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:: year 4, Issue 12 (8-2020) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2020, 4(12): 153-168 Back to browse issues page
Archaeological Investigation at the Urartian Sites of Bastam Castle Using Magnetics Method
Marzieh Abbaszadeh1, Bita Sodaei 2
1- Ph.D. in Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Tehran, Iran. , sodaei@iauvaramin.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2151 Views)
Abstract
today, the non-destructive geophysical methods such as Magnetometry used to detect the archaeological discoveries without harmful environmental effects that only use natural properties of the subsurface material. The 80 hectares Urartian Bastam Castle is one of three large castles in Urartu in northwestern Iran. Therefore, determining the actual boundaries of the castle can determine its location in the east of the empire. This study aims to better understand Urartian sites using new knowledge and new methods of studying archeology without the slightest interference with the site. Using magnetic methods, the study identified the subsurface structures of the ancient site of Qala-e- Bastam. For this purpose, magnetic data in a rectangular square grid were regularly collected in the desired range and after the necessary corrections of the data, topography and map of magnetic anomalies were prepared. The results show that there are regular and high-density architectural structures in the residential area. Architectural spaces have expanded in a West-East direction and along each other, and large and medium stone pieces with mud mortar have been used in the construction of architectural spaces. On the south side of the lower part of the castle, the remains of ash layers as well as the sidewalk floor can be seen, which indicates the existence of settlement layers in this area of the castle. On the western side of the castle and along the Aghchai River, part of the remnants of the water canal can be seen. This indicates that the people who occupied the castle, used the Aghchai River to provide their water needs. The castle was built by constructing a water canal made of stone and mortar.
Keywords: Urartu, Bastam Castle, Magnetics Method, Residential Area.

Introduction
The kingdom Urartu were destroyed around the middle of the 7th century BC, during or shortly after the reign Rusa Argisti. Rusa Argisti the last king of Urartu of any importance, had started a building and cultivation program not experienced in Urartu since the days of king Menua. It is visible in places like Karmir Blur, Basam Casle, Kerfkalesi/ Adilcevaz or Ayanis. Rusa Argisti’s empire many have covered Eastern Anatolia, large parts of Armenia, all of Iranian Western Azarbijan and large parts of Eastern Azarbijan. 
Research and exploration of the remaining relics from the past has special importance in identifying the date, history and the identify of a country. Development and advancement of human knowledge have offered new methods for detection archaeological sites that by using them without the need for excavation and destruction of antiquities can be found useful information. Archaeologist need to investigate and explore the archaeological sites in order to find some evidence of human being living in ancient time, but we know the fact that exploring is destructive. On the other hand, exploration necessitates high expensive, and need many human sources. Now a day, a variety of sciences have helped archaeologist’s in discovering past cultures. These sciences that are formed by combining different sciences with archaeology are called inter disciplinary sciences. Archaeogeophysics is one of these sciences that is formed as a combination of geophysics and archaeology. Population growth and subsequently development of villages and cities, industrial life improvements and developments in agriculture has caused an increasing threat against cultured heritage. Anyhow doing swift investigations in order to obtain the pas cultures before industrial advances is an urgent need. One of the ways, that can help archaeologists in this way is archaeological prospecting. On the other hand, as archaeological prospecting methods are called drilling without drill, by using these methods archaeologists are able to obtain the needed data from below he earths surface without causing any destruction and mess in the site. Also these methods assist archaeologists in determining the priority of exploring location before a wide spread exploration. Using methods reduces he expense of archaeological actives and archaeologists can explore an archaeological spending a very short time and low expenses.
In this paper to investigate the subsurface structures of an architecture at the Urartian site of Bastam Castle in northwestern in Iran. The magnetic data were used. In order to this work, the magnetic data measured in a regular grid in the desired area and then after do corrections such as instrument drift correction, free air and slab Bougure, latitude and terrain corrections on gravity data and the daily correction, and reduction to pole (RTP) correction on the magnetic data, magnetic anomalies map were obtained.
Questions Research: 1.Using the magnetometer method can be identified the structure of architectural complexity in residential area of Bastam Castle? 2. what was architectural structure in the eastern part in of Bastam castle?
 Aim Research: This research was aimed to identify and investigate the subsurface structures of architecture in residential and eastern part of the Bastam Castle archaeological site in Azarbaiejan, the magnetic data were used.Using magnetic methods, the study identified the subsurface structures of the ancient site of Qala-e- Bastam. For this purpose, magnetic data in a rectangular square grid were regularly collected in the desired range and after the necessary corrections of the data, topography and map of magnetic anomalies were prepared.
Method Research: A magnetometer measures the fine divergences in the terrestrial magnetic field causes e.g. by subsurface walls or archaeological structures. These divergences are diagrammed in grayscale pictures.  For the present researches, in order to execute geomagnetic prospections, fields need to be defined, measured and staked off. Each of these fields are then walked off and measured with magnetometer in lines with as offset of.2.5 m to each other. After measuring, the data were exported, corrected, processed and converted in grayscale pictures with the software Magneto by Sensys. These grayscale pictures were hen exported as georeferenced geotif’s and were collected in QGIS, an open source GIS. In the same QGIS-project all data like the measurements were collected and put together to one project.

Councusion
The results show that there are regular and high-density architectural structures in the residential area. Architectural spaces have expanded in a West-East direction and along each other, and large and medium stone pieces with mud mortar have been used in the construction of architectural spaces. On the south side of the lower part of the castle, the remains of ash layers as well as the sidewalk floor can be seen, which indicates the existence of settlement layers in this area of the castle. On the western side of the castle and along the Aghchai River, part of the remnants of the water canal can be seen. This indicates that the people who occupied the castle, used the Aghchai River to provide their water needs. The castle was built by constructing a water canal made of stone and mortar.
As expected, the grayscale piture of the geomagnetic prospection shows wall structures in almost every filed, except the fields in the far north of the research area. The geomantic prospection completes the visible structures and show not only single walls or pars of walls, but furthermore connects single walls to complete ground plots of different houses. In some cases, even doors and therefore the way the houses were used visible in the grayscale picture of the geomagnetic prospection.  Over the whole area, small but also bigger disturbances are visible.
Keywords: Urartu, Bastam Castle, Magnetics Method, Residential Area.
Full-Text [PDF 1207 kb]   (525 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Interdisciplinary
Received: 2020/05/8 | Accepted: 2020/06/29 | Published: 2020/08/31
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Abbaszadeh M, Sodaei B. Archaeological Investigation at the Urartian Sites of Bastam Castle Using Magnetics Method. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2020; 4 (12) :153-168
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فصلنامه مطالعات باستان شناسی پارسه Parseh Journal of Archaeological Studies
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