeh community, which are of age in both adolescents and adults (2 adolescents and 1 adult) and sexually belonging to two male and female groups (men and women).
Keywords: Shahrak-e-Firouzeh, Age, Gender, Bronze Age, Environmental Damage.
Full-Text [PDF 1250 kb]   (318 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Interdisciplinary
Received: 2020/06/12 | Accepted: 2020/12/10 | Published: 2021/02/27
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