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:: year 2, Issue 6 (3-2019) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2019, 2(6): 143-159 Back to browse issues page
Iconographic Interpretation of Animal Designs in the Ghareh Klisa of Chaldoran
Afrasiab Garavand 1, Reza Rezalou2
1- Ph.D. Student of Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. , garavand.afra@gmail.com
2- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.
Abstract:   (5079 Views)
Abstract
The audience of every work of art is willing to receive its meaning, and the exact recognition of an image or image for its meaning and content requires reading and even interpretation, and iconography is essentially trying to express the meaning of the image.  In visual arts, a symbol is an image, a plant, an animal, or a sign that has a deeper meaning than what is seen. It is often not easy for us to get the meaning and interpretation of the symbols of the past centuries. Occasionally, symbols refer to an event or story, and a group of symbols replaces personalities and individuals. In this regard, the monastery of the Ghareh Kelisa is one of the most important Armenian churches in Iran, located in the northeastern part of Chaldoran. Throughout the northern and southern walls of the church, as well as the bell tower, it has unique and unique carvings. Sculptures This monument can be divided into five categories, including: human designs, animal motifs, plant designs, geometric patterns and mythological motifs. The designs are beautifully crafted, crafted, and beautifully crafted by experienced and experienced craftsmen, and the artist’s creative, abstract, decorative look is best illustrated in all designs and each role is a special symbol and symbol. Among the paintings of the Ghareh Kelisa, the role of animals is more than other motifs, both due to the variety of animal species in the surroundings and the symmetry of many animals such as milk, ram, cow, horse, etc. These motifs have no merely decorative aspect and offer higher meanings and concepts, and are one of the most diverse symbolism for symbolic aspects. In this article, it has been attempted to introduce and interpret the animal designs of this monument.
Keywords: Chaldoran, Ghareh Kelisa, Animal Figures, Symbols.

Introduction
Some ancient works bear the institutional values and messages that are embodied in the form of artwork and in the form of their roles based on the beliefs and beliefs of the ancient human body, and to understand the meaning of these ancient designs, one needs to know the symbolic components. That once, because the verbal language had a certain meaning in ancient cultures and somehow represented a mythical belief (Rafi Farr and Malek, 2014: 7). The motifs used in Iranian art from late to present, have always included symbolic meanings in addition to its decorative and aesthetic aspects (Sabagh pour and Shayestefar, 2010: 31).
The role of the elements in the art of Iran has been bearing the concepts and themes of interest of the people of different ages, and the continuation of their design reveals the visual changes of each period. One of the most important paintings that has always been considered in Iran and even continued with the change of religion is artifacts arranged in various arts (Mortezaei and Sedaghatzadeh, 2013: 47). 
In this regard, the construction of the Ghareh Kelisa is one of the most important and most representative Armenian churches in Iran, located in the northeast of Chaldoran. Throughout the northern and southern walls of the church, as well as the bell tower, it has unique and unique carvings. Sculptures This monument can be divided into five categories, including: human designs, animal motifs, plant designs, geometric patterns and mythical motifs. These designs are carved by artist and experience mastermanship with elegance, flair and beauty, and each role is a symbol and symbol.
 the Ghareh Kelisa sculptures actually reflect the culture and the arts, beliefs, cultural and social relations of ancient societies and have a special place in various studies and researches, especially archeology and anthropology. In this essay, it attempts to introduce and interpret the animal designs of this monument.

Ghareh Kelisa Animal Characters and Their Symbolism
Animal statues are one of the oldest paintings man has made in his works. These motifs in Iranian art (like other designs) were not merely decorative, but sometimes expressing hope, fear, or resort to a force to fight the dangers of nature and life, and sometimes express religious beliefs and myths. The same values and special expressions sometimes transformed motifs into symbolic and symbolic symbols that used them as a message transmission during the course of history (Khazaee and Samavaki, 2003: 8). Animal designs, including roles that have been dominant and frequent in many ancient civilizations, including Iran. Cassirer believes that in the course of the worship of primitive human beings, we see that a human beast has become and worships animals, such as worshiping a variety of phenomena and things encountered in its surroundings, and Kasier is referred to as gods It commemorates a moment and, through this worship, leads to functional gods (based on their interests and their function in life) (Kasier, 2012: 75-76).
In this regard, the structure of the Ghareh Kelisa, consisting of two parts of the eastern (black) and western (white), the eastern or black part, which is the oldest part of the building, does not have much role and only in the part of the side Northeastern and southern skylights are cross-linked and surrounded by chainsaws. But the western part (white) of the Ghareh Kelisa is divided into 5 rows by stripes of simple profile, which can be categorized into five groups: human designs, animal drawings, plant designs, geometric patterns and mythological motifs.
Most of the sculptures in the third row have been carved into the third row. These motifs are the ones directly hunted by humans or in some way related to the subject of predation and daily routine of hunters, or rooted in past religions, and most of the beliefs are that these images are abundantly and the numbers can be distinguished in the following order.
 

Conclusion
In the meantime, the archeology of Iran’s religious architecture, and in particular the  Ghareh Kelisa of God, is a rich treasure of motifs that, in addition to values and beauties, expresses the secret and need for cultural and religious secrets in themselves. This role of the motifs due to the deep roots in Iranian culture expresses the noble concepts that have remained in popular belief in the form of visual arts in simple and prolonged forms. 
Among the paintings of the Ghareh Kelisa, the role of animals is more than other motifs, both due to the variety of animal species in the surroundings and the symmetry of many animals such as milk, ram, cow, horse, etc. These motifs are associated with the continuation of some ancient Iranian art traditions and is one of the most important interconnected circles of Iranian art before and after Islam. Drawing Animals in a Dynamic Mode, Variety in the Size of Animals; Small, Large in Nature; Attention to Exposure; Increasing Naturalism; Variety in the Design of the Foot, Eye, Horn, Head and Neck, Wings and Body; Characteristics of Animal Drawings The Ghareh Kelisa is the artist’s most abstract, creative, decorative look, best illustrated in all designs, and each role is a special symbol and symbol.
Keywords: Chaldoran, Ghareh Kelisa, Animal Figures, Symbols.
Full-Text [PDF 698 kb]   (1156 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/04/14 | Accepted: 2019/04/14 | Published: 2019/04/14
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Garavand A, Rezalou R. Iconographic Interpretation of Animal Designs in the Ghareh Klisa of Chaldoran. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2019; 2 (6) :143-159
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