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:: year 2, Issue 5 (12-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(5): 111-126 Back to browse issues page
Recognition and Analysis of Architecture of Hamedan Great Mosque
Zahra Pourshabanian 1, Mohammad Mortezaei2, Hayedeh Khamseh3
1- Ph.D. Archaeology Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. , Zahra_pourshabanian@yahoo.com
2- Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology Islamic Period, Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism.
3- Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology Islamic Azad University of Abhar.
Abstract:   (6020 Views)
Abstract
Hamadan great mosque, the oldest mosque in the old urban context, is located between the city market and the central square. This prominent mosque belongs to the early Islamic centuries, which has been rebuilt during various periods, especially the Safavid and Qajar periods, but isn’t remains of the ancient structure of the mosque, and the current structure belongs to the Qajar period. Despite the general features of this work, the shape of the mosque building has a great impact on bringing the building in line with the climate. Now the question arises to what extent has the region’s climate been able to influence the process of mosque formation?  And to what extent does climate modeling ensure the durability of the mosque’s structure? Based on the above questions, the purpose of the present study is to introduce and analyze architecture of great mosque by using descriptive-analytical method and relying on study resources and field studies to provide answers to the questions raised. The result of such a study can be seen in influencing the architectural features of the mosque from the region’s climate; this work, in addition to its religious function, the location of the mosque and its location along the main market of the city, has led the mosque to play an important role. According to the architectural structure of the mosque, the major developments in the building are related to the Qajar and contemporary periods; the structure of the columns of the nave of the mosque, It has a dome, minaret and sangab, and is the only example of a dome mosque of historical value in the urban context of Hamadan.
Keyword: Hamedan, Great Mosque, Architecture, Climate.

Introduction
Hamadan great mosque has always been one of the most important historical, architectural and archeological studies in Hamadan. About change, development and restoration carried out in the Mosque of historical, geographical and social remained critical of the Islamic period. Which can sometimes be compared with evidence in the current structure of the mosque, and sometimes little archaeological evidence suggests that parts of the building existed in the past. As it comes from historical sources, the core of the structure of the Hamadan mosque dates back to the Early Islamic period, which has been repaired and added to over the course of the following centuries (Hojbari, 2006). In addition to the religious function, the location of the mosque and its location along the main market of the city have led the great to play an important role in shaping the design and layout of the city (Mehriar et al., 1999: 54). Due to the architectural structure of the mosque, the major developments in the building are related to the Qajar and contemporary periods. The structure of the mosque is subordinate to the pillar-shaped hall, has a dome, a goldsmith and a Sangab, and is the only example of a dome mosque in the urban context of Hamadan. Structural features and climatic principles governing the structure of the mosque led the author to fully describe the architectural structure of the mosque of Hamedan in a descriptive-analytical way.  Undoubtedly, this method of analysis can greatly eliminate the gaps in the study of structural, decorative, and climate change in the structure of the mosque. Based on the aforementioned approach and based on geographical, historical and architectural texts, a comprehensive and complete analysis of the mosque’s location and its architectural and structural analysis is obtained. Therefore, in this study raised the following questions: What extent the climate of the region has been able to influence the process of mosque formation? And to what extent does climate modeling ensure the durability of the mosque’s structure? 
 
Great Mosque
The square-rectangular square-plan mosque is incomplete, with a rectangular courtyard spanning three porches in the South, East and North, several bedrooms, a brick-covered dome, a dome, six minarets and several chambers.  The building under consideration from the perspective of construction and architecture from several different and interrelated parts such: Entrance, Vestibule, Courtyard, Ivan, Chambers, and the hall is formed around. The main entrance of the mosque has been West and market in the past, but with the creation of new buildings and a new entrance on the North side of “Ekbatan Street” the main entrance has been moved to this direction. The old mosque entrance to the market can be accessed through a vestibule to various parts of the mosque. Another entrance to the mosque is on the Southeast side of the market through a corridor. The courtyard of the mosque has a large pond in the middle, porches, chambers and halls around, the courtyard is about 2 meters below the adjacent alleys. The South porch of the courtyard has two shallow arches that have two short and thick minarets on top of this porch. Behind the porch is the dome space of the mosque, which, along with the porch, forms the core of the old mosque, with an altar built on the South side. The dome is of two-shell type and is of architectural suitability; the dome leads to the columned bed sheets through the side porches; on the West side of the dome is a mosque with proportional stone columns that access the courtyard and dome through the entrances. On the West side of the courtyard and adjacent to the aforementioned nightclub is another columned hall, opposite the South porch and on the other side of the porch aisle and bed sheets in a new way with flat cover built on top of the middle porch of the two minarets, which is an extension of the recent period, the porch overlooking the new mosque on Ekbatan Street also has two minarets (Molazadeh and Mohammadi, 2000: 243-244).  

Conclusion
Designers of Hamedan great Mosque have applied techniques to adapt to the climatic conditions of the cold foothills, a major problem in these areas is winter cold. Therefore preventing heat dissipation in different parts of the building is a top priority for designers (Tahebaz and Jalilian, 2011: 63). The plan of the mosque is a square-rectangular mosque that is integrated with the surrounding area and the mosque building is adjacent to the adjacent buildings, which also helps maintain the heat inside the mosque as well as the adjacent buildings (Pourshabanian, 1397: 67). The mosque has a central courtyard with a low infrastructure compared to the entire mosque. Part of the body of the mosque is submerged in the ground due to the lower level of its adjacent street texture, leading to greater vulnerability of various parts of the building to moisture(Ibid: 47-48). And besides the beauty of the building materials, it is also damaged (Ibrahimzadeh, 2015, 2: 796).  
Keywords: Hamedan, Great Mosque, Architecture, Climate.
Full-Text [PDF 1029 kb]   (1811 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/02/13 | Accepted: 2019/02/13 | Published: 2019/02/13
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Pourshabanian Z, Mortezaei M, Khamseh H. Recognition and Analysis of Architecture of Hamedan Great Mosque. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (5) :111-126
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