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:: year 3, Issue 10 (2-2020) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2020, 3(10): 39-50 Back to browse issues page
The Study of Animal Motifs on the Compartmented Seals in Southeastern Iran
Moein Falaki *1, Reza Mehrafarin2
1- Ph.D. Student in Archeology, Department of Archeology, Institute of Conservation and Restoration, Isfahan University of Arts, Isfahan, Iran , moeinfalaki@yahoo.com
2- Associate Professor, Department of Archeology, Institute of Art and Architecture, Mazandaran University, Mazandaran, Iran
Abstract:   (2093 Views)
Abstract
The motifs in Iranian art carry the concepts and themes that represent the worldview of human societies; the motifs that embody the seals reflect the legacy in which the context was created. The present study studies and analyzes animal motifs on lattice seals in southeastern Iran; one of the most interesting phenomena of the Bronze Age cultures in Iran is the prevalence of lattice seals in the southeast of Iran. These types of seals are generally made of bronze as well as silver in rare cases, and various alloys made with the missing wax method. The purpose of the present study is to identify their concepts and themes and to identify the factors that were involved in creation of the motifs of this period. It should be noted that these seals are made in the form of squares, circles and triangles and include geometric, plant, human and animal motifs. No substantiated theory has been put forward regarding the importance of substances on metal lattice seals. Obviously, information extracted from specimens used in the lattice seals of the southeast Iran during the Bronze Age can greatly shed lights on many of the ambiguities in this area. From this point on, we attempt to document the various conceptual and content dimensions of the design, based on a descriptive-analytical research method, relying on a library study method and assuming that the design of these designs is based on the surrounding nature and Indicates the importance of animals in the live hood of the people in this area, we discuss and analyze. The findings of the study indicate that these animals depicted on the seals have a significant influence on the lifestyle and status of these animals in the religious and intellectual beliefs that overwhelm in this area.. 
Keywords: Iran, South East, Seal, Compartmented Seal, Animal Motifs.

Introduction
Since the emergence of man on the scene, his attention has been focused on animals. animals have become an integral part of his life. This attention in the Paleolithic times was in the form of paintings on the caves wall, which somehow created a sense of power and superiority over these creatures, and somehow reflected his mastery over hunting. In this way, archaic man, without writing, only made the future known to his imagination and beliefs, instead of just visual arts. However, today’s human beings cannot experience their ancient culture and discover their mystery. Because some of the elements that today seem trivial and are part of human biological practices were once sacred and divine to them. Scientists and anthropologists have different views on the emergence, evolution, transformation, and diversity of the gods. But we can still draw a weak line from this. It may be somewhat plausible that it has a direct relationship with the production system and the environmental characteristics of humans in the emergence and development of gods. From the logic of practical philosophy, man has created gods at the shepherd stage that are different from the gods at the agricultural stage (Darwish, 65: 1355). During the Neolithic period, this dependence was inseparable from the extent to which humans were interested in domesticating animals and using them in their daily life (agriculture and animal husbandry). He also designed and used animal bones on his artifacts, including pottery. And it has benefited from agriculture and commerce. During the Bronze Age, the interest in animals was not only diminished, but also had a special place in the way that the role of animals was performed on reticular seals specific to southeastern Iran. Important questions that are addressed in this study are: What is the role of the applied seals and for what purpose? The purpose of this study is to determine the status and importance of these animals in the life cycle of these populations, and the hypothesis is that the function of animals is essential in the economic and livelihoods of these populations.

Animal Motifs
Thousands of years have passed, and humans have continued to ambush, trap, or hunt for their own livelihoods and for the survival of their generation. The hunter-gatherer thus established a long, intimate, unbroken bond with the animals through hunting, and owed his long life to them. It is not clear to us what kind of animal that human was feeding at that time, or what beliefs, beliefs, and beliefs they had. Our scant information only includes the remains of bones and the kind of tools that come from ancient sites and give a very clear picture of those communities. However, this little information suggests that from a Paleolithic perspective, everything was sacred. “Everything that human beings have used, felt, seen and loved, has become a holiness magazine,” says Mircha Eliade. Therefore, even the animal, which was all human, could not be sacred (Eliad, 32: 1372). The first evidence that we can find in the hunter-gatherer beliefs and ideas is the paintings they left in the dark caves. And. Perhaps these paintings “were a means of human control of the animal and of the animal being called to the hunt. In this way, the man was supposed to first capture the prey in the depths of the cave and to take his carcass out of the cave easily” (Asadian Khorramabadi, 58: 1358). Animals such as eagles, scorpions, cows, goats and fish are found in the lattice of southeastern Iran. It seems that due to the presence of such animals in this region, they have been engraved on the seals.

Conclusion
Thousands of years have passed and humans have been lurking for animals to feed themselves and their offspring, trapping them or hunting them with very simple and basic hand tools. The most important manifestation is the role of animals in their beliefs. Totem and totem worship. According to them, their great soul has become an animal or a bird after death, as a result of which all of them have been created from an animal or a bird. Therefore, this animal or bird was sanctified by them, and in all aspects of their lives, such as religion, magic, ordinary and everyday currents, especially artistic creations, it was manifested and found a significant presence. By examining the animal motifs used on the south-eastern lattice seals, their importance in the life of the people of this period can be achieved. This importance has been so highlighted and valuable that they have illustrated their artifacts. It is also possible to understand the existence of this type of animal in its bed and environment and its functional role in providing livelihood and subsistence economy of the people of this period. Animals whose importance and position are rooted in the thoughts, ideas, beliefs of these people.
Keywords: Iran, South East, Seal, Compartmented Seal, Animal Motifs.
Full-Text [PDF 562 kb]   (411 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/07/15 | Accepted: 2019/09/28 | Published: 2020/03/6
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Falaki M, Mehrafarin R. The Study of Animal Motifs on the Compartmented Seals in Southeastern Iran. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2020; 3 (10) :39-50
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