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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2019, 3(7): 137-160 Back to browse issues page
Inscriptions of Golden Tile, Usable Version of Editing Literary Texts
Hamid Pourdavoud 1, Hossein Mostajeran2, Parastoo Masjedi Khak3
1- M.A. in Archeology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. , hamidpoordavood@yahoo.com
2- Ph.D. Student of Persian Literature, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3- Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, University of Neyshabur, Khorasan Razavi, Iran
Abstract:   (5308 Views)
Abstract
the star tile Apart from beauty and eye-catching, is noteworthy for yet another reason, adorning the tiles with poems by high-profile poets that have doubled the beauty of these tiles. Paying attention to these inscriptions can in some cases be a guide to literary scholars, as the tile recordings sometimes differ from literary manuscripts, The difference most often seen in multiple tiles, probably each produced in a different workshop, is the same, and may indicate the prevalence of that recording during tile production. On the other hand, in some cases, because of the tile year on which the tile was written, the attribution of some poems to a particular poet can be ruled out because of the precedence of producing these tiles over the year of the poet’s birth. It should be noted, however, that in some cases there are differences due to individual scribe error, which require careful use of the inscriptions on these tiles. Because the authors of these tiles were also not error free. The main question of this study is: Can golden tile inscriptions be considered as a basic version? And if so, to what extent can these inscriptions be considered important? The main hypothesis can be put forward as follows: Since tiles are manufactured in a wide range and in different centers, in cases where all the tiles indicate a particular form of verse recordings as opposed to literary manuscripts, tile inscriptions may be given more value. And these tiles are used for critical correction, but for poems that only represent one tile, it should be used more cautiously and deductive correction, in which case only tile inscriptions can be considered as a complement to manuscripts. The research method was based on reading the inscriptions on the tiles and then comparing the Rubaiyat and verses inscribed on the tiles with the recorded form in the literary manuscript..
Keywords: Inscriptions, Golden Tile, Literary Texts, Rubaiyat, Literary Copy.

Introduction
Tile art reached its perfection during the Ilkhanid period and was recognized as an ornamental marker in the culture and art of architecture (Lashkari et al., 201440:). During this period, golden tile was used in different shapes and sizes, with different designs, motifs and inscriptions, the study of which is important in the expression of beliefs and cultures of that age. Studying the inscriptions of these tiles can help scholars to correct literary texts. Because in some cases the inscriptions on these tiles are inscribed with a poem that differs from existing literary manuscripts, or because of the precedence of the year of tile production on the poet’s birth, one can reject the attribution of poetry to a particular poet. The main question of this study is: Can golden tile inscriptions be considered as a basic version? And if so, to what extent can these inscriptions be considered important? The main hypothesis can be put forward as follows: Since tiles are manufactured in a wide range and in different centers, in cases where all the tiles indicate a particular form of verse recordings as opposed to literary manuscripts, tile inscriptions may be given more value. And these tiles are used for critical correction, but for poems that only represent one tile, it should be used more cautiously and deductive correction, in which case only tile inscriptions can be considered as a complement to manuscripts. Almost all the tiles inscriptions, except for a few (Tile 3, 8, 9, 13, First Rubai 14, 16, 17) Exactly as mentioned in this article, it is also mentioned in Takht-e-Soliman tiles (see: Quchani, 1992) and Moghadam Museum tiles (see: Quchani, 1986) Due to limitations, the image of these tiles has not been rendered, but it is important for the reader to note that this is a repetition of the recording. Also, regarding the importance of the inscriptions on these tiles, Abdullah Quchani has mentioned this in his works and has even encouraged scholars to use the inscriptions for the purpose of correcting the literary manuscript (Quchani, 1992: 24).
As mentioned earlier, this paper attempts to correct the literary texts by using the inscriptions of the golden tile, therefore, 19 tiles were studied, all of them with poems by prominent Iranian poets, including Ferdowsi, Baba Afzal Kashani, Mahasti Ganjavi and ... have been Inscriptions written. Among these poets, Ferdowsi and afterwards Baba Afzal have been the most sought after tile makers and their poems are more heavily embedded in the tiles under study than other poets. The point discussed in this article is that in all of the tiles introduced, the poems that are inserted on the tile’s margins differ from those recorded in the existing literary manuscript, In most cases this discrepancy has also been recorded in other identified golden tiles (Takht-e-Soliman tiles, or in front of museum tiles, etc.), which suggests that these differences may be due to the prevalence of the face. Recordings have been in the making of the tiles, though one cannot firmly rule out individual errors in making these differences. And it is necessary to use the inscriptions of these tiles with sufficient care to correct the literary texts about the poems of the famous Iranian poet Ferdowsi,It should be noted the recorded form of these tiles, despite the differences with some corrected manuscripts, however, the recorded form of the this tiles is found in some other manuscripts which appear in footnotes It is literally inserted And this shows the importance of these inscriptions. It is also used in cases such as Tile No. 14 Poems on these tiles, which can be used as an important version for correcting controversial Poems. As shown in the illustrations in the article, these tiles have been depicted in the central part with plant, animal and human motifs, and the tile makers have attempted to create these tiles in a naturalistic way.

Conclusion
Golden tile is an art and literary display, on most of these tiles due to the space constrained try to use Persian Rubaiyat for inscriptions, because in a low space it was possible to convey a wide meaning. In some cases these verses are in conflict with the recordings in the existing literary manuscript. In most cases where discrepancies are observed, the golden tiles emphasize a particular case, which may indicate the prevalence of the form in the past. As it was said, these tiles were manufactured in a wide area in Islamic Iran and this can increase the importance of this tile Inscriptions because if we believe that the difference between the manuscript and the tiles was due to the mistake of the tiles maker how is it possible this mistake be made in a wide area and several different workshops have taken place in an Identical form. But there were also cases where there was a discrepancy between the tiles, as was often seen in the tiles that were inscribed with the Shahnameh verses, which may have been because the Shahnameh copies were in large numbers in the past, as can be seen in the description given for tile NO 14. Also, most of the recordings on these tiles are at least in line with one version. On the other hand, as can be seen in tiles 1,7,15,18 Using these tiles can be questioned the assignment of a poem to a particular poet. Note that the creators of these tiles were not The scribe and may have been mistaken in some cases, which is why they should be cautious in the use of the inscriptions of this tile, especially when a poem comes in only one tile, as this difference It could be due to a scribe’s mistake.
Keywords: Inscriptions, Golden Tile, Literary Texts, Rubaiyat, Literary Copy.
Full-Text [PDF 1756 kb]   (1158 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/07/23 | Accepted: 2019/07/23 | Published: 2019/07/23
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Pourdavoud H, Mostajeran H, Masjedi Khak P. Inscriptions of Golden Tile, Usable Version of Editing Literary Texts. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2019; 3 (7) :137-160
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