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:: year 2, Issue 5 (12-2018) ::
Parseh J Archaeol Stud 2018, 2(5): 49-64 Back to browse issues page
The Study of Changes in Sea Level and Impact on Historic Ports, and Shipping of Caspian Sea
Hossein Tofighian
Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Cultural Heritage & Tourism. , htofighian@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (5274 Views)
Abstract
The Caspian Sea surface has undergone many changes and fluctuations. As the sea level has changed, many postal land has fallen underwater or parts of shallow coastal waters have left the water. In the past ten years, due to changes in the surface water of the Caspian Sea and the drop in water, a number of historic ships have been revealed. Identifying several wooden logs on the banks of Talesh, Rudsar, Neka and the Gulf of Gorgan will provide valuable information on the structure of the Caspian Sea historical ships and shipping. In this paper, which is based on field research and library study, Introducing historic ships that have emerged due to sea-level changes, the lack of older prototypes in this closed sea-due to the absence of monsoon winds, irregular wave movements, the absence of neighboring civilizations, And, consequently, the absence of maritime business routes, the progressive and sequential return of seawater and other factors will be studied. This wood is an imported product and now it comes from Russia to Iran. The oil found in the wood chips seems to have the stability of wood in the presence of water. The drilling of the lower parts of the ship showed that the body of the ship was saturated with water and its texture was sponge-shaped. The enclosure of the Neka coastal shores is made from wood-framed wood of the needle leaf trees, and puts outer-wall nails to vertical beams and internal walls.
Keywords: Changes in Sea Level, Caspian Sea, Historic Ships, Sunken Ship.

Introduction
With the change in the sea level of the Caspian Sea, during recent decades, a number of historic ships have escaped from the water and exposed to the air. The most important historical ships identified on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea are as follows: 
Ships of Talesh: About 500 meters from the old site of the Gorganroud Harbor, the remains of the ship’s broken ship are located at the seafront, most likely in relation to the port of Gorganroud. The length of the ship’s remaining length is approximately 20 meters and the width is about 5 meters. It looks like the ship is slightly left-hanging between the sand and sand beach and perpendicular to the sea. Most of the lower parts of the ship seem to be healthy, but the front of the ship is likely to be broken and slightly angled toward the body. Because of the withdrawal of seawater, the ship has been evacuated and exposed to open air and sea waves, which has put the structure in an emergency. Of course, the damage to this ship is not limited to environmental damage and damages caused especially to severe burns in the anterior part of the ship due to deliberate fire. The upper part of the ship and its deck have generally disappeared, and what is seen on the sandy beach and on the edge of the water is its lower part, most of which are buried beneath the beach. The exact study of this structure requires archaeological exploration and the liberation of the ship from the subsoil. The tangible volatility of the sea level in the coastal strip of the Mazandaran Sea and its changes on the banks of the city of Talesh have caused the ship to come out of the water. The wood used in the construction of this Siberian tree will help to identify the site of the ship.

Caspian Sea Historic Ships
Chamkhaleh Historical Ship: in the vicinity of the village of Lall-e-Rood and about 7 km north of Rudsar, the functions of the Langrood city in the east of Gilan province have been revealed by the remnants of a wooden ship due to climatic changes, including changes in the surface of the Caspian Sea and the flooding of the river.  The ship is located at a short distance from the sea and in the estuary of the Langrood River, standing in a northern direction. The ship, which was buried under the coastal waters, was revealed by the outbreak of the Langrood River. The bulk of this ship is still buried under the coastal spit, and only part of its nose is visible near the river’s water. Considering the size and size of the observable, it is possible to consider the length of the ship’s historic ship, about 30. Neka Historical ship: An archery ship on the coast of Mazandaran, which has been explored in recent years, is located in the village of Zagmarz and approximately one kilometer southwest of the Miankaleh Inland. The ship is 26 meters long and 6 to 7.5 meters wide, perpendicular to the coastline. The upper surface or deck of the ship, the shelter or the deck wall and a large part of the sailing mast have been lost over time due to the presence of sea waves and only its lower spaces are left. The ship is located in the direction of the northeast, southwest, and is located on the mainstream wind of the Mazandaran Sea. The wood used in the ship is from the family of long-tailed leafy trees and is the closest family to the wood. 

Conclusion
Based on archaeological studies and historical sources, shipping and navigation in the Mazandaran Sea began in the Safavid period, and before this period, there is no evidence of historical ships and commercial ports. The main reason for the lack of shipping and maritime business in the Caspian Sea prior to the Safavid period was the absence of monsoon winds for sailing ships and irregular winds and waves in it. The fluctuations in the level of the sea level in Mazandaran over time are due to other reasons for the lack of historical ports and shipping on this sea. The advancement and rebounding of the surface of the Caspian Sea may drowning many potential ports under water or buried under the sandy beaches that are nowadays far from the coast; on the other hand, these fluctuations are filled the canals and beaches. 
Keywords: Changes in Sea Level, Caspian Sea, Historic Ships, Sunken Ship.
Full-Text [PDF 947 kb]   (1748 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special Archeology
Received: 2019/02/13 | Accepted: 2019/02/13 | Published: 2019/02/13
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Tofighian H. The Study of Changes in Sea Level and Impact on Historic Ports, and Shipping of Caspian Sea. Parseh J Archaeol Stud. 2018; 2 (5) :49-64
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