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Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2019, 3(7): 7-21 Back to browse issues page
Analysis of the Neolithic Period of East of Lake Urmia Based on Archaeological Studies in Horand Region
Sahar Bakhtiari 1, Behrooz Omrani2, Reza Solmanpour3, Seyedeh Zahra Abtahi Frooshani3, Sepideh Bakhtiari4
1- Ph.D. Student of Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran , Bakhtiari_Sahar@yahoo.com
2- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology Prehistory Period, Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Tehran, Iran.
3- M.A. in Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
4- Ph.D. Student of Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, Institute of Arts and Architecture, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
Abstract:   (5222 Views)
Abstract
The Neolithic process and the extension of the Neolithic lifestyle have been one of the issues raised in recent decades in archeology, and archaeologists have come up with a variety of approaches to explain why and how this event occurred in human life. The Neolithic period can be considered an important milestone in the history and life of mankind. Archaeological studies show that several regions in the Near East experienced Neolithization, and Azerbaijan was a regional marginal area that expanded and reflected the Neolithic centers. In the late Neolithic stage, for the first, non-indigenous groups settled in the plains around Lake Urmia as the center of the area and then this center became the center spread to the outskirts in over time. Despite extensive research carried out in various parts of northwestern Iran, there is little and disproportionate evidence of the Neolithic period in the eastern part of Azerbaijan, and the settlements of the late Neolithic period in the eastern part of Azerbaijan are far less well known and there is a fundamental questions relation with the archaeological situation, chronology, the nature of culture and regional and trans-regional interactions in the eastern parts of Lake Urmia during this period. Since this area is considered to be the bridge between East and West in the northwest of Iran, it can play an important role in defining the sixth millennium BC. Today, there are new archaeological evidence of the existence of the late Neolithic settlements in the area, which is also in the horizon with Haji-Firuz. In the present article, it is attempted to present a new interpretation of the late Neolithic period in the region based on descriptive-analytical methods based on the archaeological findings obtained from Horand region in comparison with the traces of Haji-Firuz and also by reviewing previous studies.
Keywords: East Azarbaijan, Horand Region, Urmia Lake Area, Neolithic Period.

Introduction
The clarification of the archaeological situation and the sequence of the settlements of different cultural-geographical regions and its introduction into the archaeological community is indispensable. Northwest of Iran has a sequence of prehistoric to Islamic periods due to its proper situation and its specific situation. This area of the Paleolithic period later, even in historical and Islamic periods, has been the only short-lived interruptions in the area. The study of the cultural courses of the region and its comparison with its archaeological area with the neighboring regions with the aim of examining the settlements patterns and examination of bilateral and multilateral regional and trans-regional relations in each period, include the most basic stages of explaining the evolution of past societies in the ancient Prehistoric history. Investigating the role and position of Northwest of Iran during the Neolithic period and its causes, comparing the cultural values of northwest of Iran with adjacent cultural areas and examining regional and trans-regional obstacles and the role of these interactions in shaping the settlement of each period and presenting of the general framework of regional are the goals and necessities of this research which the present research questions have been presented in these frameworks. It seems that Northwest of Iran during this period has been able to establish its strong ties with geographical and natural status. The most important questions and hypotheses related to the Neolithic sites of Horand region include:
1. Is the material culture of this area in the Neolithic period, especially with the emphasis on the pottery has local characteristics? It seems that the tradition of pottery in this area has been affected by the lake Urmia.
2. What are the characteristic of sites of the Neolithic period?  these sites are usually located near or in the same place as the nomads.

Results and Discussion 
Horand region consists of three districts of Chahardangeh, Dodangeh and Dikleh that are located in the east of northwest of Iran and due to geographical conditions and suitable environmental capacities, it has been the basis for creating human settlements in different periods. During the survey of Horand, a large number of prehistory sites were identified, including three sites in the Dikleh that relate to the Neolithic period. The reasons for this - the shortage of settlements in the Neolithic period and before that – whatever, the geographical and environmental conditions of these high valleys, played a fundamental role in this situation. Some people say that the main reason for this is the extreme cold weather and believed that elevations above 1500 meters above sea level have been effective in this process and others have referred to the poor conditions of fertile soil for agriculture. Along with such factors, it should be noted that the eastern part of the Urmia Lake has a wealth of pasture resources that has continued the form of livestock-based livelihood until now. Horand region is one of the most eastern parts of Azerbaijan, which can be considered as one of the intersectional centers in the cultural interactions with the Urmia Lake in the west, the Ardebil plain in the east and the Abharrood region in the south, from the same period of the late Neolithic, it has provided a framework for the formation of its native cultures. Based on the types of pottery of Neolithic period that collected from this region, and the association of these types of pottery with the periphery, we found that the Neolithic pottery of this area is influenced by the culture of Haji Firuz. In fact, residents of the Neolithic period in Horand were people familiar with the cultures around Urmia Lake.

Conclusion
Horand region is one of the most eastern parts of Azerbaijan, which has grown from various periods in the Neolithic period and has formed the basis of the early Iranian villages with a mountainous character. The villages that remain intact and unchanged in terms of land use, housing, tools and agricultural equipment over time. The Neolithic sites in Horand region are located in the valleys and highlands, and have all the morphological features of modern settlement nomads. Although the cultural material studied in this paper is derived from archaeological studies, it can be partly used to clarify the various dimensions of the archaeological of the Neolithic period in Hornad region, although the results are relative. Understanding the pattern of settlement and the impact of environmental and biological factors on the formation of sites have a fundamental role. Horand region due to a combination of economy based on agriculture and animal husbandry and the lifestyle continuum from pre-history to the present is very important. Based on the Neolithic pottery collected from the sites of Horand and the association of these pottery with the periphery, we found that the Neolithic pottery of this area is influenced by the culture of Haji Firuz. Archaeological evidence from the northwest of Iran shows that the Urmia lake is the source of the expansion of the Neolithic to other parts of Azerbaijan. Based on archaeological evidence, the hypothesis of demographic pressure (due to the increasing number of settlements in the Urmia lake) and the cultural spread around Urmia Lake, it is concluded that groups of seasonal nomads in the Urmia lake region are searching for areas susceptible, enter to Horand during the late Neolithic period. the culture of Neolithic in Horand in the east of Azerbaijan is the continuation of the late Neolithic of Urmia lake.
Keywords: East Azarbaijan, Horand Region, Urmia Lake Area, Neolithic Period.
Full-Text [PDF 798 kb]   (2897 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/07/23 | Accepted: 2019/07/23 | Published: 2019/07/23
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Bakhtiari S, Omrani B, Solmanpour R, Abtahi Frooshani S Z, Bakhtiari S. Analysis of the Neolithic Period of East of Lake Urmia Based on Archaeological Studies in Horand Region. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2019; 3 (7) :7-21
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year 3, Issue 7 (5-2019) Back to browse issues page
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